Harvard referencing

Reference list vs. Bibliography

In the Harvard style, references are listed at the end of your work, and are organised alphabetically by the surname of the author.

A reference list includes all works that have been referred to in the assignment.

A bibliography includes all the material consulted in writing your assignment even if you have not cited them within it.

Many people use these terms interchangeably so, if you are unsure about whether you need to include a bibliography as well as a reference list, ask your tutor.


View this guide as a PDF.

This guide details the Harvard style of referencing based upon the advice given in the "Cite Them Right (2016) 10th rev. and expanded edn." This is the style of Harvard that The University Of Sheffield supports.

Referencing in the Harvard style is a two–part process:

Creating a citation and reference list

Harvard style referencing is an author/date method. Sources are cited within the body of your assignment by giving the name of the author(s) followed by the date of publication. All other details about the publication are given in the list of references or bibliography at the end.

Citations which are used with direct quotations, or are referring to a particular part of a source, should include the page number in your citation, e.g. (Smith, 2017, p. 42) or Smith (2017, p. 42).


Tips on citing where page numbers are not present

If a citation does not have page numbers then you should use the number of the paragraph (if available), e.g. Climate change can refer to local, regional, and global changes in weather (Met Office, 2013, para. 2.).

If the paragraph number is not available then you may direct the reader to a specific section of the item, and then the number of the paragraph, e.g. Using the factor command can...(Gaubatz, 2015, Generating Factors, para. 2.).

If the name of the section is long you may use the first few words of the section in quotation marks, e.g. The value of numbers needs to be random...(Gaubatz, 2015, "Random Numbers and Generating" section, para.2.).


Tips for citing
  • If the author(s) name appears in the text as part of the body of the assignment, then the year will follow in round brackets, e.g. According to Smith (2017)...

  • If the author(s) name does not appear in the body of the text, then the name and date should follow in round brackets separated by a comma, e.g. The terminology has been called into question when it was discovered...(Smith, 2017).

  • If you are quoting or paraphrasing someone else's work you will need to include the page number(s) of the original material in your citation (see the sections on Quoting and Paraphrasing).

  • The abbreviations ibid. and idem. should not be used within the Harvard referencing system.

  • If more than one of your citations has the same author and year of publication, then you should distinguish between them by using a lower–case letter following the year, e.g. It was discovered that...(Smith, 2017a), this was supported by... (Smith, 2017b).

  • Some authors have the same surname and works published in the same year, if this is the case use their initial to distinguish between them, e.g. When looking at the average income it was found that...(Williams, A., 2009). However, it was also discovered that...(Williams, J., 2009).

  • In some instances you may need to cite more than one piece of work for an idea. If this occurs, you should separate the references with a semicolon and cite them in chronological order, e.g. This point has been shown by numerous authors...(Jones, 2014; Smith, 2017).

  • When citing in-text, include the name of up to three authors. If there are four or more authors for the work you are citing then use the name of the first author followed by "et al." written in italics, e.g. This was shown to be the case when Taylor et al. (2015)...Or, the study shows...(Taylor et al., 2015).

  • If there are two or three authors use "and" in between the names rather than "&".

  • For items where the author is a corporation, cite the name of the corporation in full, e.g. Birdwatching in the woods...(Woodland Trust, 2016), unless their abbreviation is well–known, e.g. The governance of the network...(BBC, 2017).

  • If a work is designated as Anonymous or there is no author, use the title in italics in place of the Author, e.g. (OED online, 2008).

  • If no date can be found then you would state that there is no date, e.g. The ancient text indicated the use of... (Wells, no date).

Quoting

Quoting is including a section of a source in your own work using exactly the same words as those used by the original author.

If you are directly quoting from a source, then you should include the page number in your citation.

A short quotation (under two lines), should be within the body of the text and in quotation marks, e.g.

There is still a labelling issue when it comes to flavourings in food, it is noted that, "flavours such as vanillin which occur naturally in food are called ‘nature–identical’. The label does not have to state where it comes from." (Wilson, 2009, p. 257).

If the quote is more than two lines, then it should be presented as a new paragraph which is preceded by a colon and indented from the rest of the text. You do not need to use quotation marks, e.g.

Wilson (2009, p. 257) has looked at food flavourings in the UK and makes the following observation about vanilla:

In Britain, flavours such as vanillin which occur naturally in food are called ‘nature–identical’. The label does not have to state where it comes from. A flavouring only counts as fully ‘artificial’ if it does not occur in nature at all, as is the case with another, stronger vanilla–substitute called ethyl–vanillin (often used in chocolate).
Omitting material from quotations

If you are omitting materials from an original source, use three dots [...] to indicate this, e.g.

Canter and Canter (1992) state that students come to the classroom with "their own needs, their own past experiences and ... their preconceptions of who you are, what your limits will be" (p. 49). It is important to manage the expectations of students effectively.

This does not need to be done at the beginning or end of a sentence.


Reference List

Wilson, B. (2009) Swindled: From poison sweets to counterfeit coffee – the dark history of the food cheats. London: John Murray (Publishers).


Paraphrasing

Paraphrasing is putting someone else's ideas into your own words. It does not mean changing the odd word or rearranging the sentence. When you paraphrase, you should restate the meaning of the original text in your own words. Be sure to cite and reference when you are paraphrasing someone else's work, e.g.:

Booth et al. (2016, pp. 208-209) give the example of acceptable paraphrasing using Gladwell (2008) as their example:

This this the original quote from Gladwell (2008, p. 38)

"Achievement is talent plus preparation. The problem with this view is that the closer psychologists look at the careers of the gifted, the smaller the role innate talent seems to play and the bigger the role preparation seems to play."

Below is an unacceptable paraphrase of the above quote because it follows the original too closely:

Success seems to depend on a combination of talent and preparation. However, when psychologists closely example the gifted and their careers, they discover that innate talent plays a much smaller role than preparation (Gladwell, 2008, p. 38).

The next is an example of an acceptable paraphrase as the meaning of the original has been restated in the author's own words:

As Gladwell (2008, p. 38) observes, summarising studies on the highly successful, we tend to overestimate the role of talent and underestimate that of preparation.


Reference List

Booth, W.C. et al. (2016) The craft of research. 4th edn. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Gladwell, M. (2008) Outliers: The story of success. New York: Back Bay Books.

Summarising

Summarising means briefly stating the main ideas or arguments of a complete information source or a substantial portion of an information source.

Be sure to cite and reference when you are summarising someone else's work. A citation for a summary should include the author and date, e.g. (Smith, 2017) or Smith (2017), but there is no need to include a specific page number.

Secondary referencing

This is when you reference one author who is referring to the work of another and the primary source is not available (refer to the primary source where it is available). Secondary referencing should be avoided where possible - if you have only read the later publication you are accepting someone else's opinion and interpretation of the author's original intention.

You must make it clear to your reader which author you have read whilst giving details of the original source by using ‘cited in’, e.g. (Ecott, 2002, cited in Wilson, 2009) or (Cannon, 1989, quoted in Wilson, 2009, p. 269).

In the reference list you should give details of the item you looked at. Looking at the above examples, you would reference Wilson (2009) in your bibliography/reference list.


A reference list is the list of items you have used in your work. Reference lists in Harvard are alphabetical.

General tips for creating a list are:

  • If you have distinguished between authors with the same name and year of publication in your citation, you should use the same letter in your reference list to distinguish them, e.g. (Smith, 2017b) will be Smith, S. (2017b) ...

  • A reference with one author will appear before a reference with two or more authors if the first author has the same last name, e.g. Smith, S. (2017b) would appear before Smith, S. and Jones, A. (2017).

  • Multiple references by the same author or creator are listed in chronological order.

  • Corporations are listed using the first proper noun of the name, e.g. Royal Academy of Arts (The).

  • If there are two or three authors use "and" in between the names rather than "&".

  • For references with four or more authors, include only the first author followed by et al written in italics. See Journal Article with many authors for an example.

  • Author/Editor names should be given in the following format: Surname, Initials. e.g. Smith, F.G.

  • The Edition of a book is not included for the first edition, only for later editions, e.g. 2nd edn, 3rd edn, etc. Edition is abbreviated to edn to distinguish it from the abbreviation for Editor (ed.).

  • Certain types of material, such as encyclopedias or dictionaries, may not have a person or persons as the main author or editor. These can be referenced by the title in italics first, e.g.

    OED online (2017) Oxford: Oxford University Press. Available at: http://www.oed.com (Accessed: 26 January 2017).

  • References for works designated as Anonymous, or works without an author or editor, should begin with the title in italics instead, followed by the date, e.g.

    A woman in Berlin (2011) Translated by Philip Boehm. London: Virago.

  • If no date can be found, then you would use (no date).

  • Include the state abbreviation for items published in the United States if it is not obvious where the location is, e.g. you wouldn't need to include NY after New York, but you would include the state abbreviation in 'Cambridge, MA.: Harvard University Press' as there is also a Cambridge in the UK.

  • If the item is widely known by, or was originally issued under, a title different from that of the preferred source, the alternative may also be given in brackets if necessary, e.g.

    Browne, J. (2010) Securing a sustainable future for higher education: an independent review of higher education funding and student finance [The Browne Report].

  • If a publisher is not listed or cannot be found, use one of the following (listed in order or preference):
    • Publisher or production company
    • Distributor or issuing body
    • Printer or manufacturer
    • Sponsoring body

  • If there is more than one place of publication, only include the most local one in the reference.

  • Each reference should end in a full stop unless it is a URL or DOI (a full stop after a URL or DOI may be presumed to be part of the link and prevent it from working).

  • A DOI should be written with the prefix https://doi.org/ followed by the DOI number (adding the prefix makes it into a URL which will link directly to the item, whereas the DOI number on its own will only open a browser search of the DOI and doesn't link directly to the item), e.g.

    https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1540-5931.2006.00203.x

  • For a source with a DOI you don't need to include "Available at" or "(Accessed: date)" in the reference as a DOI is a stable identifier and will not change, whereas a URL may change or be deleted so the extra information is needed to clarify where and when you found the source.

  • Always write DOI in lower case letters in your references, e.g. doi:

Citing material from non-roman script e.g. Cyrillic, East Asian languages

If you are citing materials from non-roman script, you should transliterate the references to roman script. If you are unsure, you may wish to consult with an expert of the language or an international standard to check.

For in-text citations
  • Spell out the author's family name, or the corporate name, in roman script. If you are unsure of the correct spelling, you may wish to consult with an expert of the language to check.
For references in the reference list/bibliography
  • The family name of the author should be written in full roman script. The initials of the author(s) should also be given in roman script. The name should be given in the order in the reference.
  • The title of the item (article/book/book chapter, etc.) should be given in roman script using the standard conventions for that language.
  • The title should be translated into English and placed in square brackets immediately after the romanised title. The words in the square brackets should not use italics.
  • The journal title or title of a book (if it is an edited book), and publisher's name all need to be given in roman script, but do not need to be translated. If there is an official English translation then you may use it, especially in cases where it provides greater understanding of the subject or publication.
Example

Terao, M. (1998) Denai kugi wa suterareru [The nail that does not stick up may be thrown away]. Tokyo: Fusosha.

Notes

Materials in roman script

If you are citing materials produced in a language other than English, but in roman script, you may need to place a translated title in square brackets after the original title, depending on who the intended audience for your work will be.

Frequently referenced items

For a full list of items see Alphabetical list of items

In the text

For an in–text citation in your work, you would cite the reference as follows:

Bryman (2016) recommends...
Quantitative data is more suited to the study due to... (Bryman, 2016).

In the bibliography/reference list

Author Surname, Initial(s). (Year) Title. Edition (if not first edition). Place of publication: Publisher.

Bryman, A. (2016) Social research methods. 5th edn. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

For more information about in–text citation and referencing multiple authors, see Creating a citation and reference list and click on the relevant section.

Book with two authors

In the text

For an in–text citation in your work, you would cite the reference as follows:

Wallace and Wolf (2006) found that...
Globalization is a theory that has many concepts... (Wallace and Wolf, 2006).

In the bibliography/reference list

Author Surname, Initial(s). and Author Surname, Initial(s). (Year) Title. Edition (if not first edition). Place of publication: Publisher.

Wallace, R. A. and Wolf, A. (2006) Contemporary sociological theory: expanding the classical tradition. 6th edn. Upper Saddle River, N.J.: Prentice Hall.

Book with three authors

In the text

For an in–text citation in your work, you would cite the reference as follows:

Greig, Taylor and MacKay (2013) found that...
Finding the reasons behind a child's behaviour... (Greig, Taylor and MacKay, 2013).

In the bibliography/reference list

Author Surname, Initial(s)., Author Surname, Initial(s). and Author Surname, Initial(s). (Year) Title. Edition (if not first edition). Place of publication: Publisher.

Greig, A., Taylor, J. and MacKay, T. (2013) Doing research with children: a practical guide. 3rd edn. London: Sage.

Book with four or more authors

In the text

For an in–text citation in your work, you would cite the reference as follows:

Begg et al. (2014) found that...
The elasticity of demand demonstrates... (Begg et al., 2014).

In the bibliography/reference list

First Author Surname, Initial(s). et al. (Year) Title. Edition (if not first edition). Place of publication: Publisher.

Begg, D.K.H. et al. (2014) Economics. 11th edn. London: McGraw-Hill.

Notes
  • If there are two or three authors use "and" in between the names rather than "&".
  • For references with four or more authors, include only the first author followed by et al written in italics.

For more information about in–text citation and referencing multiple authors, see Creating a citation and reference list and click on the relevant section.

In the text

For an in–text citation in your work, you would cite the reference as follows:

He (1997) found that...
The ethnic relations in China ...(He, 1997).

Zheng (1997) looked at the cultural influences...
The culture of western business during the period...(Zheng, 1997).

In the bibliography/reference list

Chapter Author Surname, Initial(s). (Year) 'Title of chapter', in Editor(s) Surname, Editor(s) Initial. (ed. or eds.) Title of book. Edition (if not first). Place of publication: Publisher, Page numbers.

He, X. (1997) 'The market economy and ethnic relations in China', in Ikeo, A. (ed.) Economic development in twentieth century East Asia: the international context. London: Routledge, pp. 190–205.

Zheng, X. (1997) 'Chinese business culture from the 1920s to the 1950s', in Ikeo, A. (ed.) Economic development in twentieth century East Asia: the international context. London: Routledge, pp. 35–54.

For more information about in–text citation and referencing multiple authors, see Creating a citation and reference list and click on the relevant section.

This guidance is for citing and referencing images and figures that you are referring to in your work. If you have inserted an image or figure into your work please see the "Guidance for taught course students inserting images and figures into university work."

In the text

The overflow of the Ladybower Reservoir can be seen in the image (andy_c, 2005)...

Schnabel (1984) created the artwork using paint on velvet...

The photograph (Nicholls, 1919) shows the 18th Battalion...

The painting shows the effects of intense heat on the structure of a building (Sutherland, 1941).

In the bibliography/reference list

From an online collection/social media site, e.g. Flickr, Instagram, etc.

Artist/Creator Surname, Initial(s). OR screen name (Year) Title of image/figure [Description]. Available at: URL (Accessed: date).

andy_c (2005) Ladybower Plughole [Photograph]. Available at: https://www.flickr.com/photos/andycpics/3035948922 (Accessed: 6 July 2016).

From a museum/gallery (either viewed in person or online)

Artist/Creator Surname, Initial(s). (Year) Title of image/figure [Description]. Name of museum/gallery, Location. [If viewed in person] (Viewed: Date). [If viewed online] Available at: URL (Accessed: date).

Nicholls, H. (1919) Preparations for the Peace Day Celebrations, July 1919 [Photograph]. Imperial War Museum, London. Available at: http://www.iwm.org.uk/collections/item/object/205297061 (Accessed: 2 January 2016).

From a journal

Artist/Creator Surname, Initial(s). (Year) ‘Title of image/figure’ [Description], in Author of journal article (if different to Artist/Creator) Surname, Initial(s). (Year) ‘Title of article’, Title of Journal Volume(Issue), Page number. [If online] Available at: URL (Accessed: date) OR doi:

Schnabel, J. (1984) ‘Ethnic Types #15 and #72’ [Oil, animal hide, modeling paste on velvet], in Sans, J. (2020) ‘Julian Schnabel: The Myth Unfurls’, Art in Translation 12(3), p. 400. doi: https://doi.org/10.1080/17561310.2020.1876831

From a book/ebook

Artist/Creator Surname, Initial(s). (Year) ‘Title of image/figure’ [Description], in Author of book (if different to Artist/Creator) Surname, Initial(s). Title of book (Year). Place of publication: Publisher, Page number.

Sutherland, G. (1941) ‘Devastation 1941: City, twisted girders’ [Painting], in Mellor, L. Reading the ruins: Modernism, bombsites and British culture (2011). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, p. 119.

Notes
  • Reference an ebook in the same way as a print book. You do not need to add the URL.
  • In some cases you may need to use the screen name of the creator if their real name is not available, which may be the case with image sharing or social media websites.
  • If a person or corporation cannot be identified as the artist/creator, omit the artist/creator and start the reference with the title.
  • If there is no clear title to the image, a popular title may be used if one exists. If a popular title to the image does not exist then you will need to supply the image with a title, in square brackets, providing the following where possible:
    • The subject matter.
    • The name or place of the object depicted, i.e. the person, the building, the location, etc.
  • Some online journal articles group multiple figures together as one downloadable image. If you are only referring to one of the figures within the image, make this clear by using the title of that particular figure in your citation/reference.
  • Include a description of the item in square brackets, e.g. [Photograph], [Diagram], [Table], etc. If it is a painting or drawing you can either describe it as [Painting] or [Drawing], or if the medium used is available you can use this as the description, e.g. [Watercolour], [Oil on canvas], [Charcoal on paper], etc.
  • If you are referencing an image or figure from a source other than those listed above, include the details of the source in the usual format for that item type after the details of the image.
  • You don't need to include a citation and reference for any images or figures that you have created yourself. Everything in your work is assumed to be your own work unless you state otherwise, i.e. by citing someone else's work.

For more information about in–text citation and referencing multiple authors, see Creating a citation and reference list and click on the relevant section.

In the text

For an in–text citation in your work, you would cite the reference as follows:

Austin (2009) argues that periodical conflict may be expected...
It can be assumed that pickpocketing...(Austin, 2009)

In the bibliography/reference list

Author of article Surname, Initial(s). (Year) 'Title of article', Title of Journal, Volume(Issue), Page range.

Austin, T. (2012) 'Takers keepers, losers weepers: theft as customary play in southern Philippines', Journal of Folklore Research, 49(3), pp. 263–284.

Notes
  • Enclose the title of the article in single quotation marks.
  • Capitalise the first letter of each of the main words of the journal title, but not the linking words such as "and", "for", "of" or "the".

For more information about in–text citation and referencing multiple authors, see Creating a citation and reference list and click on the relevant section.

What is a DOI?

If you are unsure if the article you are looking at has a DOI, please see the following page: DOIs and URLs which gives an explanation of the identifier.

In the text

For an in–text citation in your work, you would cite the reference as follows:

Dobson (2006) identified that the depiction...
The stereotypical portrayal of cultures...(Dobson, 2006).

In the bibliography/reference list

Author of article Surname, Initial(s). (Year) 'Title of article', Title of Journal, Volume(Issue), Page range (if available). doi:

Dobson, H. (2006) 'Mister Sparkle meets the 'Yakuza': depictions of Japan in The Simpsons', Journal of Popular Culture, 39(1), pp. 44–68. doi: https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1540-5931.2006.00203.x

Notes
  • For a journal article with a DOI you don't need to include "Available at" or "(Accessed: date)" in the reference as a DOI is a stable identifier and will not change, whereas a URL may change or be deleted so the extra information is needed to clarify where and when you found the article.
  • Always write DOI in lower case letters in your references, e.g. doi.
  • A DOI should be written with the prefix https://doi.org/ followed by the DOI number.
  • Never put a full stop after a DOI or URL as it may be assumed that it is part of the DOI or URL and prevent it from working.
  • Enclose the title of the article in single quotation marks.
  • Capitalise the first letter of each of the main words of the journal title, but not the linking words such as "and", "for", "of" or "the".

For more information about in–text citation and referencing multiple authors, see Creating a citation and reference list and click on the relevant section.

In the text

For an in-text citation in your work, you would cite the reference as follows:

Johnson and Fitzpatrick (2007) note that street users...
Enforcement areas for the problem...(Johnson and Fitzpatrick, 2007)

J Sainsbury (2016) acknowledged the amount of food waste...
Supermarkets are aware of the waste created due to...(J Sainsbury, 2016)

The Joseph Rowntree Foundation (2015) reported that...
...the supply of new homes would need to be sustainable (Joseph Rowntree Foundation, 2015)

Snowdon (2017) looked at the cost of healthy eating...
It was found that the cost of a healthy diet...(Snowdon, 2017)

Schonfeld and Sweeney (2019) note that art museums...
To reach and engage new audiences...(Schonfeld and Sweeney, 2019)

In the bibliography/reference list

Physical item

Author Surname, Initial(s) or Corporate Author (Year of publication) Title of report. Paper number (if applicable). Place of Publication: Publisher.

Johnson, S. and Fitzpatrick, S. (2007) The impact of enforcement on street users in England. Bristol: The Policy Press.

Online/Electronic with a URL

Author Surname, Initial(s) or Corporate Author (Year of publication) Title of report. Paper number (if applicable). Available at: URL (Accessed: date).

Joseph Rowntree Foundation (2015) Building sustainable homes. Available at: https://www.jrf.org.uk/file/46481/download?token=UXZzH3XM&filetype=full-report (Accessed: 4 May 2017).

J Sainsbury (2016) Sainsbury's food surplus and food waste: how we are delivering a positive impact. Available at: http://www.j-sainsbury.co.uk/media/3442510/Sainsbury's%20food%20surplus%20and%20food%20waste%20figures%2015-16%20report.pdf (Accessed: 4 May 2017).

Snowdon, C. (2017) Cheap as chips: Is a healthy diet affordable? IEA Discussion Paper No. 82. Available at: https://iea.org.uk/wp-content/uploads/2017/03/Cheap-as-Chips-PDF.pdf  (Accessed: 30 March 2017).

Online/Electronic with a DOI

What is a DOI?

If you are unsure if the item you are looking at has a DOI, please see the following page: DOIs and URLs which gives an explanation of the identifier.

Author Surname, Initial(s) or Corporate Author (Year of publication) Title of report. Paper number (if applicable). doi:

Schonfeld, R.C. and Sweeney, L. (2019) Organizing the work of the art museum. doi: https://doi.org/10.18665/sr.311731

Notes
  • For a report with a DOI you don't need to include "Available at" or "(Accessed: date)" in the reference as a DOI is a stable identifier and will not change, whereas a URL may change or be deleted so the extra information is needed to clarify where and when you found the report.
  • Always write DOI in lower case letters in your references, e.g. doi:
  • A DOI should be written with the prefix https://doi.org/ followed by the DOI number.
  • Never put a full stop after a DOI or URL as it may be assumed that it is part of the DOI or URL and prevent it from working.

For more information about in–text citation and referencing multiple authors, see Creating a citation and reference list and click on the relevant section.

Only reference a source as a web page if the source does not fall into another category, such as journal article, conference proceedings, report, blog, image, etc.

Web page with an individual author

In the text

For an in–text citation in your work, you would cite the reference as follows:

In Michael Rosen's biography (2021)...
He began writing poetry at the age of twelve...(Rosen, 2021)

In the bibliography/reference list

Author Surname, Initial(s) (Year site was published/last updated) Title of web page. Available at: URL (Accessed: date).

Rosen, M. (2021) Michael Rosen Biography. Available at: https://www.michaelrosen.co.uk/for-adults-biography/ (Accessed: 26 April 2021).

Web page with a group or organisation as author

In the text

For an in–text citation in your work, you would cite the reference as follows:

The NHS (2019) lists the main symptoms...
The causes of diabetes...(NHS, 2019)

In the bibliography/reference list

Group or Corporate author (Year site was published/last updated) Title of web page. Available at: URL (Accessed: date).

NHS (2019) Diabetes. Available at: https://www.nhs.uk/conditions/diabetes/ (Accessed: 26 April 2021).

Web page with no author

In the text

For an in–text citation in your work, you would cite the reference as follows:

The Grey to Green Sheffield project (2016) has had national recognition...
A sustainable drainage system was used...(Grey to Green Sheffield, 2016)

In the bibliography/reference list

Title of web page (Year site was published/last updated). Available at: URL (Accessed: date).

Grey to Green Sheffield (2016). Available at: http://www.greytogreen.org.uk/index.html (Accessed: 26 April 2021).

Notes
  • If a web page has no author, use the title of the page in italics in place of the author for both the in-text citation and the reference.
  • If the Corporate Author is well known by an abbreviation, for the first time you cite the resource write out the name in full followed by the abbreviation in round brackets, then use just the abbreviation for second and further citations, e.g. for the first citation use (National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE), 2016) or National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE), (2016). The second and further citations would then read (NICE, 2016) or NICE (2016).
  • You can then use the abbreviation in your reference list rather than writing out the name in full.
  • If you cannot find the date that the web page was published or last updated, use (no date).

For more information about in–text citation and referencing multiple authors, see Creating a citation and reference list and click on the relevant section.

Alphabetical list of items

Jump to: A, B | C, D | E, F, G | H, I, J, K | L, M, N, O, P | Q, R, S, T | U, V, W, X, Y, Z

A, B

For Acts of Parliament see Government Publication – Act of Parliament

For Amendments see Government Publication – Parliamentary Bills, Amendments and Explanatory Notes

In the text

For an in-text citation in your work, you would cite the reference as follows:

Southey (1876) provided a culturally...
The Common-place book (Southey, 1876)...

Hobbes (1651) demonstrates an example of...
The demonstration of a social structure can be identified...(Hobbes, 1651).

In the bibliography/reference list

Physical item

Author Surname, Initial(s). (Year of publication) Title. Translated by Initial(s). Surname (if relevant). Edition (if not the first). Place of publication: Publisher or Printing statement. Series and Volume number (if relevant).

Southey, R. (1876) Common-place book. London: Reeves and Turner.

Some early printed books were privately printed and do not have a publisher, in which case give the printing statement from the book in your reference. For example:

Hobbes, T. (1651) Leviathan. London: Printed for Andrew Crooke.

Online/Electronic

If the online version you are referencing is a scanned version of the printed book with the same page numbers and publication information, reference it in the same way you would reference a printed book. You do not need to include the URL in your reference.

However, if you have downloaded the ebook onto an edevice and the page numbers are not available in the device you are using, use the information that is available, such as loc, %, chapter or paragraph if you need to identify a particular page/section for your in-text citation. See Book - Electronic for further information

Notes
  • If there is no author or the author is designated as "Anonymous", use the title in italics in place of the author in the reference and the in-text citation.
  • Reference the edition that you have read.

For more information about in–text citation and referencing multiple authors, see Creating a citation and reference list and click on the relevant section.

For texts translated from the original see Translated item.

In the text

For an in–text citation in your work, you would cite the reference as follows:

campusM (2021) created...
The app iSheffield allows the user...(campusM, 2021)

In the bibliography/reference list

Developer/Producer (Year of release/update) Title of app (Version) [Mobile app]. Available at: app store name (Downloaded: date).

campusM (2021) iSheffield (Version 9.5.4) [Mobile app]. Available at: Google Play (Downloaded: 25 March 2021).

Notes
  • If the name of the Developer/Producer is not available, use the title of the app in italics in place of it in the reference and the in-text citation.
  • The Downloaded: date in the reference is the date that you downloaded the app onto your device.

For more information about in–text citation and referencing multiple authors, see Creating a citation and reference list and click on the relevant section.

Paintings/drawings viewed in a gallery or museum

In the text

For an in–text citation in your work, you would cite the reference as follows:

The Mona Lisa by DaVinci (1503-18) focuses closely on the subject...
The famous smile on the Mona Lisa (DaVinci, 1503-18) has become...

Blake's The Laborious Passage Along the Rocks (1824-27) portrays...
The illustration shows Virgil helping Dante... (Blake, 1824-27)

In the bibliography/reference list

Surname of artist, Initial(s). (Year) Title [Medium]. Holding institution, City.

Blake, W. (1824-27) The Laborious Passage Along the Rocks [Graphite, ink and watercolour on paper]. Tate Gallery, London.

DaVinci, L. (1503-18) Mona Lisa [Oil on wood]. Musée du Louvre, Paris.

Paintings/drawings viewed online

See Images and Figures

Installation/exhibit viewed in a gallery or museum

In the text

For an in–text citation in your work, you would cite the reference as follows:

Long's Delabole Spiral (1981) is made from slabs of slate...
The spiral of jagged-edged slate (Long, 1981) represents...

The Brandy saucepan made by Nathaniel Smith & Company (1789) was used to heat...
The saucepan (Nathaniel Smith & Company, 1789) was hallmarked in Sheffield...

In the bibliography/reference list

Surname of artist, Initial(s). (Year) Title [Installation or Exhibit]. Holding institution, City (Viewed: date).

Long, R. (1981) Delabole Spiral [Installation]. Graves Gallery, Sheffield (Viewed: 19 January 2019).

Nathaniel Smith & Company (1789) Brandy saucepan [Exhibit]. Millennium Gallery, Sheffield (Viewed: 19 January 2019).

Installation/exhibit viewed online

See Images and Figures

Notes
  • If there is no clear title to the item, a popular title may be used if one exists. If a popular title to the image does not exist then you will need to supply the item with a title, in square brackets, providing the following where possible
    • The subject matter
    • The name or place of the object depicted, i.e. the person, the building, the location, etc.
  • If no exact date can be found then you would use (no date).
  • The original title of a translated information resource, or a translation of the title, may be supplied immediately after the original title, e.g. Kinderhände im washbecken [Children's Hands in Washbasin]
  • If the artwork has a popular or traditional title, then you may use this, e.g. Mona Lisa.

For more information about in–text citation and referencing multiple authors, see Creating a citation and reference list and click on the relevant section.

For Bills see Government Publication - Parliamentary Bills, Amendments and Explanatory Notes

In the text

For an in–text citation in your work, you would cite the reference as follows:

Chaurey (2020) considers ethical review processes...
The limitations of the framework...(Chaurey, 2020)

In the bibliography/reference list

Author Surname, Initial(s). (Year) 'Title of blog post', Title of blog, Day/Month of post. Available at: URL (Accessed: date).

Chaurey, K. (2020) 'Decolonising ethics frameworks for research in Africa', Africa at LSE, 8th January. Available at: https://blogs.lse.ac.uk/africaatlse/2020/01/08/decolonising-ethics-frameworks-research-africa/ (Accessed: 29 March 2021).

Notes
  • If the author of a blog post has used an alias instead of their real full name, you may use this in the in-text citation and reference.

For more information about in–text citation and referencing multiple authors, see Creating a citation and reference list and click on the relevant section.

For Blu–Ray see Video - Physical Format

In the text

For an in–text citation in your work, you would cite the reference as follows:

Bryman (2016) recommends...
Quantitative data is more suited to the study due to... (Bryman, 2016).

In the bibliography/reference list

Author Surname, Initial(s). (Year) Title. Edition (if not first edition). Place of publication: Publisher.

Bryman, A. (2016) Social research methods. 5th edn. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

For more information about in–text citation and referencing multiple authors, see Creating a citation and reference list and click on the relevant section.

Book with two authors

In the text

For an in–text citation in your work, you would cite the reference as follows:

Wallace and Wolf (2006) found that...
Globalization is a theory that has many concepts... (Wallace and Wolf, 2006).

In the bibliography/reference list

Author Surname, Initial(s). and Author Surname, Initial(s). (Year) Title. Edition (if not first edition). Place of publication: Publisher.

Wallace, R. A. and Wolf, A. (2006) Contemporary sociological theory: expanding the classical tradition. 6th edn. Upper Saddle River, N.J.: Prentice Hall.

Book with three authors

In the text

For an in–text citation in your work, you would cite the reference as follows:

Greig, Taylor and MacKay (2013) found that...
Finding the reasons behind a child's behaviour... (Greig, Taylor and MacKay, 2013).

In the bibliography/reference list

Author Surname, Initial(s)., Author Surname, Initial(s). and Author Surname, Initial(s). (Year) Title. Edition (if not first edition). Place of publication: Publisher.

Greig, A., Taylor, J. and MacKay, T. (2013) Doing research with children: a practical guide. 3rd edn. London: Sage.

Book with four or more authors

In the text

For an in–text citation in your work, you would cite the reference as follows:

Begg et al. (2014) found that...
The elasticity of demand demonstrates... (Begg et al., 2014).

In the bibliography/reference list

First Author Surname, Initial(s). et al. (Year) Title. Edition (if not first edition). Place of publication: Publisher.

Begg, D.K.H. et al. (2014) Economics. 11th edn. London: McGraw-Hill.

Notes
  • If there are two or three authors use "and" in between the names rather than "&".
  • For references with four or more authors, include only the first author followed by et al written in italics.

For more information about in–text citation and referencing multiple authors, see Creating a citation and reference list and click on the relevant section.

In the text

For an in–text citation in your work, you would cite the reference as follows:

He (1997) found that...
The ethnic relations in China ...(He, 1997).

Zheng (1997) looked at the cultural influences...
The culture of western business during the period...(Zheng, 1997).

In the bibliography/reference list

Chapter Author Surname, Initial(s). (Year) 'Title of chapter', in Editor(s) Surname, Editor(s) Initial. (ed. or eds.) Title of book. Edition (if not first). Place of publication: Publisher, Page numbers.

He, X. (1997) 'The market economy and ethnic relations in China', in Ikeo, A. (ed.) Economic development in twentieth century East Asia: the international context. London: Routledge, pp. 190–205.

Zheng, X. (1997) 'Chinese business culture from the 1920s to the 1950s', in Ikeo, A. (ed.) Economic development in twentieth century East Asia: the international context. London: Routledge, pp. 35–54.

For more information about in–text citation and referencing multiple authors, see Creating a citation and reference list and click on the relevant section.

In the bibliography/reference list for one editor

Editor Surname, Initial(s). (ed.) (Year) Title. Edition (if not the first). Place of publication: Publisher.

Ikeo, A. (ed.) (1997) Economic development in twentieth century East Asia: the international context. London: Routledge.

In the bibliography/reference list for two editors

Editor Surname, Initial(s). and Editor Surname, Initial(s). (eds.) (Year) Title. Edition (if not the first). Place of publication: Publisher.

Parker, R. and Aggleton, P. (eds.) (2007) Culture, society and sexuality: a reader. 2nd edn. London: Routledge.

In the bibliography/reference list for three editors

Editor Surname, Initial(s)., Editor Surname, Initial(s). and Editor Surname, Initial(s). (eds.) (Year) Title. Edition (if not the first). Place of Publication: Publisher.

Alcock, P., May, M. and Wright, S. (eds.) (2012) The student's companion to social policy. 4th edn. Oxford: Wiley–Blackwell.

In the bibliography/reference list for four or more editors

First Editor Surname, Initial(s). et al. (eds.) (Year) Title. Edition (if not the first). Place of Publication: Publisher.

Ritchie, J. et al. (eds.) (2014) Qualitative research practice: a guide for social science students and researchers. 2nd edn. Los Angeles: Sage.

Notes
  • If there are two or three editors use "and" in between the names rather than "&".
  • For references with four or more editors, include only the first author followed by et al written in italics.

For more information about in–text citation and referencing multiple authors, see Creating a citation and reference list and click on the relevant section.

Many ebooks look the same as a printed book in terms of pagination, publisher details, etc., so the in-text citation and reference will be in the same format as a print book; you do not need to include details of where you accessed it from online in the reference. Follow the guidance in the sections for print books:

For an e-reader (e.g. Kindle)

If you have downloaded the book onto an edevice and the page numbers of the ebook are not available in the device you are using, use the information that is available, such as loc, %, chapter or paragraph if you need to identify a particular page/section for your in-text citation.
In the text

For an in–text citation in your work, you would cite the reference as follows:

The main sociological theories are explained (Bruce, 2018)...
Bruce explains this particular theory as...(2018, 52%)

In the bibliography/reference list

Author Surname, Initial(s). (Year) Title of item. Edition (if not the first). Available at: URL (Downloaded: date).

Bruce, S. (2018) Sociology: a very short introduction. 2nd edn. Available at: https://www.amazon.co.uk/Sociology-Very-Short-Introduction-Introductions-ebook/dp/B07DP6M3XM/ref=sr_1_1 (Downloaded: 30 April 2021).

Notes
  • The Downloaded: date in the reference is the date that you downloaded the book onto your device.

For more information about in–text citation and referencing multiple authors, see Creating a citation and reference list and click on the relevant section.

[Top of page]

C, D

In the text

You should use the party names and the year the case was decided.

For an in-text citation in your work, you would cite the reference as follows:

In the case of 'Radmacher v Granatino' (2010) the Supreme Court ruled that...
...when a court grants a decree of divorce, nullity of marriage or judicial separation it has the power to order ancillary relief ('Radmacher v Granatino', 2010).

In the reference list

Cases from 2001 onwards

Standard citation

'Case name', neutral court citation, law report citation.

'Radmacher v Granatino', [2010] UKSC 42, [2011] 1 AC 534.

Standard citation from a publicly available website

'Case name' (Year) Court, case number. Database or website name [Online]. Available at: URL (Accessed: date).

'Radmacher v Granatino' (2010) United Kingdom Supreme Court, case 42. BAILLI [Online]. Available at: http://www.bailii.org/uk/cases/UKSC/2010/42.html (Accessed 16 August 2018).

Cases before 2001

Neutral citations were introduced in 2001 and are not available for older cases. For pre-2001 cases, the abbreviation is often included at the end of the citation.

In the reference list

'Case name', law report citation, (court abbreviation).

'James v Eastleigh BC', [1990] 2 AC 751, (HL).

Notes

For more information about in–text citation and referencing multiple authors, see Creating a citation and reference list and click on the relevant section.

For Census Data see Dataset

For Chapter in a book see Book - Chapter in an edited book.

In the text

For an in-text citation in your work, you would cite the reference as follows:

The National Institute for Clinical Excellence (NICE) (2015) guideline...
...the guideline stipulates...(National Institute for Clinical Excellence (NICE), 2015).

The British Society of Gastroenterology (BSG) (2017) guideline...
...initial investigations should include...(British Society of Gastroenterology (BSG), 2017).

In the bibliography/reference list

Physical item

Corporate Author (Year of publication) Title of Guideline. Reference Number (if given). Place of publication: Publisher.

NICE (2004) The epilepsies: the diagnosis and management of the epilepsies in adults and children in primary and secondary care. CG20. London: National Institute for Clinical Excellence.

Online/Electronic

Corporate Author (Year of publication) Title of Guideline. Reference Number (if given). Available at: URL (Accessed: date) or doi:

BSG (2017) Guidelines on the management of abnormal liver blood tests. Available at: https://www.bsg.org.uk/clinical-resource/guidelines-on-the-management-of-abnormal-liver-blood-tests/ (Accessed: 30 March 2021).

NICE (2015) Obesity in children and young people: prevention and lifestyle weight management programmes. QS94. Available at: https://www.nice.org.uk/guidance/qs94 (Accessed: 4 August 2017).

Notes
  • If the Corporate Author is well known by an abbreviation, for the first time you cite the resource write out the name in full followed by the abbreviation in round brackets, then use just the abbreviation for second and further citations, e.g. for the first citation use (National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE), 2016) or National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE), (2016). The second and further citations would then read (NICE, 2016) or NICE (2016).
  • You can then use the abbreviation in your reference list rather than writing out the name in full.
  • A DOI should be written with the prefix https://doi.org/ followed by the DOI number, e.g. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1540-5931.2006.00203.x

For more information about in–text citation and referencing multiple authors, see Creating a citation and reference list and click on the relevant section.

It’s important to acknowledge the source of code just like you would acknowledge the source of any work that is not your own. Referencing correctly will help to distinguish your work from others, give credit to the original author and allow anyone to identify the source.

See Referencing Code for guidance. You will need to adapt the guidance to your referencing style.

For Command Paper see Government Publication – Command Paper

For Compact Disc (CD) see Music - Album (Physical Format) or Music - Album Track (Physical Format)

In the text

For an in–text citation in your work, you would cite the reference as follows:

Galar et al. (2014) identified that the risks of...
SMART risk assessments...(Galar et al., 2014)

Redknap (2004) questioned whether settlements in North Wales...
The geographical location of Anglesey meant that...(Redknap, 2004).

Fujikami et al. (2015) identified that in order to improve Fast Device Discovery...
Fast Device Discovery can be aided by...(Fujikami et al., 2015)

In the bibliography/reference list

Physical item

Author(s) of paper Surname, Initial(s). (Year) 'Paper title', Conference title. Place of conference, Date of conference. Place of publication: Publisher, Page numbers.

Galar, D. et al. (2014) 'SMART: integrating human safety risk assessment with Asset Integrity', Advances in condition monitoring of machinery in non–stationary operations, proceedings of the third international conference on condition monitoring of machinery in non–stationary operations, CMMNO, 2013. Ferrara, Italy, 8-10 May. Berlin: Springer, pp. 37–59.

Redknap, M. (2004) 'Viking–age settlements in Wales and the evidence from Llanbedrgoch', Land, sea and home, proceedings of a conference on Viking–period settlement. Cardiff, July 2001. Leeds: Manay Publishing, pp. 139–175.

Online/Electronic

Author(s) of paper Surname, Initial(s). (Year) 'Paper title', Conference title. Place of conference, Date of conference, Page numbers (if available). Available at: URL (Accessed: date) or doi:

Fujikami, S. et al. (2015) 'Fast device discovery for vehicle–to–pedestrian communication using wireless LAN', 12th Annual IEEE Consumer Communications and Networking Conference (CCNC 2015). Las Vegas, NV, 9–12 January. pp. 35–40. doi: https://doi.org/10.1109/CCNC.2015.7157943

Notes

  • The name of the conference, in italics, should be used as the author if an individual author, or corporate author, cannot be identified.
  • You don't need to include the Place of publication or Publisher if you are referencing an online source.
  • A DOI should be written with the prefix https://doi.org/ followed by the DOI number, e.g. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1540-5931.2006.00203.x

For more information about in–text citation and referencing multiple authors, see Creating a citation and reference list and click on the relevant section.

In the text

For an in-text citation in your work, you would cite the reference as follows:

Bazela, Grant and Tucker (2014) presented the poster...
...the poster shows the use of technology enhanced learning...(Bazela, Grant and Tucker, 2014).

Kleinschmidt, Fuhr and Wietfeld (2016) demonstrated the...
...the conference poster showed...(Kleinschmidt, Fuhr and Wietfeld, 2016).

In the bibliography/reference list

Physical item

Author(s) of poster Surname, Initial(s). (Year) 'Title of poster' [Poster], Conference title. Place of conference, Date of conference.

Bazela, C., Grant, V. and Tucker, A. (2014) 'History of medicine 2.0: using creative media to enhance information literacy teaching for 1st year medical students' [Poster], LILAC. Sheffield, 23-25 April.

If accessed online (published in conference proceedings)

Author(s) of poster Surname, Initial(s). (Year) 'Title of poster' [Poster], Conference title. Place of conference, Date of conference. Page numbers (if available). Available at: URL (Accessed: date) or doi:

Kleinschmidt, T., Fuhr, O. and Wietfeld, C. (2016) 'Synchronised charging of electric vehicles with distant renewable energy resources' [Poster], 2016 IEEE Vehicular Networking Conference (VNC). Columbus, OH, 8-10 December. doi: https://doi.org/10.1109/VNC.2016.7835983

If accessed online (via conference website)

Author(s) of poster Surname, Initial(s). (Year) 'Title of poster' [Poster], Conference title. Place of conference, Date of conference. Available at: URL (Accessed: date) or doi:

Bazela, C., Grant, V. and Tucker, A. (2014) 'History of medicine 2.0: using creative media to enhance information literacy teaching for 1st year medical students' [Poster], LILAC. Sheffield, 23-25 April. Available at: https://www.slideshare.net/infolit_group/bazela-grant-tucker-poster (Accessed: 31 May 2017).

Notes

  • A DOI should be written with the prefix https://doi.org/ followed by the DOI number, e.g. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1540-5931.2006.00203.x

For more information about in–text citation and referencing multiple authors, see Creating a citation and reference list and click on the relevant section.

In the bibliography/reference list

Physical item

Editor(s) of proceedings Surname, Initial(s). (ed. or eds.) (Year) Title of conference. Place of conference, Date of conference. Place of publication: Publisher. Volume (if needed).

Dalpiaz, G. et al. (eds.) (2014) Advances in condition monitoring of machinery in non–stationary operations, proceedings of the third international conference on condition monitoring of machinery in non–stationary operations, CMMNO, 2013. Ferrara, Italy, 8-10 May. Berlin: Springer.

Orman, W. and Valleau, M.J. (eds.) (2014). Proceedings of the 38th annual Boston University Conference on language development. Boston, MA, 1-3 November 2013. Somerville, MA: Cascadilla Press. Volume 2.

Online/Electronic

Editor(s) of proceedings Surname, Initial(s). (ed. or eds.) (Year) Title of conference. Place of conference, Date of conference. Volume (if needed). Available at: URL (Accessed: date) or doi:

Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) (2015) 12th Annual IEEE Consumer Communications and Networking Conference (CCNC 2015). Las Vegas, NV, 9–12 January. Available at: http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/xpl/tocresult.jsp?asf_pun=7151874 (Accessed: 10 December 2015).

Notes

  • The name of the conference, in italics, should be used as the author if an individual author, or corporate author, cannot be identified.
  • You don't need to include the Place of publication or Publisher if you are referencing an online source.
  • A DOI should be written with the prefix https://doi.org/ followed by the DOI number, e.g. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1540-5931.2006.00203.x

For more information about in–text citation and referencing multiple authors, see Creating a citation and reference list and click on the relevant section.

There may be cases where the source you are citing and referencing will need to be anonymised, e.g. names in medical, legal or business material. In place of real names you may use terms such as “Patient X” or “Placement School”. If the source is a medical image, e.g. a patient X-ray or scan, use the format in the Medical images section of Images and Figures.

In the text

For an in-text citation in your work, you would cite the reference as follows:

The treatment strategies for these patients (Placement hospital, 2022)...

In the bibliography/reference list

[Anonymised institution/agency] (Year produced) Anonymised title with square brackets around the anonymised name if it appears in the title. Location: [Anonymised producer].

[Placement hospital] (2022) [Placement hospital] treatment strategies for cardiology patients. South Yorkshire: [Placement hospital].

Notes

  • If the location of the town or city would be likely to identify a specific institution, use the county as the location instead, e.g. South Yorkshire: [Placement hospital].

For more information about in–text citation and referencing multiple authors, see Creating a citation and reference list and click on the relevant section.

For Court Case see Case Law.

In the text

For an in–text citation in your work, you would cite the reference as follows:

The Office for National Statistics, Social Survey Division (2019) provided the statistics for...
The statistics show that social divisions within the UK... (The Office for National Statistics, Social Survey Division, 2019)

NHS Digital (2015) provided the statistics for obesity, these show...
The statistics show that physical activity...(NHS Digital, 2015)

Curwen (2021) conducted experiments to confirm whether synaesthesia...
The data showed that synaesthesia for written musical keys...(Curwen, 2021)

In the bibliography/reference list

Author Surname, Initials. OR Organisation (Year) 'Title of dataset'. Edition (if necessary). Number or Version of dataset (if necessary). Available at: URL (Accessed: date) or doi:

Curwen, C. (2021) 'Synaesthesia for reading written musical keys'. Version 3. Available at: https://figshare.shef.ac.uk/articles/dataset/Synaesthesia_for_written_musical_keys/13140086 (Accessed 28 June 2021).

NHS Digital (2015) 'Statistics on obesity, physical activity and diet, England'. Available at: https://data.gov.uk/dataset/statistics_on_obesity_physical_activity_and_diet_england (Accessed 23 January 2017).

Office for National Statistics, Social Survey Division (2019) 'Annual Population Survey, April 2015-2016'. 6th edn. SN: 8003. doi: http://doi.org/10.5255/UKDA-SN-8003-6

For more information about in–text citation and referencing multiple authors, see Creating a citation and reference list and click on the relevant section.

Dictionary Entry – Print

In the text

'Research' (2009) is defined as...
This is the process of...('Research', 2009)

Berges (2012) notes that 'moral development'...
'Moral development' is associated with...(Berges, 2012)

For an in–text citation in your work, you would cite the reference as follows:

In the bibliography/reference list

Author of Section Surname, Initial(s). (Year) 'Title of entry', in Editor(s) Surname, Initial(s). (ed. or eds.) Title: Volume (if applicable). Edition (if not first). Place of publication: Publisher. Page numbers.

Berges, S. (2012) 'Moral Development', in Chadwick, R. (ed.) Encyclopedia of Applied Ethics: Volume 3 M–R. 2nd edn. London: Academic Press. pp. 141–151.

'Research' (2009) in Concise Oxford English Dictionary. 11th rev. edn. Oxford: Oxford University Press. p. 1222.

Dictionary Entry – Online

In the bibliography/reference list

Author of Section Surname, Initial(s). (Year) 'Title of entry', in Editor(s) Surname, Initials. (ed. or eds.) Title: Volume (if applicable). Edition (if not first). Available at: URL (Accessed: date) or doi:

'Research, n.1' (2015) in OED Online. Available at: http://www.oed.com/view/Entry/163432?isAdvanced=false&result=1&rskey=P9ZxF& (Accessed: 14 December 2015).

Full Dictionary – In Print

In the bibliography/reference list

Editor(s) Surname, Initial(s). (ed. or eds.) (Year) Title (no. of vols. if applicable). Edition (if not first). Place of publication: Publisher.

Chadwick, R. ed. (2012) Encylopedia of applied ethics (4 vols.). 2nd edn. London: Academic Press.

Soanes, C. and Stevenson, A. (eds.) (2005) Oxford English Dictionary. 2nd rev. edn. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Full Dictionary Online

In the bibliography/reference list

Editor(s) Surname, Initial(s). (ed. or eds.) (replace with Title if no editor) (Year) Title (no. of vols. if applicable). Edition (if not first). Available at: URL (Accessed: date).

OED online (2021). Available at: http://www.oed.com (Accessed: 28 June 2021).

Notes
  • Certain types of material, such as encyclopedias or dictionaries, may not have a person or persons as the main author or editor. These can be referenced by the title in italics first, e.g.

    OED online (2021). Available at: http://www.oed.com (Accessed: 28 June 2021).

  • To reference an entry in a dictionary or encyclopedia without an author or editor, put the title of the entry in single quotation marks first, e.g.

    'Research' (2009) in Concise Oxford English Dictionary. 11th rev. edn. Oxford: Oxford University Press. p. 1222.

For more information about in–text citation and referencing multiple authors, see Creating a citation and reference list and click on the relevant section.

In the text

For an in–text citation in your work, you would cite the reference as follows:

Vickers (2008) noted that the impact of technology has changed the way spaces within a library building are provided...
Learning spaces and services provided are changing due to technological advances (Vickers, 2008)...

In the bibliography/reference list

Author Surname, Initial(s). (Year) Title. Award and Type of qualification. Awarding body.

Vickers, S. (2008) An oral history examination of how technology has impacted on library space using the University of Sheffield Library as a case study. MA Dissertation. University of Sheffield.

For more information about in–text citation and referencing multiple authors, see Creating a citation and reference list and click on the relevant section.

For DVD see Video - Physical Format

[Top of page]

E, F, G

For Electronic Book see Book – Electronic

For Electronic Journal see Journal Article with a DOI (Electronic) or Journal Article without a DOI (Electronic)

For Encyclopedia see Dictionary.

Full exhibition

In the text

For an in–text citation in your work, you would cite the reference as follows:

The exhibition at the National Portrait Gallery (Elizabeth I & Her People, 2013–2014)...
In the exhibition Elizabeth I & Her People (2013–2014)...

Beatles to Bowie: the 60s exposed (2009–2010) showcased the acts of the 1960s...
Images of music personalities and memorabilia from the 1960s formed a major exhibition in the National Portrait Gallery (Beatles to Bowie: the 60s exposed, 2009–2010)...

The exhibition The Age of Abstraction: Women Artists (2016) at Graves Gallery exhibited...
Use of colour, pattern and line have been explored in a recent exhibition (The Age of Abstraction: Women Artists, 2016) which delves...

In the bibliography/reference list

Title of exhibition (Year) [Exhibition]. Location. Date(s) of exhibition.

Beatles to Bowie: the 60s exposed (2009–2010) [Exhibition]. National Portrait Gallery, London. 15 October 2009–24 January 2010.

Elizabeth I & Her People (2013–2014) [Exhibition]. National Portrait Gallery, London. 10 October 2013–5 January 2014.

The Age of Abstraction: Women Artists (2016) [Exhibition]. Graves Gallery, Sheffield. 5 February 2016–29 October 2016.

Item type as part of an exhibition

In the text

For an in–citation in your work, you would cite the reference as follows:

The portrait of Elizabeth I by Hilliard (1585)...
The painting of Elizabeth I (Hilliard, 1585) shows the monarch...

Bebbington (1969) captures David Bowie...
The image of David Bowie (Bebbington, 1969)...

In the bibliography/reference list

Artist Surname, Initial(s). (Date of artwork) Title of Artwork [Item type], in Title of exhibition [Exhibition]. Location. Date(s) of exhibition.

Bebbington, D. (1969) 'David Bowie' [Photograph] in Beatles to Bowie: the 60s exposed (2009–2010) [Exhibition]. National Portrait Gallery, London. 15 October 2009–24 January 2010.

Hilliard, N. (1585) 'Elizabeth I, the "Ermine" portrait' [Oil painting] in Elizabeth I & Her People (2013–2014) [Exhibition]. National Portrait Gallery, London. 10 October 2013–5 January 2014.

Notes

  • An exhibition may run over a period of two years, if this is the case you may enter a date range, e.g. 2013–2014.

For more information about in–text citation and referencing multiple authors, see Creating a citation and reference list and click on the relevant section.

For Facebook see Social Media

For Fact Sheet see Information Sheet

For Film videos see Video

In the text

For an in-text citation in your work, you would cite your reference as follows:

Keith (2019) discusses network connectivity issues on Ubuntu...
Network connectivity issues in the software...(Keith, 2019)

McNaught (2021) posted details about the survey...
...about the barriers experienced in implementing accessibility (McNaught, 2021).

In the bibliography/reference list

Username or Surname, Initial(s). of creator (Year) 'Title/Subject of message', Title of host message system (required if applicable), Day/Month message was posted. Available at: URL or Available email: email address (Accessed: date).

Keith (2019) 'usb wireless adapter for Ubuntu18.04', Linux Forums, 11 July. Available at: https://linuxforums.org.uk/index.php?topic=13634.msg110605#msg110605 (Accessed: 26 May 2021).

McNaught, A. (2021) 'Implementing digital accessibility regulations', DIGITALACCESSIBILITYREGULATIONS, 4 May. Available email: digitalaccessibilityregulations@jiscmail.ac.uk (Accessed: 26 May 2021).

Notes
  • If the author of a post has used an alias instead of their real full name, you may use this in the in-text citation and reference.

For more information about in–text citation and referencing multiple authors, see Creating a citation and reference list and click on the relevant section.

In the text

For an in–text citation in your work, you would cite the reference as follows:

It is now possible to face up to 7 years imprisonment for supplying psychoactive substances (Psychoactive Substances Act 2016)...
The Psychoactive Substances Act 2016 introduced the ban on...

In the bibliography/reference list

Title of Act including year and chapter number. Available at: URL (Accessed: date).

Psychoactive Substances Act 2016, c. 2. Available at: https://www.legislation.gov.uk/ukpga/2016/2/contents/enacted (Accessed: 6 May 2021).

Or if you are referencing the PDF version:

Psychoactive Substances Act 2016, c. 2. Available at: https://www.legislation.gov.uk/ukpga/2016/2/contents/enacted/data.pdf (Accessed: 6 May 2021).

Notes

  • In the in-text citation, the date does not need to be stated separately in round brackets as it already appears in the title of the Act.
  • Most Acts will be available to access online and you can either reference the web page or the PDF, whichever one you viewed it as.

For more information about in–text citation and referencing multiple authors, see Creating a citation and reference list and click on the relevant section.

In the text

For an in–text citation in your work, you would cite the reference as follows:

The principles of the Teaching Excellence Framework were introduced as a way...(Department for Business, Innovation and Skills, 2015)
The Department for Business, Innovation and Skills (2015) introduced the framework...

In a report on the knowledge economy (Department for Business, Innovation and Skills, 2016)...
The Department for Business, Innovation and Skills (2016) has stated that...

Challenges facing the NHS...(Department of Health, 2016)
The Department of Health (2016) suggests that demand reduction...

In the bibliography/reference list

Physical item

Government Department (at the time of publication) (Year) Title (Paper number). Place of publication: Publisher.

Department for Business, Innovation and Skills (2015) Fulfilling our potential: teaching excellence, social mobility and student choice (Cm 9141). London: HMSO.

Department for Business, Innovation and Skills (2016) Success as a knowledge economy: teaching excellence, social mobility and student choice (Cm 9258). London: HMSO.

Department of Health (2016) Government response to the House of Commons Health Select Committee report into the impact of the spending review on health and social care (Cm 9385). London: HMSO.

Online/Electronic

Government Department (at the time of publication) (Year) Title (Paper number). Available at: URL (Accessed: date).

Department for Business, Innovation and Skills (2015) Fulfilling our potential: teaching excellence, social mobility and student choice (Cm 9141). Available at: https://www.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/474227/BIS-15-623-fulfilling-our-potential-teaching-excellence-social-mobility-and-student-choice.pdf (Accessed: 1 December 2015).

Department for Business, Innovation and Skills (2016) Success as a knowledge economy: teaching excellence, social mobility and student choice (Cm 9258). Available at: https://www.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/523396/bis-16-265-success-as-a-knowledge-economy.pdf (Accessed: 17 June 2016).

Department of Health (2016) Government response to the House of Commons Health Select Committee report into the impact of the spending review on health and social care (Cm 9385). Available at: https://www.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/577910/DH_Gov_Response_Accessible.pdf (Accessed: 1 February 2017).

Notes

The numbering of Command Papers is done by running numbers with a prefix which changes as the number gets close to 10,000. The prefixes are listed below:

  • 1899–1869 – 1–4222
  • 1870–1899 – C.1–C.9550
  • 1900–1918 – Cd.1–Cd.9239
  • 1919–1956 – Cmd.1–Cmd.9889
  • 1956–1986 – Cmnd.1–Cmnd.9927
  • 1986–current – Cm.1–

For more information about in–text citation and referencing multiple authors, see Creating a citation and reference list and click on the relevant section.

In the text

For an in-text citation in your work, you would cite the reference as follows:

The Department of Health (2015) statistics show...
The DoLS statistics (Department of Health, 2015) show that the trend...

In the bibliography/reference list

Governmental Department (Year) 'Title of Dataset'. Edition (if necessary). Number of dataset (if necessary). Available at: URL (Accessed: date) or doi:

Department of Health (2015) 'DoLS monthly summary statistics'. Quarter 2, 2015 to 2016: raw data. Available at: https://www.gov.uk/government/statistics/deprivation-of-liberty-safeguards-dols-july-to-september-2015 (Accessed 1 February 2017).

For more information about in–text citation and referencing multiple authors, see Creating a citation and reference list and click on the relevant section.

The Hansard House of Commons and House of Lords official records from 1802 to the present day are available at the "UK Parliament Hansard" website.

In the text

For an in–text citation in your work, you would reference the in-text citation as follows:

Jonathan Ashworth MP (2021) questioned how the care system would be integrated...
The need for a sustainable social care plan (Ashworth, 2021)...

Clive Betts MP (2017) mentions the mixture of funding for social care...
Questioning the future of funding (Betts, 2017)...

In the bibliography/reference list

Name of speaker/author (Year) 'Subject of debate or speech', Hansard: Name of House of Parliament debates/written statement/Westminster Hall or petitions, Day and Month, Volume, Column or Page number. Available at: URL (Accessed: date).

Ashworth, J. (2021) 'Future of Health and Care', Hansard: House of Commons debates, 11 February, 689, c. 508. Available at: https://hansard.parliament.uk/Commons/2021-02-11/debates/1A5C67A2-7FE5-4ECE-9E0F-A98A85639918/FutureOfHealthAndCare (Accessed 17 May 2021).

Betts, C. (2017) 'Health and Social Care Budgets', Hansard: House of Commons Westminster Hall, 14 March, 623, cc. 28WH–29WH. Available at: https://hansard.parliament.uk/Commons/2017-03-14/debates/43778548-9da5-492a-aa3c-2611f9e6f29d/WestminsterHall (Accessed 17 May 2021).

Notes

  • If you are citing one column use c. as the prefix to the column number. If you are citing more than one column, use cc. as the prefix.

For more information about in–text citation and referencing multiple authors, see Creating a citation and reference list and click on the relevant section.

In the text

For an in–citation in your work, you would cite the reference as follows:

More than 30 fully funded Marshall Scholarships were awarded during the academic year...(Parliament. House of Commons, 2016a)
The Marshall Aid Commemoration Committee (Parliament. House of Commons, 2016a) awarded scholarships...

Affordable housing remains on the agenda for the current government...(Parliament. House of Lords, 2016)
The Select Committee for Economic Affairs (Parliament. House of Lords, 2016) looked at the provision of affordable housing...

If the provision of the regulation is broken...(Parliament. House of Lords, 2017)
The Delegated Powers and Regulatory Reform Committee (Parliament. House of Lords, 2017) found that maximum penalties could be...

The deficits within the NHS...(Parliament. House of Commons, 2016b)
The Health Committee (Parliament. House of Commons, 2016b) found that the deficit within the NHS...

In the bibliography/reference list

Physical item

Parliament. House of Commons or House of Lords. (Year) Title. (HC or HL Session and Paper number). Place of publication: Publisher.

Parliament. House of Commons (2016a) Marshall Aid Commemoration Commission Account 2015–2016 (HC 2016–2017 539). London: National Audit Office.

Parliament. House of Commons (2016b) Impact of the spending review on health and social care: First Report of Session 2016-17 (HC 2016–2017 139). London: By the authority of the House of Commons.

Parliament. House of Lords (2016) Building more homes : First Report of Session 2016-17 (HL 2016–2017 (20)). London: By the authority of the House of Lords.

Parliament. House of Lords (2017) Health Service Medical Supplies (Costs) Bill: 12th Report of Session 2016-17 (HL 2016–2017 (94)). London: By the authority of the House of Lords.

Online/Electronic

Parliament. House of Commons or House of Lords (Year) Title (HC or HL Session and Paper number). Available at: URL (Accessed: date).

Parliament. House of Commons (2016a) Marshall Aid Commemoration Commission Account 2015–2016 (HC 2016–2017 539). Available at: https://www.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/542143/MACC_account_2015_to_2016.pdf (Accessed 7 August 2016).

Parliament. House of Commons (2016b) Impact of the spending review on health and social care: First Report of Session 2016-17 (HC 2016–2017 139). Available at: https://www.publications.parliament.uk/pa/cm201617/cmselect/cmhealth/139/139.pdf (Accessed 1 February 2017).

Parliament. House of Lords (2016) Building more homes: First Report of Session 2016-17 (HL 2016–2017 (20)). Available at: http://www.publications.parliament.uk/pa/ld201617/ldselect/ldeconaf/20/20.pdf (Accessed 8 September 2016).

Parliament. House of Lords (2017) Health Service Medical Supplies (Costs) Bill: 12th Report of Session 2016-17 (HL 2016–2017 (94)). Available at: https://www.publications.parliament.uk/pa/ld201617/ldselect/lddelreg/94/94.pdf (Accessed 12 November 2017).

Notes
  • If more than one of your citations has the same author and year of publication, then you should distinguish between them by using a lower–case letter following the year, e.g. The paper...(Parliament. House of Commons, 2016a)...this was supported by...(Parliament. House of Commons, 2016b).
  • In your references, paper numbers for the House of Lords papers are put within round brackets after the Session dates to distinguish them from identical House of Commons paper numbers, e.g. paper number 20 from the House of Commons Session 2016–2017 would be written (HC 2016–2017 20) whereas paper number 20 from the House of Lords Session 2016–2017 would be written (HL 2016–2017 (20)).

For more information about in–text citation and referencing multiple authors, see Creating a citation and reference list and click on the relevant section.

In the text

For an in–text citation in your work, you would cite the reference as follows:

The Digital Economy Bill (2016) has attracted controversy...
The House of Commons proposed that the BBC could face more regulation from Ofcom (Digital Economy Bill, 2016)

Increased measures for child safety have been included in amendments to the Crime and Policing Bill (2016)...
The House of Lords (Crime and Policing Bill, 2016) have amended...

The Oil and Gas Authority were transferred regulatory powers from the Secretary of State for Energy (Energy Bill Explanatory Notes, 2015)
The House of Lords note in the Energy Bill Explanatory Notes (2015) that the Oil and Gas Authority...

In the bibliography/reference list

Physical item

Title (Year of publication). Parliament: House of Commons or House of Lords. Bill no. Place of publication: Publisher.

Digital Economy Bill (2016). Parliament: House of Commons. Bill no. 45. London: The Stationery Office.

Energy Bill Explanatory Notes (2015). Parliament: House of Lords. Bill no. 56–EN. London: The Stationery Office.

Policing and Crime Bill Amendments (2016). Parliament: House of Lords. Bill no. 55 c. London: The Stationery Office.

Online/Electronic

Title (Year of publication). Parliament: House of Commons or House of Lords. Bill no. Available at: URL (Accessed: date).

Digital Economy Bill (2016). Parliament: House of Commons. Bill no. 45. Available at: http://www.publications.parliament.uk/pa/bills/cbill/2016-2017/0045/cbill_2016-20170045_en_1.htm (Accessed: 16 August 2016).

Energy Bill Explanatory Notes (2015). Parliament: House of Lords. Bill no. 56–EN. Available at: http://www.publications.parliament.uk/pa/bills/lbill/2015-2016/0056/en/16056en.pdf (Accessed 30 August 2016).

Policing and Crime Bill Amendments (2016). Parliament: House of Lords. Bill no. 55 c. Available at: http://www.publications.parliament.uk/pa/bills/lbill/2016-2017/0055/17055(c).pdf (Accessed: 1 September 2016).

For more information about in–text citation and referencing multiple authors, see Creating a citation and reference list and click on the relevant section.

In the text

For an in–text citation in your work, you would reference the citation as follows:

The Police (Amendment) (No.2) Regulations 2006 introduced changes...
Conflicts of interest for Police Officers should be reported to their senior...(The Police (Amendment) (No.2) Regulations 2006)

In the bibliography/reference list

Physical item

Name of Statutory Instrument including year (SI year/number). Place of publication: Publisher.

The Police (Amendment) (No.2) Regulations 2006 (SI 2006/3449). London: The Stationery Office.

Online/Electronic

Name of Statutory Instrument including year (SI year/number). Available at: URL (Accessed: date).

The Police (Amendment) (No.2) Regulations 2006 (SI 2006/3449). Available at: http://www.legislation.gov.uk/uksi/2006/3449/pdfs/uksi_20063449_en.pdf (Accessed: 28 September 2016).

Notes

  • In the in-text citation, the date does not need to be stated separately in round brackets as it already appears in the title of the Act.

For more information about in–text citation and referencing multiple authors, see Creating a citation and reference list and click on the relevant section.

In the text

For an in–text citation in your work, you would cite the reference as follows:

The ongoing decommissioning of nuclear plants in scheduled...(Office for Nuclear Regulation, 2016)
The Office for Nuclear Regulation (2016) have set out their strategic aims...

The funding of care must be provided by either NHS or the local authority...(Department of Health, 2016).
The Department of Health (2016) found that funding...

In the bibliography/reference list

Physical item

Government Department or Office (at time of publication, if available) (Year) Title. Place of Publication: Publisher. (Series if applicable).

Department of Health (2019) National framework for NHS continuing healthcare and NHS funded nursing care. London: Department of Health.

Office for Nuclear Regulation (2016) Office for Nuclear Regulation Strategic Plan 2016–2020: Presented to Parliament pursuant to Paragraph 25(3) of Schedule 7 to the Energy Act 2013, March 2016. London: Office for Nuclear Regulation.

Online/Electronic

Government Department or Office (at time of publication, if available) (Year) Title. (Series if applicable). Available at: URL (Accessed: date).

Department of Health (2019) National framework for NHS continuing healthcare and NHS funded nursing care. Available at: https://www.gov.uk/government/publications/national-framework-for-nhs-continuing-healthcare-and-nhs-funded-nursing-care (Accessed: 17 May 2021).

Office for Nuclear Regulation (2016) Office for Nuclear Regulation Strategic Plan 2016–2020: Presented to Parliament pursuant to Paragraph 25(3) of Schedule 7 to the Energy Act 2013, March 2016. Available at: http://www.onr.org.uk/documents/2016/strategic-plan-2016-2020.pdf (Accessed: 17 May 2021).

For more information about in–text citation and referencing multiple authors, see Creating a citation and reference list and click on the relevant section.

For Graphs see Images and Figures

For Green Paper see Government Publication – Command Paper

[Top of page]

H, I, J, K

For Hansard see Government Publication – Hansard

For Historical texts see Ancient or Historical Texts.

For House of Lords and House of Commons Papers see Government Publication - House of Lords and House of Commons Papers

For House of Lords or House of Commons Offical Report. Parliamentary Debates see Government Publication – Hansard

This guidance is for citing and referencing images and figures that you are referring to in your work. If you have inserted an image or figure into your work please see the "Guidance for taught course students inserting images and figures into university work."

In the text

The overflow of the Ladybower Reservoir can be seen in the image (andy_c, 2005)...

Schnabel (1984) created the artwork using paint on velvet...

The photograph (Nicholls, 1919) shows the 18th Battalion...

The painting shows the effects of intense heat on the structure of a building (Sutherland, 1941).

In the bibliography/reference list

From an online collection/social media site, e.g. Flickr, Instagram, etc.

Artist/Creator Surname, Initial(s). OR screen name (Year) Title of image/figure [Description]. Available at: URL (Accessed: date).

andy_c (2005) Ladybower Plughole [Photograph]. Available at: https://www.flickr.com/photos/andycpics/3035948922 (Accessed: 6 July 2016).

From a museum/gallery (either viewed in person or online)

Artist/Creator Surname, Initial(s). (Year) Title of image/figure [Description]. Name of museum/gallery, Location. [If viewed in person] (Viewed: Date). [If viewed online] Available at: URL (Accessed: date).

Nicholls, H. (1919) Preparations for the Peace Day Celebrations, July 1919 [Photograph]. Imperial War Museum, London. Available at: http://www.iwm.org.uk/collections/item/object/205297061 (Accessed: 2 January 2016).

From a journal

Artist/Creator Surname, Initial(s). (Year) ‘Title of image/figure’ [Description], in Author of journal article (if different to Artist/Creator) Surname, Initial(s). (Year) ‘Title of article’, Title of Journal Volume(Issue), Page number. [If online] Available at: URL (Accessed: date) OR doi:

Schnabel, J. (1984) ‘Ethnic Types #15 and #72’ [Oil, animal hide, modeling paste on velvet], in Sans, J. (2020) ‘Julian Schnabel: The Myth Unfurls’, Art in Translation 12(3), p. 400. doi: https://doi.org/10.1080/17561310.2020.1876831

From a book/ebook

Artist/Creator Surname, Initial(s). (Year) ‘Title of image/figure’ [Description], in Author of book (if different to Artist/Creator) Surname, Initial(s). Title of book (Year). Place of publication: Publisher, Page number.

Sutherland, G. (1941) ‘Devastation 1941: City, twisted girders’ [Painting], in Mellor, L. Reading the ruins: Modernism, bombsites and British culture (2011). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, p. 119.

Notes
  • Reference an ebook in the same way as a print book. You do not need to add the URL.
  • In some cases you may need to use the screen name of the creator if their real name is not available, which may be the case with image sharing or social media websites.
  • If a person or corporation cannot be identified as the artist/creator, omit the artist/creator and start the reference with the title.
  • If there is no clear title to the image, a popular title may be used if one exists. If a popular title to the image does not exist then you will need to supply the image with a title, in square brackets, providing the following where possible:
    • The subject matter.
    • The name or place of the object depicted, i.e. the person, the building, the location, etc.
  • Some online journal articles group multiple figures together as one downloadable image. If you are only referring to one of the figures within the image, make this clear by using the title of that particular figure in your citation/reference.
  • Include a description of the item in square brackets, e.g. [Photograph], [Diagram], [Table], etc. If it is a painting or drawing you can either describe it as [Painting] or [Drawing], or if the medium used is available you can use this as the description, e.g. [Watercolour], [Oil on canvas], [Charcoal on paper], etc.
  • If you are referencing an image or figure from a source other than those listed above, include the details of the source in the usual format for that item type after the details of the image.
  • You don't need to include a citation and reference for any images or figures that you have created yourself. Everything in your work is assumed to be your own work unless you state otherwise, i.e. by citing someone else's work.

Medical images

You may need to reference an individual patients X-ray or scan, e.g. if you are working on a placement in a hospital. As this is confidential information, you would need to anonymise the name of the patient. (See Confidential Information for referencing other medical information.)
In the text

The tumour can clearly be seen in Patient A's MRI scan (2022).

In the bibliography/reference list

[Anonymised patient's name] (Year image produced) Image title [Medium]. Location: Name of institution.

[Patient A] (2022) Upper mandible [MRI scan]. Sheffield: Weston Park Hospital.

Notes
  • If you are referencing an image of an individual patient’s scan or X-ray, you must obtain permission to use the image from both the patient and the hospital.

For more information about in–text citation and referencing multiple authors, see Creating a citation and reference list and click on the relevant section.

In the text

For an in-text citation in your work, you would cite your reference as follows:

The SOLiD System allows...(Applied Biosystems, 2008)
Applied Biosystems (2008) manufacture...

The Boots decongestant tablet...(Boots Pharmaceuticals, 2020).
Boots Pharmaceuticals (2020) recommend that their decongestant...

The patient information leaflet for Doxycycline recommends (Kent Pharmaceuticals Ltd, 2020)...
Kent Pharmaceuticals Ltd (2020) indicate that Doxycycline...

In the bibliography/reference list

Physical item

Corporate Author or Author Surname, Initial(s). (Year) Title of Information Sheet. Place of publication: Publisher. Publication Number.

Applied Biosystems (2008) Application Fact Sheet SOLiD System Accuracy. Foster City, C.A.: Applied Biosystems. 139AP04-04.

Boots Pharmaceuticals (2020) Decongestant tablet (Pseudoephedrine hydrochloride). Nottingham: The Boots Company PLC. 00014/0375.

Kent Pharmaceuticals Ltd (2020) Patient information leaflet: Doxycycline 50mg capsules. Ashford: Kent Pharmaceuticals Ltd. PL 30464/0060.

Online/Electronic

Corporate Author or Author Surname, Initial(s). (Year) Title of Information Sheet. Publication Number. Available at: URL (Accessed: date).

Applied Biosystems (2008) Application Fact Sheet SOLiD System Accuracy. 139AP04-04. Available at: http://tools.thermofisher.com/content/sfs/brochures/SOLiD_Accuracy.pdf (Accessed: 8 April 2021).

Boots Pharmaceuticals (2020) Decongestant tablets (Pseudoephedrine hydrochloride). 00014/0375. Available at: https://www.medicines.org.uk/emc/PIL.21466.latest.pdf (Accessed: 8 April 2021).

Kent Pharmaceuticals Ltd (2020) Patient information leaflet: Doxycycline 50mg capsules. PL 30464/0060. Available at: https://www.medicines.org.uk/emc/files/pil.4050.pdf (Accessed: 8 April 2021).

For more information about in–text citation and referencing multiple authors, see Creating a citation and reference list and click on the relevant section.

In the text

For an in–text citation in your work, you would cite the reference as follows:

Austin (2009) argues that periodical conflict may be expected...
It can be assumed that pickpocketing...(Austin, 2009)

In the bibliography/reference list

Author of article Surname, Initial(s). (Year) 'Title of article', Title of Journal, Volume(Issue), Page range.

Austin, T. (2012) 'Takers keepers, losers weepers: theft as customary play in southern Philippines', Journal of Folklore Research, 49(3), pp. 263–284.

Notes
  • Enclose the title of the article in single quotation marks.
  • Capitalise the first letter of each of the main words of the journal title, but not the linking words such as "and", "for", "of" or "the".

For more information about in–text citation and referencing multiple authors, see Creating a citation and reference list and click on the relevant section.

What is a DOI?

If you are unsure if the article you are looking at has a DOI, please see the following page: DOIs and URLs which gives an explanation of the identifier.

In the text

For an in–text citation in your work, you would cite the reference as follows:

Dobson (2006) identified that the depiction...
The stereotypical portrayal of cultures...(Dobson, 2006).

In the bibliography/reference list

Author of article Surname, Initial(s). (Year) 'Title of article', Title of Journal, Volume(Issue), Page range (if available). doi:

Dobson, H. (2006) 'Mister Sparkle meets the 'Yakuza': depictions of Japan in The Simpsons', Journal of Popular Culture, 39(1), pp. 44–68. doi: https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1540-5931.2006.00203.x

Notes
  • For a journal article with a DOI you don't need to include "Available at" or "(Accessed: date)" in the reference as a DOI is a stable identifier and will not change, whereas a URL may change or be deleted so the extra information is needed to clarify where and when you found the article.
  • Always write DOI in lower case letters in your references, e.g. doi.
  • A DOI should be written with the prefix https://doi.org/ followed by the DOI number.
  • Never put a full stop after a DOI or URL as it may be assumed that it is part of the DOI or URL and prevent it from working.
  • Enclose the title of the article in single quotation marks.
  • Capitalise the first letter of each of the main words of the journal title, but not the linking words such as "and", "for", "of" or "the".

For more information about in–text citation and referencing multiple authors, see Creating a citation and reference list and click on the relevant section.

In the text

For an in–text citation in your work, you would cite the reference as follows:

Ashby (1999) identified Zappa's style...
The melodies in Zappa's work...(Ashby, 1999).

In the bibliography/reference list

Author of article Surname, Initial(s). (Year) 'Title of article', Title of Journal, Volume(Issue), Page range (if available). Available at: URL (Accessed: date).

Ashby, A. (1999) 'Frank Zappa and the anti–fetishist orchestra', The Musical Quarterly, 83(4), pp. 557–606. Available at: http://www.jstor.org/stable/742617 (Accessed: 8 April 2021).

Notes
  • Enclose the title of the article in single quotation marks.
  • Capitalise the first letter of each of the main words of the journal title, but not the linking words such as "and", "for", "of" or "the".

For more information about in–text citation and referencing multiple authors, see Creating a citation and reference list and click on the relevant section.

In the text

For an in–text citation in your work, you would cite the reference as follows:

Lichtenthaler (2016) demonstrated an innovation–based view...
Complex relationships that appear in companies...(Lichtenthaler, 2016)

In the bibliography/reference list

Author Surname, Initial(s). (Year) 'Title of Article'. To be published in Title of Journal (if stated), Volume(Issue) [Preprint]. Available at: URL (Accessed: date) or doi:

Lichtenthaler, U. (2016) 'Towards an innovation–based perspective on company performance'. To be published in Management Decision, 54(1) [Preprint]. Available at: http://www.emeraldinsight.com/doi/abs/10.1108/MD-05-2015-0161 (Accessed: 7 January 2016).

Notes
  • Enclose the title of the article in single quotation marks.
  • There may not be any information about which journal the article will be published in, so that part of the reference doesn't have to be included.
  • Capitalise the first letter of each of the main words of the journal title, but not the linking words such as "and", "for", "of" or "the".

For more information about in–text citation and referencing multiple authors, see Creating a citation and reference list and click on the relevant section.

In some fields, such as medicine and physics, an article may have hundreds of authors and it would be impractical to list each one. You would reference an article with four or more authors as follows:

In the text

For an in–text citation in your work, you would cite the reference as follows:

Abbott et al. (2016) observed gravitational waves...
The first observation of a binary black hole merger included...(Abbott et al., 2016)

In the bibliography/reference list

Physical item

First or lead author of article Surname, Initial(s). et al. (Year) 'Title of article', Title of Journal, Volume(Issue), Page range.

Abbott, B.P. et al. (2016) 'Observation of gravitational waves from a binary black hole merger', Physical Review Letters, 116(6), 061102.

Online/Electronic

First or lead author of article Surname, Initial(s). et al. (Year) 'Title of article', Title of Journal, Volume(Issue), Page range (if available). Available at: URL (Accessed: date) or doi:

Aubert, B. et al. (2002) 'The BABAR detector', Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated Equipment, 479(1), pp. 1-116. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/S0168-9002(01)02012-5

Notes
  • For references with up to three authors, list all the authors in the reference list in the order they appear in the source. In some cases there may be a long list of authors (in medical and scientific papers). If this is the case you only need to include the first author followed by et al written in italics.
  • Enclose the title of the article in single quotation marks.
  • Capitalise the first letter of each of the main words of the journal title, but not the linking words such as "and", "for", "of" or "the".

For more information about in–text citation and referencing multiple authors, see Creating a citation and reference list and click on the relevant section.

For Kindle or other e-reader see Book - Electronic

[Top of page]

L, M, N, O, P

For Law Report see Case Law.

Citing informal or unpublished materials, such as handouts, lecture recordings and lecture notes is not generally recommended. Instead you should look to cite a primary source (such as a textbook or journal article) which describes or summarises the idea you are referring to. You may wish to ask your lecturer for recommended reading.

Guidance from Cite Them Right, 10th rev. and expanded edn, suggests that a magazine article should be referenced as a Journal Article.

In order to locate some of the information required for referencing you may need to look at the following locations:

  • The front of the magazine near the barcode
  • The back of the magazine near the barcode
  • The table of contents
  • The publication information, which is normally written in very small text near the front of the magazine, or near the back of the magazine. This usually contains contact emails and copyright statements as well.
In the text

For an in-text citation in your work, you would cite your reference as follows:

In his letter, Ellis (no date) mentions...
The correspondence with John Holmes...(Ellis, no date)

In the bibliography/reference list

Author Surname, Initial(s). (Year) Title of Manuscript, Date (if available). Name of Collection and Reference number. Location of Archive or Repository.

Ellis, H. (no date) Letter to John Holmes, assistant keeper, Department of Manuscripts, British Museum. Single Manuscript Collection, MS 24 (42). Special Collections and Archives, University of Sheffield.

Notes

  • If no date can be found then you would use (no date).

For more information about in–text citation and referencing multiple authors, see Creating a citation and reference list and click on the relevant section.

In the text

For an in-text citation in your work, you would cite your reference as follows:

The Inverness and Strathglass Ordnance Survey map (1996) shows Loch Ness...
The area covered by the map...(Ordnance Survey, 1996)

The Information Commons (Google Maps, 2021) is near...
The library can be seen using Google Maps (2021)...

In the bibliography/reference list

Physical item

Name of creator or creator Surname, Initial(s). (Year) Title of map, Sheet number, Map scale, Edition (if needed). Place of publication: Publisher. (Series).

Ordnance Survey (1996) Inverness and Strathglass, Sheet 26, 1:50000, 7-GSGS edn. Southampton: Ordnance Survey. (Landranger Series).

Online/Electronic

Name of creator or creator Surname, Initial(s). (Year) 'Title of map' (Format if available), Scale if available. Available at: URL (Accessed: date).

Google Maps (2021) 'Information Commons, Sheffield'. Available at: https://www.google.co.uk/maps/ (Accessed: 8 April 2021).

Ordnance Survey (2020) 'Castleton, Derbyshire', 1:50000. Available at: http://digimap.edina.ac.uk/ (Accessed: 8 April 2021).

For more information about in–text citation and referencing multiple authors, see Creating a citation and reference list and click on the relevant section.

For Masters Dissertation see Dissertation

For Message Board see Forum Post/Message Board

In the text

For an in-text citation in your work, you would cite your reference as follows:

The controversy caused by the album by The Prodigy (1997)...
The track listing on The Fat of the Land (The Prodigy, 1997)...

The Beatles (1967) produced the self-titled album...
The album known as The White Album (The Beatles, 1967) was the follow up album...

Recorded by Queens of the Stone Age (2002)...
The album Songs for the Deaf (Queens of the Stone Age, 2002) featured the guest drummer...

In the bibliography/reference list

Name of Artist (Year) Title of Album [Format]. Edition (if needed). Place of Publication: Record Label.

The Beatles (1967) The Beatles [The White Album] [CD]. Heyes: Parlophone/EMI.

The Prodigy (1997) The Fat of the Land [Vinyl]. London: XL-Recordings.

Queens of the Stone Age (2002) Songs for the Deaf [CD]. Limited Edition UK Version. Santa Monica: Interscope Records.

Notes

  • If the item is widely known by, or was originally issued under, a title different from that of the item, the alternative title may also be provided in brackets if necessary, e.g. The Beatles [The White Album].

For more information about in–text citation and referencing multiple authors, see Creating a citation and reference list and click on the relevant section.

In the text

For an in-text citation in your work, you would cite your reference as follows:

The Prodigy (1997) recorded the song...
The song 'Breathe' (The Prodigy, 1997) demonstrated...

Lennon and McCartney wrote the Beatles (1968) song...
'While My Guitar Gently Weeps' (The Beatles, 1968) is a...

The Runaways (1976) song 'Cherry Bomb' appears on the compilation album...
The song 'Cherry Bomb' (The Runaways, 1976) is used in the film...

In the bibliography/reference list

Name of Artist (Year) 'Title of song', Title of Album (Year if different to the original song recording) [Format]. Edition (if needed). Place of Publication: Record Label.

The Beatles (1968) 'While My Guitar Gently Weeps', The Beatles [The White Album] [CD]. Heyes: Parlophone/EMI.

The Prodigy (1997) 'Breathe', The Fat of the Land [Vinyl]. London: XL-Recordings.

The Runaways (1976) 'Cherry Bomb', Guardians of the Galaxy: Awesome Mix Vol.1 (Original Motion Picture Soundtrack) (2014) [CD]. Hollywood: Marvel Music.

Notes

  • If the item is widely known by, or was originally issued under, a title different from that of the item, the alternative title may also be provided in brackets if necessary, e.g. The Beatles [The White Album].

For more information about in–text citation and referencing multiple authors, see Creating a citation and reference list and click on the relevant section.

Full album

In the text

For an in-text citation in your work, you would cite your reference as follows

Pink Floyd's (1977) Animals album...
Animals (Pink Floyd, 1977) shows political statements...

Hardwired...to Self-Destruct is the latest album by Metallica (2016)...
Hardwired...to Self-Destruct (Metallica, 2016) includes the track...

In the bibliography/reference list

Name of Artist (Year) Title of Album. Edition (if needed). Available at: URL (Downloaded: date).

Metallica (2016) Hardwired...to Self-Destruct. Available at: https://open.spotify.com/album/4kizef5du9TgAGfNhWbKmt (Downloaded: 31 March 2021).

Pink Floyd (1977) Animals. 2011 Remastered Version. Available at: https://www.amazon.co.uk/Animals-2011-Remastered-Version-Floyd/dp/B005NNZ9IM/ (Downloaded: 31 March 2021).

For an album track

In the text

For an in-text citation in your work, you would cite your reference as follows

Pink Floyd's (1977) song 'Sheep' describes the political...
The song 'Sheep' (Pink Floyd, 1977) is a view on political followers...

Metallica's (2016) song 'Moth into Flame'...
'Moth into Flame' (Metallica, 2016) was used as part of...

In the bibliography/reference list

Name of Artist (Year) 'Title of song', Title of Album. Edition (if needed). Available at: URL (Downloaded: date).

Metallica (2016) 'Moth into Flame', Hardwired...to Self-Destruct. Available at: https://open.spotify.com/album/4kizef5du9TgAGfNhWbKmt (Downloaded: 31 March 2021).

Pink Floyd (1977) 'Sheep', Animals. 2011 Remastered Version. Available at: https://www.amazon.co.uk/Animals-2011-Remastered-Version-Floyd/dp/B005NNZ9IM/ (Downloaded: 31 March 2021).

Notes

  • If the item is widely known by, or was originally issued under, a title different from that of the item, the alternative title may also be provided in brackets if necessary, e.g. The Beatles [The White Album].
  • The Downloaded: date in the reference is the date that you downloaded the music onto your device.

For more information about in–text citation and referencing multiple authors, see Creating a citation and reference list and click on the relevant section.

In the text

For an in–text citation in your work, you would cite the reference as follows:

Bowie (1998) used the...
The score represents (Bowie, 1998)...

Busoni (1992) represented the...
The piano concerto...(Busoni, 1992)

Wagner's score (1900) shows...
Tristan and Isolde (Wagner, 1900) represents...

In the bibliography/reference list

Composer Surname, Initial (s). (Date) Title of score. Notes on version (including librettists, editors, translators) if applicable. Edition (if applicable). Place of publication: Publisher.

Bowie, D. (1998) The Best of David Bowie 1974/1979. London: Wise Publications.

Busoni, F. (1992) Kadenzen zu klavierkonzerten Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart [Cadenzas to piano concertos of Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart]. Edited by Reiner Weber. Edition Breikopf Nr. 8577. Weisbaden: Breitkoff & Härtel.

Wagner, R. (1900) Tristan and Isolde. Score by Hans Von Bülow, English Translation by H. and F. Corder. Leipzig: Breitkoff & Härtel.

For more information about in–text citation and referencing multiple authors, see Creating a citation and reference list and click on the relevant section.

In the text

For an in–text citation in your work, you would cite the reference as follows:

Sample (2014) highlights the research which has taken place...
The research was reported in the national news...(Sample, 2014)

In print

In the bibliography/reference list

Author Surname, Initial(s). (Year) 'Title of Article', Title of newspaper. Date (Day, Month). Page range.

Sample, I. (2014) 'Why an octopus never gets itself tied in knots', The Guardian, 16 May, p. 17.

Online/Electronic

In the bibliography/reference list

Author Surname, Initial(s). (Year) 'Title of article', Title of Newspaper, Date (Day Month), Page number (if available). Available at: URL or doi: (Accessed: date).

Sample, I. (2014) 'Why an octopus's suckers don't stick its arms together', The Guardian, 15 May. Available at: http://www.theguardian.com/science/2014/may/15/octopus-suckers-arms-chemical-skin (Accessed: 17 January 2015).

Newspaper database e.g. Nexis

If you have accessed an article via a password-protected institutional database, e.g. Nexis, you do not need to iclude the database details in the reference as it may not be accessible to everyone. Give enough detail in the reference for the reader to be able to find the article, e.g. as in the examples above.

For more information about in–text citation and referencing multiple authors, see Creating a citation and reference list and click on the relevant section.

For NICE Guidelines see Clinical Guidelines.

In the text

For an in-text citation, you would cite the reference as follows:

Hollis and Tan's helical gradient coil (2017)...
The helical gradient coil demonstrates...(Hollis and Tan, 2017)

Carter and Lawless (2010) show the gimbaled...
The gimbaled-shoulder design...(Carter and Lawless, 2010).

In the bibliography/reference list

Inventor(s) Surname, Initial(s). (Year patent granted) Title of patent. Authorising organisation Patent number. Available at: URL (Accessed: date).

Carter, R.W. and Lawless, K.G. (2010). Gimbaled-shoulder friction stir welding tool. United States Patent and Trademark Office Patent no. 7,686,202. Available at: https://patents.justia.com/patent/7686202 (Accessed: 12 April 2021).

Hollis, T.J. and Tan, F. (2017). Helical gradient coil for magnetic resonance imaging apparatus. UK Intellectual Property Office Patent no. GB2494259. Available at: https://www.ipo.gov.uk/p-find-publication-getPDF.pdf?PatentNo=GB2494259&DocType=B&JournalNumber=6664 (Accessed: 12 April 2021).

Notes

  • If using a patent retrieved from Espacenet you will need to ensure you use the correct patent code as they are not all European Patents. A European patent will have a code that begins with EP.

For more information about in–text citation and referencing multiple authors, see Creating a citation and reference list and click on the relevant section.

For Patient Information Leaflet see Information Sheet

This includes any personal communication you have had either physically or online, e.g. a face-to-face conversation, a phone conversation, a Skype or FaceTime conversation, an email, a text message, a letter or a fax.

In the text

For an in-text citation, you would cite the reference as follows:

In the conversation with Smith (2021)...
It was decided that the information would be included...(Smith, 2021)

In the bibliography/reference list

Sender/Speaker/Author Surname, Initial(s). (Year of communication) Medium of communication to/with Receiver of communication, Day/Month of communication.

Smith, S. (2019) Email to Jennifer Jones, 11 February.

Smith, S. (2020) Text message to Julia Carpenter, 28 June.

Smith, S. (2021) Skype conversation with Max Williams, 16 March.

Notes
  • You may need permission from anyone involved in the communication before using them in your work.

  • You may include a copy of written communications in your appendices.

For more information about in–text citation and referencing multiple authors, see Creating a citation and reference list and click on the relevant section.

For PhD Thesis see Thesis

For Photograph see Image – Original (e.g. in an art gallery, personal photograph)

In the text

Shakespeare (1984) displays the tragedy...
Romeo and Juliet (Shakespeare, 1984) uses...

Shakespeare (2010) shows the use of...
The Taming of the Shrew (Shakespeare, 2010)...

In the bibliography/reference list

Individual play

Author of play Surname, Initial(s). (Year of Publication) Title of play. Edition (if needed). Edited by Full Name. Place of publication: Publisher.

Shakespeare, W. (1984) Romeo and Juliet. Edited by G. Blakemore Evans. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Shakespeare, W. (2010) The Taming of the Shrew. Edited by Barbara Hodgson. London: Methuen Drama.

In an anthology/complete works

Author of play surname, Initial(s). (Year of publication) 'Title of play', in Editor(s) Surname(s), Initial(s). (ed or eds). Title of book. Edition (if not first edition). Place of publication: Publisher. Page numbers.

Shakespeare, W. (2007a) 'The taming of the shrew', in Bate, J. and Rasmussen, E. (eds.) William Shakespeare Complete Works. Basingstoke: Macmillan. pp. 526-583.

Shakespeare, W. (2007b) 'The tragedy of Romeo and Juliet', in Bate, J. and Rasmussen, E. (eds.) William Shakespeare Complete Works. Basingstoke: Macmillan. pp. 1679-1743.

If accessed online

Many ebooks look the same as a printed book in terms of pagination, publisher details, etc., so the in-text citation and reference will be in the same format as a print book; you do not need to include details of where you accessed it from online in the reference. Cite and reference plays in an electronic format as you would for plays in print books unless you have downloaded it onto an ereader and the pagination is not available:

For an e-reader (e.g. Kindle)

If the page numbers of an ebook are not available in the device you are using, use the information that is available, such as loc, %, chapter or paragraph if you need to identify a particular page/section for your in-text citation. The date that you downloaded it onto your electronic device is included at the end of the reference.

In the text

For an in–text citation in your work, you would cite the reference as follows:

Shakespeare (2021) explores the theme of jealousy...
Othello (Shakespeare, 2021) uses...

In the bibliography/reference list

Author of play Surname, Initial(s). (Year of Publication) Title of play. Edition (if needed). Available at: URL (Downloaded: date).

Shakespeare, W. (2021) Othello. Available at: https://www.amazon.co.uk/Othello-William-Shakespeare-ebook/dp/B095M94KCT/ref=sr_1_5? (Downloaded: 30 April 2021).

Notes
  • When directly quoting from a play, you should use Act.Scene:Line e.g. (Shakespeare 2007, 2.1:176-179)

  • The Year of publication is the year that the item you are referencing was published, rather than the year the play was written.

  • The Downloaded: date in the reference is the date that you downloaded the play onto your device.

For more information about in–text citation and referencing multiple authors, see Creating a citation and reference list and click on the relevant section.

In the text

For an in-text citation in your work, you would cite the reference as follows:

Bragg (2021) discusses the deciphering of hieroglyphics...
The role of Champollion...(Bragg, 2021).

Thompson (2021) discusses the history...
The use of blackface in Shakespeare...(Thompson, 2021).

The Centre for the History of the Emotions (2017) investigates...
The concept of what is normal...(Centre for the History of the Emotions, 2017).

In the bibliography/reference list

Surname of Author/Presenter, Initial(s). (Year site was published/last updated) Title of Podcast [Podcast]. Day/Month posted (if available). Available at: URL (Accessed: date).

Bragg, M. (2021) The Rosetta Stone [Podcast]. 11 February. Available at: https://www.bbc.co.uk/programmes/m000s2qd (Accessed: 22 May 2021).

Centre for the History of the Emotions (2017) The Museum of the Normal [Podcast]. Available at: https://soundcloud.com/user-357683788/the-museum-of-the-normal (Accessed: 24 May 2021).

Thompson, A. (2021) Blackface: a brief history [Podcast]. 12 May. Available at: https://www.historyextra.com/period/20th-century/blackface-history-podcast-ayanna-thompson/ (Accessed: 18 May 2021).

Notes
  • Reference where the podcast was published or displayed rather than referencing it as a download on your edevice.

  • If there is no author or presenter, use the name of the organisation who created it in place of Author/Presenter.

For more information about in–text citation and referencing multiple authors, see Creating a citation and reference list and click on the relevant section.

For Preprint see Journal Article – Preprint (Ahead of publication)

In the text

For an in-text citation in your work, you would cite the reference as follows:

Grant (2016) demonstrates the issues...
The artwork expresses the...(Grant, 2016).

Sciamanna, Bazela, and Bullingham (2016) presented the work surrounding...
The case study within the presentation focused on...(Sciamanna, Bazela, and Bullingham, 2016).

In the bibliography/reference list

Surname of presenter, Initial(s). (Year of presentation) 'Title of presentation' [Medium, e.g. PowerPoint presentation]. Name of event. Available at: URL (Accessed: date).

Grant, V. (2016) 'Voice, agency and the medical arts' [PowerPoint presentation]. Medical Arts Seminar, HRI, University of Sheffield. Available at: https://www.slideshare.net/missvagrant/voice-agency-and-the-medical-arts? (Accessed: 22 May 2017).

Sciamanna, C., Bazela, C. and Bullingham, L. (2016) 'Reconceptualising information and digital literacy in a fluid digital world' [PowerPoint presentation]. Northern Collaboration Conference 2016. Available from: https://www.slideshare.net/northerncollaboration/reconceptualising-information-and-digital-literacy-in-a-fluid-digital-world (Accessed: 18 May 2017).

For more information about in–text citation and referencing multiple authors, see Creating a citation and reference list and click on the relevant section.

[Top of page]

Q, R, S, T

In the text

For an in-text citation in your work, you would reference as follows:

World at One (2017) provided the update on...
The new head judge...(World at One, 2017)

Desert Island Discs: Bernardine Evaristo (2020) played the song...
The discussion with the Booker Prize-winning author...(Desert Island Discs: Bernardine Evaristo, 2020)

Recall of the Rock (2021) shares the oral history of women climbers...
Helen Mort's poem is interwoven with interviews... (Recall of the Rock, 2021).

In the bibliography/reference list

Original Broadcast

Title of programme (Year of transmission) Transmitting organisation or channel, Day/Month of transmission.

World at One (2017) BBC Radio 4, 9 May.

Original broadcast as part of a series

Title of show, episode number (if available), episode title (if available) (Year of transmission) Transmitting organisation or channel, Day/Month of transmission.

Desert Island Discs: Bernardine Evaristo (2020) BBC Radio 4, 25 September.

Broadcast accessed via online/database/streaming service.

Title of programme (Year of transmission) Transmitting organisation or channel, Day/Month of transmission. Available at: URL or name of streaming service/database (Accessed: date).

Recall of the Rock (2021) BBC Sounds, 11 April. Available at: https://www.bbc.co.uk/sounds/play/m000v2mr (Accessed: 13 April 2021).

Original broadcast as part of a series accessed via online/database/streaming service

Title of show, episode number (if available), episode title (if available) (Year of transmission) Transmitting organisation or channel, Day/Month of transmission. Available at: URL or name of streaming service/database (Accessed: date).

Desert Island Discs: David Olusoga (2021) BBC Radio 4, 15 January. Available at: https://www.bbc.co.uk/programmes/m000r314 (Accessed: 13 April 2021).

For more information about in–text citation and referencing multiple authors, see Creating a citation and reference list and click on the relevant section.

In the text

For an in-text citation in your work, you would cite the reference as follows:

Johnson and Fitzpatrick (2007) note that street users...
Enforcement areas for the problem...(Johnson and Fitzpatrick, 2007)

J Sainsbury (2016) acknowledged the amount of food waste...
Supermarkets are aware of the waste created due to...(J Sainsbury, 2016)

The Joseph Rowntree Foundation (2015) reported that...
...the supply of new homes would need to be sustainable (Joseph Rowntree Foundation, 2015)

Snowdon (2017) looked at the cost of healthy eating...
It was found that the cost of a healthy diet...(Snowdon, 2017)

Schonfeld and Sweeney (2019) note that art museums...
To reach and engage new audiences...(Schonfeld and Sweeney, 2019)

In the bibliography/reference list

Physical item

Author Surname, Initial(s) or Corporate Author (Year of publication) Title of report. Paper number (if applicable). Place of Publication: Publisher.

Johnson, S. and Fitzpatrick, S. (2007) The impact of enforcement on street users in England. Bristol: The Policy Press.

Online/Electronic with a URL

Author Surname, Initial(s) or Corporate Author (Year of publication) Title of report. Paper number (if applicable). Available at: URL (Accessed: date).

Joseph Rowntree Foundation (2015) Building sustainable homes. Available at: https://www.jrf.org.uk/file/46481/download?token=UXZzH3XM&filetype=full-report (Accessed: 4 May 2017).

J Sainsbury (2016) Sainsbury's food surplus and food waste: how we are delivering a positive impact. Available at: http://www.j-sainsbury.co.uk/media/3442510/Sainsbury's%20food%20surplus%20and%20food%20waste%20figures%2015-16%20report.pdf (Accessed: 4 May 2017).

Snowdon, C. (2017) Cheap as chips: Is a healthy diet affordable? IEA Discussion Paper No. 82. Available at: https://iea.org.uk/wp-content/uploads/2017/03/Cheap-as-Chips-PDF.pdf  (Accessed: 30 March 2017).

Online/Electronic with a DOI

What is a DOI?

If you are unsure if the item you are looking at has a DOI, please see the following page: DOIs and URLs which gives an explanation of the identifier.

Author Surname, Initial(s) or Corporate Author (Year of publication) Title of report. Paper number (if applicable). doi:

Schonfeld, R.C. and Sweeney, L. (2019) Organizing the work of the art museum. doi: https://doi.org/10.18665/sr.311731

Notes
  • For a report with a DOI you don't need to include "Available at" or "(Accessed: date)" in the reference as a DOI is a stable identifier and will not change, whereas a URL may change or be deleted so the extra information is needed to clarify where and when you found the report.
  • Always write DOI in lower case letters in your references, e.g. doi:
  • A DOI should be written with the prefix https://doi.org/ followed by the DOI number.
  • Never put a full stop after a DOI or URL as it may be assumed that it is part of the DOI or URL and prevent it from working.

For more information about in–text citation and referencing multiple authors, see Creating a citation and reference list and click on the relevant section.

The Bible

In the text

For an in-text citation in your work, you would cite the reference as follows:

Naomi's advice to her daughter-in-law (Ruth 2: 22)...

In the bibliography/reference list

Book of the Bible Chapter: verse, Holy Bible. Version of the Holy Bible.

Ruth 2: 22, Holy Bible. King James Version.

Notes
  • The author is not required as this may not be clear.
  • The page numbers are not required as these will vary between printings.
  • The publisher and publication date are not required.

The Torah

In the text

For an in-text citation in your work, you would cite the reference as follows:

Helping those in need (Devarim 15: 11)...

In the bibliography/reference list

Torah. Book Chapter: verse.

Torah. Devarim 15: 11.

Notes
  • The author is not required as this may not be clear.
  • The page numbers are not required as these will vary between printings.
  • The publisher and publication date are not required.

The Qur'an

In the text

For an in-text citation in your work, you would cite the reference as follows:

"Give what you can spare." (Qur'an 2: 219)

In the bibliography/reference list

Qur'an Surah (or chapter): verse (Year of publication) Translated by Surname, Initial(s). Place of publication: Publisher.

Qur'an 2: 219 (2008) Translated by Abdel Haleem, M.A.S. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Notes
  • The page numbers are not required as these will vary between printings.

For more information about in–text citation and referencing multiple authors, see Creating a citation and reference list and click on the relevant section.

For score see Music - Score

In the text

For an in–text citation in your work, you would cite the reference as follows:

Keegan's (1991) sculpture shows the use of raku–fired earthenware...
The sculpture Newby the Dog (Keegan, 1991)...

The sculpture of Neptune and Triton by Bernini (no date) shows the use of...
The marble sculpture of Neptune and Triton (Bernini, no date)...

In the bibliography/reference list

Physical item

Surname of artist, initial(s). (Year) Title [Sculpture]. Place, Gallery or Name of collection, department (if available), identifier or reference number (if available).

Bernini, G. (no date) Neptune and Triton [Sculpture]. London, Victoria and Albert Museum, A.18:1–1950.

Keegan, S. (1991) Newby the dog [Sculpture]. London, Victoria and Albert Museum, C.196:1, 2–1991.

Online

See Images and Figures

Notes
  • If there is no clear title to the item, a popular title may be used if one exists. If a popular title to the image does not exist then you will need to supply the item with a title, in square brackets, providing the following where possible
    • The subject matter
    • The name or place of the object depicted, i.e. the person, the building, the location, etc.
  • If no date can be found then you would use (no date).
  • The original title of a translated information resource, or a translation of the title, may be supplied immediately after the original title, e.g. Kinderhände im washbecken [Children's Hands in a Washbasin]
  • If the artwork has a popular or traditional title, then you may use this, e.g. Mona Lisa.

For more information about in–text citation and referencing multiple authors, see Creating a citation and reference list and click on the relevant section.

In the text

For an in-text citation you would cite the reference as follows:

Uni of Sheffield Library (2017) celebrated the opening of the...
The anniversary of the Western Bank Library was marked on social media (Uni of Sheffield Library, 2017).

University of Sheffield Library (2017) marked the first library opening at the university...
The first library at the University opened in 1909 (University of Sheffield Library, 2017).

In the bibliography/reference list:

Name of Creator Surname, Initial(s). or Screen name if proper name not available (Year) Title of message - up to 40 words [Medium] Day/Month of post. Available at: URL (Accessed: date).

Uni of Sheffield Library (2017) On this day in 1959, our Western Bank Library (then called the 'Main Library') was officially opened by T.S. Eliot http://www.sheffield.ac.uk/library/special/libcoll ... [Twitter] 12 May. Available at: https://twitter.com/UniSheffieldLib/status/862945694457274368 (Accessed 15 May 2017).

University of Sheffield Library (2017) On this day, in 1909, the first library opened at the University of Sheffield [Facebook] 26 April. Available at: https://www.facebook.com/UniSheffieldLib/posts/1346273698788324 (Accessed 15 May 2017).

Notes
  • You are not required to ask permission from anyone involved in the post/conversation before using them in your work, but you may wish to do so as a courtesy. You are only required to do so if the conversation occurred in a private context (locked Twitter accounts, members-only forums, etc.).
  • You may need to provide a title for the social media post if there is not one provided. Use up to the first 40 words of the post in square brackets as the title.
  • It is acceptable to use the main page URL of the social media platform in your reference if the post is not openly accessible to everyone, e.g. use https://www.facebook.com/ as the URL in your reference if you are referring to a discussion between yourself and another member of Facebook that is not open to everyone to view.
  • If the post is not accessible to everyone, you may include a copy of any discussions between yourself and another member of a social media platform as an appendix to your work.

For more information about in–text citation and referencing multiple authors, see Creating a citation and reference list and click on the relevant section.

In the text

For an in-text citation in your work, you would cite the reference as follows:

The British Standards Institution (2017) have produced updated guidelines...
The use of BS 8888:2017 (British Standards Institution, 2017)...

The ASTM (2012) standard...
The standard specification for...(ASTM, 2012).

In the bibliography/reference list

Physical item

Corporate Author (Year of publication) Number of Standard: Title of Standard. Place of publication: Publisher.

ASTM (2012) A53/A53M-12: Standard specification for pipe, steel, black and hot-dipped, zinc-coated, welded and seamless. West Conshohocken, PA: ASTM International.

British Standards Institution (2017) BS 8888:2017: Technical product documentation and specification. London: British Standards Publications.

Online/Electronic

Corporate Author (Year of publication) Number of standard: Title of Standard. Available at: URL (Accessed: date).

ASTM (2020) A53/A53M-20: Standard specification for pipe, steel, black and hot-dipped, zinc-coated, welded and seamless. Available at: https://www.astm.org/Standards/A53.htm (Accessed: 13 April 2021).

British Standards Institution (2019) BS 8888:2020: Technical product documentation and specification. Available at: https://bsol.bsigroup.com/Bibliographic/BibliographicInfoData/000000000030384746 (Accessed: 13 April 2021).

For more information about in–text citation and referencing multiple authors, see Creating a citation and reference list and click on the relevant section.

For State Paper see Government Publication – Command Paper

For Statutory Instruments see Government Publication – Statutory Instruments

For study score see Music Score

For Tables see Images and Figures

In the text

For an in–text citation in your work, you would cite the reference as follows:

Wilson (2014) notes that whilst Rage Against the Machine signed with a major record label, their music still holds the intended meaning to the audience...
Popular music is still relevant to society when it makes a political statement even though the artist may be signed to a major record label... (Wilson, 2014).

In the bibliography/reference list

Author Surname, Initial(s) (Year) Title. Award and Type of qualification. Awarding body.

Wilson, B. (2014) It sounds like revolution: the changing role of popular music within political resistance movements. PhD thesis. University of Sheffield.

For more information about in–text citation and referencing multiple authors, see Creating a citation and reference list and click on the relevant section.

In the text

For an in–text citation in your work, you would cite the reference as follows:

Tomlinson (2009) found that differing amounts of grip...
Moisture can affect grip when examining...(Tomlinson, 2009)

In the bibliography/reference list

Author Surname, Initial(s). (Year) Title. Award and Type of qualification. Awarding body. Available at: URL (Accessed: date).

Tomlinson, S.E. (2009) Understanding the friction between human fingers and contacting surfaces. PhD thesis. University of Sheffield. Available at: http://etheses.whiterose.ac.uk/150 (Accessed: 14 October 2015).

For more information about in–text citation and referencing multiple authors, see Creating a citation and reference list and click on the relevant section.

For Television Programme see Video

In the text

For an in–text citation in your work, you would cite the reference as follows:

Tolstoy (2008) explores the story of...
Anna Karenina (Tolstoy, 2008) tells the story of...

Homer (1997) presents the tale...
The Odyssey (Homer, 1997) demonstrates...

Dostoyevsky (2003) shows the dilemmas...
The character of Raskolnikov...(Dostoyevsky, 2003).

In the bibliography/reference list

Physical item

Author Surname, Initials. (Date of publication) Title of item. Edition (if not the first). Translated from the (language) by (Translator(s) Initial(s) and Surname). Place of Publication: Publisher.

Homer (1997) The Odyssey. Translated by R. Fagles. Introduction and notes by B. Knox. New York: Penguin.

Tolstoy, L. (2008) Anna Karenina. Translated from the Russian by L. Maude and A. Maude. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

If accessed online

Many ebooks look the same as a printed book in terms of pagination, publisher details, etc., so the in-text citation and reference will be in the same format as a print book; you do not need to include details of where you accessed it from online in the reference. Cite and reference books in an electronic format as you would for books in print books unless you have downloaded it onto an ereader and the pagination is not available:

For an e-reader (e.g. Kindle)

If the page numbers of an ebook are not available in the device you are using, use the information that is available, such as loc, %, chapter or paragraph if you need to identify a particular page/section for your in-text citation. The date that you downloaded it onto your electronic device is included at the end of the reference.

Author Surname, Initials. (Date of publication). Title of item. Edition (if needed). Translated from the (language) by (Translators full name). Available at: URL (Downloaded: date).

Dostoyevsky, F. (2003) Crime and punishment. Rev. edn. Translated from the Russian by David McDuff. Available at: https://www.amazon.co.uk/Punishment-Penguin-Classics-Fyodor-Dostoyevsky-ebook/dp/B002RI936U/ref=sr_1_4? (Downloaded 30 April 2021).

Tolstoy, L. (2019). Anna Karenina. Translated from the Russian by Constance Garnett. Available at: https://www.amazon.co.uk/Anna-Karenina-AmazonClassics-Leo-Tolstoy-ebook/dp/B07YWRTHMC/ref=sr_1_4? (Downloaded: 30 April 2021).

Notes
  • The year of publication is for that specific item, as there may be different translations of the same item available.

  • You may not need to add the language the item is translated from, but include the language if appropriate.

  • The Downloaded: date in the reference is the date that you downloaded the book onto your device.

For more information about in–text citation and referencing multiple authors, see Creating a citation and reference list and click on the relevant section.

For Transliteration of items see Citing and referencing foreign language materials in the section Creating a citation and reference list.

For Twitter see Social Media

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U, V, W, X, Y, Z

For UK Public General Act see Government Publication – Act of Parliament

For Undergraduate dissertation see Dissertation

In the bibliography/reference list

For an in-text citation in your work, you would cite the reference as follows:

Hall (2011) noted that the changes...
...the changes that occured meant...(Hall, 2011).

In the bibliography/reference list

Author Surname, Initial(s). or Corporate author (Date) Title of item. Place of holding organisation: Holding organisation. Unpublished.

Hall, D. (2011) Making sense of changes. Sheffield: University of Sheffield. Unpublished.

For more information about in–text citation and referencing multiple authors, see Creating a citation and reference list and click on the relevant section.

Film/One-off documentary

In the text

For an in-text citation in your work, you would cite the reference as follows:

Black Swan (2010) used imagery to represent...
The hidden images contained in the film...(Black Swan, 2010)

The premise of Captain America: The Winter Soldier (2014)...
The use of green screen in the film (Captain America: The Winter Soldier, 2014)...

In the bibliography/reference list
For a film/documentary viewed at the cinema

Title of Film/Documentary (Year of distribution) Directed by Initial(s). Surname [Film]. Place of distribution: Distribution Company.

Captain America: The Winter Soldier (2014) Directed by A. Russo and J. Russo [Film]. New York: Marvel Entertainment.

For a film/documentary viewed on DVD or Blu-ray

Title of Film/Documentary (Year of distribution) Directed by Initial(s). Surname [DVD] or [Blu-ray]. Place of distribution: Distribution Company.

Black Swan (2010) Directed by D. Aronofsky [Blu-ray]. Los Angeles: Fox Searchlight Pictures.

TV Episode from a series

In the text

For an in-text citation in your work, you would cite the reference as follows:

The detectives Bulk and McNulty revisit an old crime scene...('Old Cases', 2002)
...in the episode 'Old Cases' (2002)

The episode uses visions to reveal the events...('The Door', 2016)
..In 'The Door' (2016) we see the visualisation of...

In the bibliography/reference list

'Title of Episode' (Year of distribution) Title of Programme/Series In Title of compilation or box-set [DVD] or [Blu-ray] Place of distribution: Distribution company.

'Old Cases' (2005) The Wire In The Wire: the complete first season [DVD] New York: HBO.

'The Door' (2016) Game of Thrones In Game of Thrones: the complete sixth season [Blu-ray] New York: HBO.

For more information about in–text citation and referencing multiple authors, see Creating a citation and reference list and click on the relevant section.

This includes Films and TV Series or Episodes that you have viewed via subscription services such as Netflix, Amazon Prime Video, Now TV, etc., and catch-up services such as Box of Broadcasts, BBC iPlayer, All 4, My 5, etc.

Film

In the text

For an in-text citation in your work, you would cite the reference as follows:

Portrait of a Lady on Fire (2019) is set in 18th century France...
...the film (Portrait of a Lady on Fire, 2019) was written and directed by...

An unofficial segregation policy is uncovered in Small Axe: Education (2020)...
...the film (Small Axe: Education, 2020) is part of a series directed by...

The use of mirrors in Atlantics (2019)...
...the film (Atlantics, 2019) was co-written and directed by...

In the bibliography/reference list

Title of Film (Year of distribution) Directed by Initial(s). Surname. Available at: Name of service (Accessed: date).

Atlantics (2019) Directed by M. Diop. Available at: Netflix (Accessed: 25 May 2021).

Portrait of a Lady on Fire (2019) Directed by C. Sciamma. Available at: MUBI (Accessed: 15 April 2020).

Small Axe: Education (2020) Directed by S. McQueen. Available at: Box of Broadcasts (Accessed: 25 May 2021).

Current Affairs Programme

In the text

For an in-text citation in your work, you would cite the reference as follows:

The BBC News at Six (2021) covered the story...
When this news story was first reported (BBC News at Six, 2021)

The Year Britain Stopped (2021) chronicles...
Frontline workers and scientists tell their stories...(The Year Britain Stopped, 2021)

In the bibliography/reference list

Title of Programme (Year of original broadcast) Name of Channel, Day/Month, Time of broadcast. Available at: Name of Streaming Service (Accessed: date).

BBC News at Six (2021) BBC One, 20 May, 18:00. Available at: BBC iPlayer (Accessed: 21 May 2021).

The Year Britain Stopped (2021) Channel 4, 24 May, 21:00. Available at: All 4 (Accessed: 27 May 2021).

TV Episode from a series

In the text

For an in-text citation in your work, you would cite the reference as follows:

The first episode of Stranger Things, 'The Vanishing of Will Byers' (2016), uses aspects of...
The monster makes a first appearance...('The Vanishing of Will Byers', 2016)

In the episode 'Cooper's Dream' (1990) the stage is set for...
Agent Cooper visits the Log Lady ('Cooper's Dream', 1990) which represents...

In the bibliography/reference list

'Title of Episode' (Year of original broadcast/release) Title of Series/Season, Series/Season and episode numbers OR day/month (if available). Production Company. Available at: Name of streaming service. (Accessed: date).

'Cooper's Dream' (1990) Twin Peaks, Season 1, episode 6. Propaganda Films. Available at: NowTV (Accessed: 29 December 2016).

'The Vanishing of Will Byers' (2016) Stranger Things, Season 1, episode 1. 21 Laps Entertainment. Available at: Netflix (Accessed 29 December 2016).

For more information about in–text citation and referencing multiple authors, see Creating a citation and reference list and click on the relevant section.

This includes sharing platforms such as YouTube, Vimeo, IGTV, TED, etc.

In the text

For an in-text citation in your work, you would cite the reference as follows:

YouTube Movies (2016) have...
Doctor Strange (YouTube Movies, 2016) shows the...

The University of Sheffield (2019) have created...
Campus Tour (The University of Sheffield, 2019) takes a tour of the campus...

Climate and data scientist Angel Hsu (2020) gave a TED Talk...
In Cities are driving climate change. Here's how they can fix it (Hsu, 2020, 3:47) she observes the disparities...

In the bibliography/reference list

Name of Person/Organisation posting video (Year video posted) Title of Film. Day/Month uploaded (if available). Available at: URL (Accessed: date) or doi:

Hsu, A. (2020) Cities are driving climate change. Here's how they can fix it. October. Available at: https://www.ted.com/talks/angel_hsu_cities_are_driving_climate_change_here_s_how_they_can_fix_it (Accessed: 27 May 2021).

The University of Sheffield (2019) Campus Tour. 5 June. Available at: https://www.instagram.com/tv/ByVQviAhJ9i/ (Accessed: 27 May 2021).

YouTube Movies (2016) Doctor Strange. 24 February. Available at: https://youtu.be/bLaKpGUsMmU (Accessed: 27 May 2021).

Notes
  • For a TED Talk, use the name of the speaker in the video as the Name of Person/Organisation in your reference and in-text citation.
  • If you need to refer to a specific place within a video, include the time stamp in your in-text citation in the format minutes:seconds, e.g. (YouTube Movies, 2016, 18:33).

For more information about in–text citation and referencing multiple authors, see Creating a citation and reference list and click on the relevant section.

For Vinyl Record see Music - Album (Physical Format) or Music - Album Track (Physical Format)

Only reference a source as a web page if the source does not fall into another category, such as journal article, conference proceedings, report, blog, image, etc.

Web page with an individual author

In the text

For an in–text citation in your work, you would cite the reference as follows:

In Michael Rosen's biography (2021)...
He began writing poetry at the age of twelve...(Rosen, 2021)

In the bibliography/reference list

Author Surname, Initial(s). (Year site was published/last updated) Title of web page. Available at: URL (Accessed: date).

Rosen, M. (2021) Michael Rosen Biography. Available at: https://www.michaelrosen.co.uk/for-adults-biography/ (Accessed: 26 April 2021).

Web page with a group or organisation as author

In the text

For an in–text citation in your work, you would cite the reference as follows:

The NHS (2019) lists the main symptoms...
The causes of diabetes...(NHS, 2019)

In the bibliography/reference list

Group or Corporate author (Year site was published/last updated) Title of web page. Available at: URL (Accessed: date).

NHS (2019) Diabetes. Available at: https://www.nhs.uk/conditions/diabetes/ (Accessed: 26 April 2021).

Web page with no author

In the text

For an in–text citation in your work, you would cite the reference as follows:

The Grey to Green Sheffield project (2016) has had national recognition...
A sustainable drainage system was used...(Grey to Green Sheffield, 2016)

In the bibliography/reference list

Title of web page (Year site was published/last updated). Available at: URL (Accessed: date).

Grey to Green Sheffield (2016). Available at: http://www.greytogreen.org.uk/index.html (Accessed: 26 April 2021).

Notes
  • If a web page has no author, use the title of the page in italics in place of the author for both the in-text citation and the reference.
  • If the Corporate Author is well known by an abbreviation, for the first time you cite the resource write out the name in full followed by the abbreviation in round brackets, then use just the abbreviation for second and further citations, e.g. for the first citation use (National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE), 2016) or National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE), (2016). The second and further citations would then read (NICE, 2016) or NICE (2016).
  • You can then use the abbreviation in your reference list rather than writing out the name in full.
  • If you cannot find the date that the web page was published or last updated, use (no date).

For more information about in–text citation and referencing multiple authors, see Creating a citation and reference list and click on the relevant section.

If you are not citing specific information or a specific page from a website you do not need to create an in-text citation or a reference for it.

When mentioning a website within your text, provide the name of the website followed by the URL in parentheses, e.g.

Participants were surveyed using SurveyMonkey (https://www.surveymonkey.co.uk).

For more information about in–text citation and referencing multiple authors, see Creating a citation and reference list and click on the relevant section.

For White Paper see Government Publication – Command Paper

For YouTube videos see Video - Sharing Website (e.g. YouTube)

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