Vancouver referencing

Reference list vs. Bibliography

In the Vancouver style, references are listed at the end of your work, and are organised numerically in order of reference.

A reference list includes all works that have been referred to in the assignment.

A bibliography includes all the material consulted in writing your assignment even if you have not cited them within it.

Many people use these terms interchangeably so, if you are unsure about whether you need to include a bibliography as well as a reference list, ask your tutor.


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Vancouver is a numerical style of referencing designed by the National Library of Medicine's (NLM) International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE). It is widely used in medicine and the clinical sciences. Further details of Vancouver referencing can be found from the NLM's Citing Medicine Style Guide. Some elements of the standard offer a choice of approaches; ensure that you use a consistent standard in your own work. The examples given in this tutorial are based on the University Library's interpretation of the standard.

Referencing in the Vancouver style is a two-part process:

Creating a citation and reference list

When using a theory or an idea in your work, a reference number will need to be added in parentheses, e.g. (1), (2). Alternatively, numbers can be added in superscript, e.g. 1. Numbers are added sequentially for each new citation, and the number should be included in the punctuation of the sentence.

If you are referring to an author's work and are using their name then you would add the number after the name, e.g. Smith (1) recommends the use of...
or Smith1 recommends the use of...

If you use more than one source at the same time, you can cite them in the same set of parentheses and separate them with a comma, e.g. (1,2). or 1, 2

If using three or more sources that have consecutive citation numbers, then a dash can be used to abbreviate, e.g. (1-3, 5, 7-9), or 1-3, 5, 7-9.

If you are using the same reference more than once in your work, it will keep the same number all the way through, e.g. Smith (1) will be (1) all the way through your work.

Quoting

Quoting is when you use the exact phrase or wording of the original author. Try not to be over reliant on quotations, as this may show a lack of understanding of the subject area being studied.

Short Quotations

A short quotation is up to 40-50 words in length, this can be included in the body of the text:

Galley suggests that "the art of fluid administration and haemodynamic support is one of the most challenging aspects of current critical care practice". 1(p. vii) What this means is...

Long Quotations

A long quotation is a quotation which is longer than 50 words. Long quotations should be presented as follows:

  • Presented as a new paragraph with a clear line above and below
  • Indented from the left margin.
  • Do not use quotation marks
  • At the end of the quotation, include the citation number and the page number e.g. 2 (p. 68) or (2, p. 68).

Young and Boulton argue that in neuropathic diabetic patients:

the absence of symptoms must never be equated with absence of risk of ulceration. Patients may also have a curious indifference to the condition of their feet, which can be likened to sensory inattention, and this can make the importance of education about foot care difficult to impress upon them. 3 (p. 68)

This can mean that...

Omitting parts of a quotation

You can also omit parts of the quotation; this is indicated by using three dots inside a square bracket [...]. It is not necessary to use this at the beginning or end of a quotation, as almost all quotes are taken from a larger context, and this will be presumed, e.g.

Durrington states that "women have fewer heart attacks than men [...] similar death rates occur in women about 10 years later than in men".3 (p. 5) This argument...

In the bibliography / reference list:

1. Galley HF. Blood and blood transfusions. London: BMJ Books; 2002. 85 p.

2. Young MJ, Boulton AJ. The diabetic foot. In: Sinclair A, Finucane P, editors. Diabetes in old age. 2nd ed. Chichester: Wiley; 2001. p. 67-87.

3. Durrington PN. Preventative cardiology. London: Taylor & Francis: 2003. 78 p.

Paraphrasing means putting someone else's ideas into your own words. It does not mean just changing a word here or there, or even a sentence or two if the phrasing of the original is still evident. The paraphrase should clearly be a restatement of the meaning of the original text in your own words.

When you are paraphrasing, or referring indirectly to a secondary source without making a direct quotation, the statements will need to be referenced, and the page numbers should be given.

Patients with neuropathic diabetes may not see the need for taking extra care of their feet, and can be prone to ulceration without any symptoms preceding to warn of this risk. 1(p. 68)

Reference list

1. Young MJ, Boulton AJ. The diabetic foot. In: Sinclair A, Finucane P, editors. Diabetes in old age. 2nd ed. Chichester: Wiley; 2001. p. 67-87.

Secondary referencing is when one author is referring to the work of another and the primary source is not available. You should always try to follow up the original reference, and read the work for yourself. However, if the primary source is not available, you can make use of the phrase 'cited in' to acknowledge that the reference is a secondary reference.

Secondary referencing should be avoided where possible.

If you have only read the later publication, you are accepting someone else's opinion and interpretation of the author's original intention. You cannot have formed your own view or critically appraised whether the second author has adequately presented the original material. You must make it clear to your reader which author you have read whilst giving the details of the original:

Date and Cornwall, cited in Faltermeyer stated that... .5

In the Reference list, you should only give the full reference for the source you read.

5. Faltermeyer TS. Working towards quality: developing an approved course. Complimentary Therapies in Nursing and Midwifery. 1995; 1(5)138-142.

A reference list of items cited is located at the end of the document, starting on a new page.

The general rules for creating a list are:

  • The references are arranged in numerical order rather than alphabetical.
  • Include a maximum of six contributors when referencing a journal or conference papers/proceedings, include a maximum of three contributors in all other references. If the item has more than three/six contributors, follow the last name with a comma and et al.
  • List contributors as they appear in the text.
  • Author/Editor surnames should be given first, followed by a space and then a maximum of two initials given without a space. Commas are used to separate author names, e.g. Smith GA, Johnson T, Turner PW, et al.
  • Anonymous works should start with a title.
  • Capitalise only the first word, acronyms, proper nouns, and proper adjectives.
  • Each reference should end with a full stop unless it is a link or DOI.
  • For journals and online references, the month should be abbreviated to three letters, e.g. Jan, Feb, Mar, Apr, May, Jun, Jul, Aug, Sept, Oct, Nov, Dec.
  • For journals, the journal title should be abbreviated; sources for this are available from NLM's Citing Medicine Style Guide: Abbreviation rules for journal titles.
General guidance
  • Romanise the names of authors.
  • Romanise book titles, journal article titles, journal titles, chapter titles, etc. If possible, include a translation after the romanised title.
  • If a translation of a title is provided, enclose it in square brackets after the romanised title.
  • When including city of publication, use the English form of the name if possible, if not romanise.
  • Romanise the name of the publisher. If possible, include a translation, and enclose in square brackets after the romanised publisher unless the translation is given in the book.
  • State the original language at the end of the reference, followed by a full stop.
  • Romanise the name of all government agencies. If possible, follow a non-English name with a translation and enclose in square brackets.
Notes
  • If a title starts with a Greek letter or some other symbol that cannot be reproduced with the fonts available, substitute the name for the symbol, e.g. Ω becomes Omega.
  • If the translated title has punctuation other than a full-stop at the end, include this within the square brackets, and a full stop outside of the square brackets e.g. ?].
General guidance
  • Romanise the names of authors.
  • Romanise or translate book titles, journal article titles, journal titles, chapter titles, etc.
  • If you only provide a translation, this should be enclosed in square brackets.
  • If possible, romanise and provide a translation book titles, journal article titles, journal titles, chapter titles, etc.
  • If you provide a translation after romanisation, enclose the translation it in square brackets after the romanised title.
  • When including city of publication, use the English form of the name if possible, if not romanise.
  • Romanise the name of the publisher. If possible, include a translation, and enclose in square brackets after the romanised publisher unless the translation is given in the book
  • State the original language at the end of the reference, followed by a full stop.
  • Romanise the name of all government agencies. If possible, follow a non-English name with a translation and enclose in square brackets.
Notes
  • If a title starts with a Greek letter or some other symbol that cannot be reproduced with the fonts available, substitute the name for the symbol, e.g. Ω becomes Omega.
  • If the translated title has punctuation other than a full-stop at the end, include this within the square brackets, and a full stop outside of the square brackets e.g. ?].
General guidance
  • Provide the title in the original language, if possible, include a translation and enclose in square brackets after the original title.
  • Use the English form for names of cities and countries when possible
  • Use the English form for names of cities and countries when possible. However, the name as found on the publication may always be used.
  • You may follow the publisher's name with a translation; add this in square brackets unless the name is given in the publication.
  • State the original language at the end of the reference followed by a full-stop.
  • Give names of Government Agencies as they appear in the publication. Whenever possible follow a non-English name with a translation. Place all translations in square brackets after the original name.
Notes
  • If a title starts with a Greek letter or some other symbol that cannot be reproduced with the fonts available, substitute the name for the symbol, e.g. Ω becomes Omega.
  • If the translated title has punctuation other than a full-stop at the end, include this within the square brackets, and a full stop outside of the square brackets e.g. ?].

For items presented in two equal languages, such as Canadian materials which may be printed in both official languages of English and French in the same publication

General guidance
  • For items printed in two equal languages give all titles in the order that they appear in the text. Separate the titles with an equals (=) sign. Put the languages at the end of the reference followed by a full-stop.

Items printed in more than one language

General guidance
  • If the article is written in English and another language, give the English version of the title.
  • If non of the published languages are English, translate the title which appears first and place the translation in square brackets.
  • List all languages of publication, separated by commas, after the pagination/DOI/URL.

Frequently referenced items

For a full list of items see Alphabetical list of items

In the reference list

Number of reference. Author(s). Title. Edition (if not first edition). Secondary author (if needed, e.g. translator). Place of publication: Publisher; Year of publication. Pagination.

1. Bryman A. Social research methods. 3rd ed. Oxford: Oxford University Press; 2008. 748 p.

Notes
  • If adding a secondary author, such as a translator, they should follow the same format as the author, e.g. Smith A, translator.
  • For more information about in-text citation, and creating a reference list see Creating a citation and reference list and click on the relevant section.
In the reference list

Number of reference. Author(s). Title. Edition (if not first edition). Secondary author (if needed, e.g. translator). Place of publication: Publisher; Year of publication. Pagination.

2. Martini F, Bartholomew EF. Essentials of anatomy and physiology. 6th ed. Harlow: Pearson; 2014. 809 p.

Notes
  • If adding a secondary author, such as a translator, they should follow the same format as the author, e.g. Smith A, translator.
  • For more information about in-text citation, and creating a reference list see Creating a citation and reference list and click on the relevant section.

Chapter in a book

In the reference list

Number of reference. Author(s). Title. Edition (if not first edition). Secondary author (if needed, e.g. translator). Place of publication: Publisher; Year of publication. Chapter number, Chapter title; Page range.

5. Field A. Discovering statistics using IBM SPSS statistics: and sex and drugs and rock 'n' roll. 4th ed. London: Sage; 2013. Chapter 5, The beast of bias; p. 163-213.

Chapter in an edited book

In the reference list

Number of reference. Chapter author(s). Chapter title. In: Editor(s). Title. Edition (if not first edition). Secondary author (if needed, e.g. translator). Place of publication: Publisher; Year of publication. Pagination.

6. Eberle TS, Maeder C. Organizational ethnography. In: Silverman D, editor. Qualitative research: issues of theory, method and practice. 3rd ed. London: SAGE; 2011. p. 53-73.

Notes
  • If adding a secondary author, such as a translator, they should follow the same format as the author, e.g. Smith A, translator.
  • For more information about in-text citation, and creating a reference list see Creating a citation and reference list and click on the relevant section.

Image with author and title provided

Number of reference. Author. Title [type of medium]. Place of Publication: Publisher; Date [Date Cited]. Available from: URL or doi:

47. Mayerle G. George Mayerle test chart [Image on internet]. [San Francisco]: Schmidt Litho. Co.; circa 1907 [cited 2018 Jul 18]. Available from: http://resource.nlm.nih.gov/101573841

Image without author or title

Number of reference. [Description of image] [Type of medium]. Place of publication: Publisher; Date. [Date Cited]. Available from: URL or doi:

48. [Man with herpes zoster] [Image on internet]. Bethseda MD: US National Library of Medicine, National Institute of Health, Health & Human Services; [2010?] [cited 2018 Jul 18]. Available from: http://resource.nlm.nih.gov/101596477

Notes
  • No official guidance for online images
  • For more information about creating a reference list and citing foreign language materials see Creating a citation and reference list and click on the relevant section.
  • The role of author refers to the artist (e.g. engraver) or photographer responsible for creating the work. A printer is not considered an author.
  • You may include the role of the author, separating the name from the role with a comma. E.g. Smith A, engraver.
  • If there are multiple authors, separate the names with roles separate each authors' name and role with a semicolon, e.g. Smith A, engraver; Jones B, photographer.
  • If a person or corporation cannot be identified as the author, omit the author and start the reference with the title. Do not use anonymous.
  • If a title cannot be identified, add a description with enough details to make a meaningful title and enclose in square brackets, e.g. [Left foot with scarring] [photograph].
  • Include the type of medium, e.g. [poster], [photograph], [print], after the title.
  • Collections of images may include more than one medium, place them in square brackets separated by a + sign, e.g. [photographs + posters].
  • If a place of publication cannot be identified, but can be inferred with reasonable accuracy, include in square brackets, e.g. [Sheffield].
  • If a place of publication cannot be identified or inferred use [place unknown].
  • When identifying the publisher, do not use the distributor of the image. You may use the term Available from: and list the distributor after, at the end of the reference, e.g. Available from: Name of distributor.
  • If you cannot find a date of publication, you may use date of copyright. Use a lower case 'c' or © to identify that you have used a date of copyright, e.g. c1984 or ©1984.
  • If you cannot find a date of publication or ascertain a date of copyright, you can use an estimated date and place the information in square brackets, e.g. [1984?]
  • If you are unable to identify an estimated date, but know an estimated date range, precede the date range with 'circa', e.g. circa 1890s, or circa 1900.
  • For the location of a collection of items, include the name of the holding institution preceded by the holding department, e.g. Special Collections, University of Sheffield Library, Sheffield, GB.
In the reference list

Number of reference. Author(s). Article title. Journal title. Date of publication; Volume(Issue):Page number.

10. Longo DL, Armitage JO. Controversies in the treatments of early-stage Hodgkin's lymphoma. N Engl J Med. 2015 Apr 23; 372(17):1667-9.

Notes
  • For more information about in-text citation, and creating a reference list see Creating a citation and reference list and click on the relevant section.
  • Cite the version you saw, if you looked at the print version then do not cite the electronic version.
  • Cite the journal name used at the time of publication.
  • Do not include the header, e.g. News, Case Report, etc.
  • If there are more than six authors, list 6 and then use et al.
  • Abbreviate the journal title; sources for this are available from NLM's Citing Medicine Style Guide: Abbreviation rules for journal titles.
  • If an issue number is not available, use the volume number and follow with a colon and the page numbers.
  • Sometimes a special number, supplement, or part will further divide the issue of a journal. These are referenced as follows:
    • Supplement e.g. 2015 Apr 23; 372(17 Suppl):1667-9.
    • Part e.g. 2015 Apr 23; 372(17 Pt A):1667-9.
    • Special Number e.g. 2015 Apr 23; 372(17 Spec No):1667-9.
In the reference list

Number of reference. Author(s). Article title. Journal title [Source e.g. Internet]. Date of publication [Date of citation]; Volume(Issue):Page numbers. DOI:

11. Birnbaum AD, French DD, Miraeidi M, Wehrli S. Sarcoidosis in the national veteran population: association of ocular inflammation and mortality. Ophthalmology [Internet]. 2015 May [cited 2015 May 20]; 122(5):934-8. doi: 10.1016/j.ophtha.2015.01.003

Notes
  • For more information about in-text citation, and creating a reference list see Creating a citation and reference list and click on the relevant section.
  • Cite the version you looked at; if you looked at the electronic version then do not cite the paper version.
  • Cite the journal name used at the time of publication.
  • Do not include the header, e.g. News, Case Report, etc.
  • If there are more than six authors, list 6 and then use et al.
  • Abbreviate the journal title; sources for this are available from NLM's Citing Medicine Style Guide: Abbreviation rules for journal titles.
  • If an issue number is not available, use the volume number followed by a colon and the page numbers.
  • Sometimes a special number, supplement, or part will further divide the issue of a journal. These are referenced as follows:
    • Supplement e.g. 2015 May [cited 2015 May 20]; 122(5 Suppl):934-98.
    • Part e.g. 2015 May [cited 2015 May 20]; 122(5 Pt A):934-38.
    • Special Number e.g. 2015 May [cited 2015 May 20]; 122(5 Spec No):934-8.
  • Pagination is not always available on ejournals.
  • If the article is in PDF format, count the total numbers of page in the PDF. Place the amount of pages in square brackets followed by p where you would put the pagination, use a full stop after the closed bracket. E.g. 122(5):[4 p.].
  • If the article is in XML, HTML, or another format; you should count the screens, paragraphs, or how many pages it would print out on. E.g.
    • 122(5):[about 3 screens].
    • 122(5):[about 3 pages].
    • 122(5):[20 paragraphs].

In print

In the reference list

Number of Reference. Author(s). Title of report. Edition (If not first). Place of publication: Publisher; Date of publication. Report No.:

49. Wilkinson K, Martin IC, Gough MJ, et al. An age old problem: A review of the care received by elderly patients undergoing surgery. London: National Confidential Enquiry into Patient Outcome and Death; 2010.

Online

Number of Reference. Author(s). Title of report [Medium]. Edition (If not first). Place of publication: Publisher; Date of publication. Report No.: [Date of Update/Revision (if needed)]. [Date of citation]. Available from: URL or doi

43. Rooney C. An independent investigation into the care and treatment of mental health users (Miss B) in Rotherham [Internet]. Manchester: Niche Health and Social Care Consulting Ltd.; 2017 Oct. [Cited 2018 Jul 17]. Available from: https://www.england.nhs.uk/north/wp-content/uploads/sites/5/2017/10/independent-investigation-miss-b-new.pdf

Notes
  • For more information about in-text citation, and creating a reference list see Creating a citation and reference list and click on the relevant section.
  • Include a maximum of three contributors when referencing reports. If the item has more than three follow the last name with a comma and 'et al.', e.g. Smith GA, Johnson T, Turner PW, et al.'
  • Enter the title of the report as it appears, following the guidance regarding translation and transliteration as necessary.
  • It is common for reports to have an organisation as author, if this is the case, use the organisation name as author.

Whole website

In the reference list

Number of reference. Author (if available). Title [Type of medium]. Edition (if available, e.g. American ed.) Place of Publication: Publisher; Date of publication [Date of update; date of revision]. Available from: (e.g. URL)

20. Critical Appraisal Skills Programme (CASP): Making sense of evidence [Internet]. Oxford: CASP; 2013 [cited 2015 Aug 1]. Available from: http://www.casp-uk.net

Part of a website

In the reference list

Number of reference. Title of homepage [Medium e.g. Internet]. Place of Publication: Publisher; Date of Publication. Title of part of website; Date of publication if different to homepage [Date of Update/Revision; Date of citation]; [Number of screens/pages]: Available from:

21. NHS Choices [Internet]. Leeds (UK): Health and Social Care Information Centre; c2006. Behind the Headlines [Updated 2015 Aug 12; Cited 2015 Aug 12]; [about 3 p.]. Available from: http://www.nhs.uk/news/Pages/NewsIndex.aspx

Notes
  • For more information about in-text citation, and creating a reference list see Creating a citation and reference list and click on the relevant section.
  • If you are unable to find the author of the webpage, start the reference with the name of the homepage.
  • Sometimes an organisation can be the author of the webpage; if the organisation beings with 'The' do not include this in the organisation name.
  • Use the same spellings, punctuation, grammar, and capitalisation as the homepage.
  • If you are unable to find the place of publication on the homepage, you can do the following:
    • If you know where the organisation is based, you may assume the place of publication in square brackets.
    • If you are unable to reasonably assume place of publication and cannot find place of publication, use [place unknown]
  • If you are having problems locating the publisher, look at the copyright statement, or the 'contact us' link.
  • If you cannot identify the publisher you can use 'publisher unknown' in square brackets e.g. [place unknown: publisher unknown];
  • Date of publication can be difficult to find, firstly look in the 'about the site' section. If you are still unable to find this you can use the copyright date e.g. c2006.
  • If no date of publication or copyright can be found, use the date of update/revision or citation e.g. [Updated 2015 Aug 12; Cited 2015 Aug 12];
  • If the page range is not available, replace with extent in square brackets e.g. ; [about 10 p.]. or ; [about 10 screens]. or ; [10 paragraphs].
 

Alphabetical list of items

Jump to: A, B | C, D, E | F, G, H, I, J, K | L, M, N, O, P, Q | R, S, T, U | V, W, X, Y, Z |

A, B

In the reference list

Number of reference. Developers name or Rightsholder. Title of App [Medium]. Version. Location: Publisher; Year of publication (if available); [Date updated (if year of publication unavailable)]; [date of citation]. Available App Store or URL

14. Campus M. iSheffield [app]. 5.2.3. London: Ex Libris; [updated 2017 Feb 27; cited 2018 Jun 6]. Available: Google Play.

Notes
  • For more information about in-text citation, and creating a reference list see Creating a citation and reference list and click on the relevant section.
  • If the date of publication is not available, use the date the app was updated and date cited. If using date updated and date cited they should be presented as such [updated 2017 Feb 27; cited 2018 Jun 6].
  • If the date of publication, and date of update are not available use date cited.
  • No official guidance is available from the National Library of Medicine for apps.

Blog post

In the reference list

Number of reference. Author(s) of post. Title. Date of post [Date of citation]. In: Author(s) or editor(s) of blog (if available). Title of blog [Medium e.g. Internet]. Place of publication: Publisher. Date of publication. [Number of screens]. Available from: URL

15. Bradley J, Potet J. Poised to strike: global plan to tackle snakebite demands urgent action. 2018 Jun 15 [cited 2018 Jul 2]: In: Blog: BMJ Global Health [Internet]. London: BMJ Publishing Group. [2016 Sept 2] - . [about 2 screens]. Available from: https://blogs.bmj.com/bmjgh/2018/06/15/poised-to-strike-global-plan-to-tackle-snakebite-demands-urgent-action/

Complete blog

In the reference list

Number of reference. Author(s) or Editor(s). Title [Medium e.g. Internet]. Place of Publication: Publisher. Date of publication [date of citation]. Available from: URL

16. Bhaumik S, editor. Blog: BMJ Global Health [Internet]. London: BMJ Publishing Group. [2016 Sept 2] - . Available from: https://blogs.bmj.com/bmjgh/

Notes:
  • For more information about in-text citation, and creating a reference list see Creating a citation and reference list and click on the relevant section.
  • If the author is not apparent, try looking at the 'About' or 'Contact Us' links.
  • If no author can be found, you may use the name of the editors. If no editors are given, you can start the reference with the blog title
  • If the title of the blog does not contain the word blog, enter it in the medium e.g. [Blog on internet].
  • Copy the title of the blog and blog post as closely as possible, including spelling, punctuation, grammar and capitalisation.
  • Blogs do not always make clear the date the blog began, if this is the case use the date of the first post and place in square brackets.
  • Dates are open ended unless the blog is no longer being updated, e.g 2006 - , or 2006 - 2009
  • If place of publication can't be found or is not available, use the authors city as place of publication

For Video see Video - Physical Format.

In the reference list

Number of reference. Author(s). Title. Edition (if not first edition). Secondary author (if needed, e.g. translator). Place of publication: Publisher; Year of publication. Pagination.

1. Bryman A. Social research methods. 3rd ed. Oxford: Oxford University Press; 2008. 748 p.

Notes
  • If adding a secondary author, such as a translator, they should follow the same format as the author, e.g. Smith A, translator.
  • For more information about in-text citation, and creating a reference list see Creating a citation and reference list and click on the relevant section.
In the reference list

Number of reference. Author(s). Title. Edition (if not first edition). Secondary author (if needed, e.g. translator). Place of publication: Publisher; Year of publication. Pagination.

2. Martini F, Bartholomew EF. Essentials of anatomy and physiology. 6th ed. Harlow: Pearson; 2014. 809 p.

Notes
  • If adding a secondary author, such as a translator, they should follow the same format as the author, e.g. Smith A, translator.
  • For more information about in-text citation, and creating a reference list see Creating a citation and reference list and click on the relevant section.
In the reference list

Number of reference. Author(s). Title. Edition (if not first edition). Secondary author (if needed, e.g. translator). Place of publication: Publisher; Year of publication. Pagination.

3. Haake EM, Brown RW, Thompson MR, et al. Magnetic resonance imaging: physical principles and sequence design. New York: Wiley-Liss; 1999. 914 p.

Notes
  • If adding a secondary author, such as a translator, they should follow the same format as the author, e.g. Smith A, translator.
  • Include a maximum of three authors. If the item has more than three authors, follow the last name with a comma and then et al.
  • For more information about in-text citation, and creating a reference list see Creating a citation and reference list and click on the relevant section.
  • Include a maximum of three authors. If the item has more than three authors, follow the last name with a comma and then et al.

Chapter in a book

In the reference list

Number of reference. Author(s). Title. Edition (if not first edition). Secondary author (if needed, e.g. translator). Place of publication: Publisher; Year of publication. Chapter number, Chapter title; Page range.

5. Field A. Discovering statistics using IBM SPSS statistics: and sex and drugs and rock 'n' roll. 4th ed. London: Sage; 2013. Chapter 5, The beast of bias; p. 163-213.

Chapter in an edited book

In the reference list

Number of reference. Chapter author(s). Chapter title. In: Editor(s). Title. Edition (if not first edition). Secondary author (if needed, e.g. translator). Place of publication: Publisher; Year of publication. Pagination.

6. Eberle TS, Maeder C. Organizational ethnography. In: Silverman D, editor. Qualitative research: issues of theory, method and practice. 3rd ed. London: SAGE; 2011. p. 53-73.

Notes
  • If adding a secondary author, such as a translator, they should follow the same format as the author, e.g. Smith A, translator.
  • For more information about in-text citation, and creating a reference list see Creating a citation and reference list and click on the relevant section.

Section in an ebook

In the reference list

Number of reference. Author(s). Title [Medium e.g. Internet]. Edition (if not first edition). Secondary author (if needed, e.g. translator). Place of publication: Publisher; Year of publication. Chapter number, Chapter title; [Date of update/Date of revision/Date of citation]; Page Range or extent. Available from: URL or DOI

8. Bourgeault I, Dingwall R, de Vries R. The SAGE handbook of qualitative methods in health research [Internet]. London: SAGE; 2010. Chapter 7. Theory matters in qualitative health research; [cited 2015 Jun 1]; p.125-57. doi: 10.4135/9781446268247

Section in an edited ebook

In the reference list

Number of reference. Author(s) of section. Title of section. In: Editor(s). Title of book [Medium e.g. Internet]. Edition (if not first edition). Secondary author (if needed, e.g. translator). Place of publication: Publisher; Date of publication [Date of update/Date of revision/Date of citation]. Page range or extent. Available from: URL or DOI

9. Boxall P. The goals of HRM. In: Boxall P, Purcell J, Wright PM, editors. The Oxford handbook of human resource management. Oxford: Oxford University Press; 2008 [updated 2009 Sept; cited 2015 Jun 1]. [about 15 p.]. doi: 10.1093/oxfordhb/9780199547029.001.0001

Notes
  • For more information about in-text citation, and creating a reference list see Creating a citation and reference list and click on the relevant section.
  • If adding a secondary author, such as a translator, they should follow the same format as the author, e.g. Smith A, translator.
  • If the page range is not available, replace with extent in square brackets e.g. [about 10 p.]. or [about 10 screens].
  • Only add date of update if available e.g. ; [updated 2014 May 1; cited 2015 Jun 1].
  • The format of the date for citation is Year/Month/Day. Use the three letter abbreviations for the month.
  • Convert Roman numerals to numbers, e.g. MMXV will become 2015.
  • Do not add a full stop to the end of the URL.
  • If a DOI is available, use a DOI and reference as follows: doi:
  • If a DOI is not available, use a stable URL.
In the reference list

Number of reference. Editor(s). Title. Edition (if not first edition). Secondary author (if needed, e.g. translator). Place of publication: Publisher; Year of publication. Pagination.

4. Silverman D, editor. Qualitative research: issues of theory, method and practice. 3rd ed. London: SAGE; 2011. 450 p.

Notes
  • For more information about in-text citation, and creating a reference list see Creating a citation and reference list and click on the relevant section.
  • If adding a secondary author, such as a translator, they should follow the same format as the author, e.g. Smith A, translator.
  • Follow the name of the last editor with a comma and the word 'editor(s)', followed by a full stop.
  • Include a maximum of three editors. If the item has more than three editors, follow the last name with a comma and then 'et al. editors.'
In the reference list

Number of reference. Author(s)/Editor(s). Title [Medium e.g Internet]. Edition (if not first edition). Secondary author (if needed, e.g. translator). Place of publication: Publisher; Date of publication [Date of update/Date of citation]. Available from: URL or DOI

7. Pallant J. SPSS survival manual: a step by step guide to data analysis using SPSS [Internet]. 4th ed. Maidenhead: Open University Press; 2010 [cited 2015 May 22]. Available from: https://www.dawsonera.com/abstract/9780335242405

Notes
  • For more information about in-text citation, and creating a reference list see Creating a citation and reference list and click on the relevant section.
  • If adding a secondary author, such as a translator, they should follow the same format as the author, e.g. Smith A, translator.
  • Only add date of update if available e.g. [updated 2014 May 1; cited 2015 Jun 1].
  • The format of the date for citation is Year/Month/Day. Use the three letter abbreviations for the month.
  • Convert Roman numerals to numbers, e.g. MMXV will become 2015.
  • Do not add a full stop to the end of the URL.
  • If a DOI is available, use a DOI and reference as follows: doi:
  • If a DOI is not available, use a stable URL.
[Top of page]

C, D, E

For Chapter in a book see Book – Chapter or Chapter/Section (in an electronic book).

Conference paper in proceedings with a book title

In the reference list

Number of reference. Author(s) of paper. Title of paper. In: Editor(s). Title of book. Conference title; Date of conference; Place of conference. Secondary author (if needed, e.g. translator). Place of publication: Publisher; Date of publication. Pagination.

28. Yanagisawa K, Saido TC. Amyloidogensis and cholesterol. In: Mapping the progress of Alzheimer's and Parkinson's Disease. Proceedings of the 5th International Conference on Alzheimer's and Parkinson's Diseases; 2001 Mar 31-Apr 5; Kyoto, Japan. New York: Kluwer Academic/Plenum; 2002. p. 13-18.

Conference paper in proceedings without a book title

In the reference list

Number of reference. Author(s) of paper. Title of paper. In: Editor(s). Conference title; Date of conference; Place of conference. Secondary author (if needed, e.g. translator). Place of publication: Publisher; Date of publication. Pagination.

29. Turner S, Bryans M. Dementia: Diagnosis & management in primary care. A primary care based education/research project. In: Dickinson A, Bartlett H, Wade S, editors. Proceedings of the British Society of Gerontology Annual Conference; 2000 Sept 8-10; Keble College, Oxford. Oxford: Oxford Brookes University; 2000. p. 137-142.

Online conference paper in proceedings with a book title

In the reference list

Number of reference. Author(s) of paper. Title of paper. In: Editor(s). Title of book [Medium e.g. Internet]. Conference title; Date of conference; Place of conference. Secondary author (if needed, e.g. translator). Place of publication: Publisher; Date of publication [Date of revision; Date of citation]. Available from: URL or DOI

32. Bingham R, Tsytovich VN. Dust growth in astrophysical plasmas. In: Bharuthram R, Hellberg MA, Shukla PK, Verheest F, editors. Dusty plasmas in the new millennium [Internet]. Proceedings of the 3rd conference on the Physics of Dusty Plasmas; 2002 May 20-24; Durban, South Africa. New York: American Institute of Physics; 2002 [cited 2015 Jul 23]. p. 126-134. doi: 10.1063/1.1527744/1.1527744

Online conference paper in proceedings without a book title

In the reference list

Number of reference. Author(s) of paper. Title of paper. In: Editor(s)[Medium e.g. Internet]. Conference title; Date of conference; Place of conference. Secondary author (if needed, e.g. translator). Place of publication: Publisher; Date of publication [Date of revision; Date of citation]. Pagination. Available from: URL or DOI

33. Duff CA, Bradnum C. Design of a domestic water heating system to save water and electricity. In: Beute N, Krueger D, Sakulin M, Anderson G, Prasad G, Green M, et al. editors [Internet]. Proceedings of the 21st conference on Domestic Use of Energy (DUE); 2013 Apr 3-4; Cape Town (ZA). Cape Town (ZA): Cape Peninsula University of Technology; 2013 [cited 2015 Jan 12]. p. 19-24. Available from: http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/xpls/icp.jsp?arnumber=6524781

Notes:
  • For more information about in-text citation, and creating a reference list see Creating a citation and reference list and click on the relevant section.
  • If adding a secondary author, such as a translator, they should follow the same format as the author, e.g. Smith A, translator.
  • Some conference proceedings have a separate title for the book, whilst others are just called 'Proceedings of...'. If your proceedings have a separate title, use the example for conference proceedings with a book title.
  • The number and name of the conference should take the following format:
    • Proceedings of the [insert number of conference e.g. 9th] [Name of conference];
  • Include a maximum of six contributors for conference proceedings; if there are more than six contributors then follow the sixth one with a comma and et al.

From a poster session

In the reference list

Number of reference. Author(s) of poster. Title of poster. Poster session presented at: Name of conference. Number of conference Title of conference; Date of conference; Place of conference.

38. Bazela C, Grant V, Tucker A. History of medicine 2.0: using creative media to enhance information literacy teaching for 1st year medical students. Poster session presented at: LILAC. 10th Annual Librarians Information Literacy Annual Conference; 2014 Apr 23-25; Sheffield, UK.

Notes
  • For more information about in-text citation, and creating a reference list see Creating a citation and reference list and click on the relevant section.
  • The number and name of the conference should take the following format:
    • Proceedings of the [insert number of conference e.g. 9th] [Name of conference];
  • Include a maximum of six contributors for conference proceedings; if there are more than six contributors then follow the sixth one with a comma and et al.
  • Poster sessions at conferences may include items that have never been published. If the item has been published, cite the item from a publication (e.g. poster published in a journal should be referenced as a journal article), rather than an untraceable source.

Conference proceedings with a book title

In the reference list

Number of reference. Editor(s). Title of book. Conference title; Date of conference; Place of conference. Secondary author (if needed, e.g. translator). Place of publication: Publisher; Date of publication. Pagination.

26. Mizuno Y, Fisher A, Hanin I, editors. Mapping the progress of Alzheimer's and Parkinson's Disease. Proceedings of the 5th International Conference on Alzheimer's and Parkinson's Diseases; 2001 Mar 31-Apr 5; Kyoto, Japan. New York: Kluwer Academic/Plenum; 2002. 565 p.

Conference proceedings without a book title

In the reference list

Number of reference. Editor(s). Conference title; Date of conference; Place of conference. Secondary author (if needed, e.g. translator). Place of publication: Publisher; Date of publication. Pagination.

27. Dickinson A, Bartlett H, Wade S, editors. Proceedings of the British Society of Gerontology Annual Conference; 2000 Sept 8-10; Keble College, Oxford. Oxford: Oxford Brookes University; 2000. 385 p.

Online conference proceedings with a book title

In the reference list

Number of reference. Editor(s). Title of book [Medium e.g. Internet]. Conference title; Date of conference; Secondary author (if needed, e.g. translator). Place of conference. Place of publication: Publisher; Date of publication [Date of revision; date of citation]. Pagination. Available from:

30. Bharuthram R, Hellberg MA, Shukla PK, Verheest F, editors. Dusty plasmas in the new millennium [Internet]. Proceedings of the 3rd conference on the Physics of Dusty Plasmas; 2002 May 20-24; Durban, South Africa. New York: American Institute of Physics; 2002 [cited 2015 Jul 23]. 513 p. Available from: http://scitation.aip.org/content/aip/proceeding/aipcp/649

Online conference proceedings without a book title

In the reference list

Number of reference. Editor(s) [Medium e.g. Internet]. Conference title; Date of conference; Place of conference. Secondary author (if needed, e.g. translator). Place of publication: Publisher; Date of publication [Date of revision; date of citation]. Pagination. Available from:

31. Beute N, Krueger D, Sakulin M, Anderson G, Prasad G, Green M, et al. editors [Internet]. Proceedings of the 21st conference on Domestic Use of Energy (DUE); 2013 Apr 3-4; Cape Town (ZA). Cape Town (ZA): Cape Peninsula University of Technology; 2013 [cited 2015 Jan 12]. 124 p. Available from: http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/xpl/tocresult.jsp?asf_pun=6520972

Notes
  • For more information about in-text citation, and creating a reference list see Creating a citation and reference list and click on the relevant section.
  • If adding a secondary author, such as a translator, they should follow the same format as the author, e.g. Smith A, translator.
  • If the page range is not available, replace with extent in square brackets e.g. ; [about 10 p.]. or ; [about 10 screens]. or ; [1 paragraph].
  • Some conference proceedings have a separate title for the book, whilst others are just called 'Proceedings of...'. If your proceedings have a separate title, use the example for conference proceedings with a book title.
  • The number and name of the conference should take the following format:
    • Proceedings of the [insert number of conference e.g. 9th] [Name of conference];
  • Include a maximum of six contributors for conference proceedings; if there are more than six contributors then follow the sixth one with a comma and et al.

Dictionary entry - In print

In the reference list

Number of reference. Dictionary title. Edition. Place of publication: Publisher; Year of publication. Title of dictionary entry; Page number.

34. Concise Oxford English dictionary. 11th rev. ed. Oxford: Oxford University Press; 2009. Research; p. 1222.

Dictionary Entry - Online

In the reference list

Number of reference. Dictionary title [Medium e.g. Internet]. Place of publication: Publisher; Year of publication. Title of entry; [Date of citation]; Page range or extent. Available from: URL or DOI:

35. OED Online [Internet]. Oxford: Oxford University Press; 2015. Research; [cited 2015 May 27]; [about 20 p.]. Available from: http://www.oed.com/view/Entry/163432

Full dictionary - In print

Number of reference. Dictionary title. Edition. Place of publication: Publisher; Year of publication.

39. Concise colour medical dictionary. 6th ed. Oxford: Oxford University Press; 2015.

Full dictionary - Online

Number of reference. Dictionary title [Medium e.g. Internet]. Place of publication: Publisher; Year of publication. [Date of citation]; Available from: URL or DOI:

40. Mosby's dictionary of medicine, nursing & health professions [Internet]. St. Louis (MO): Mosby Elsevier; 2017. [2018 Jul 3]; Available from: https://www.dawsonera.com/abstract/9780323414197

Notes
  • For more information about in-text citation, and creating a reference list see Creating a citation and reference list and click on the relevant section.
  • If the page range is not available for the online version, replace with extent in square brackets e.g. ; [about 10 p.]. or ; [about 10 screens]. or ; [1 paragraph].
In the reference list

Number of reference. Author. Title [Medium]. [Place of publication]: Publisher; Date. Total number of pages.

22. Vickers S. An oral history examination of how technology has impacted on library space using the University of Sheffield Library as a case study [master's dissertation]. [Sheffield]: University of Sheffield; 2008. 110 p.

23. Moore J. Effect of short chain fatty acids in breast epithelium [master's dissertation]. [Sheffield]: University of Sheffield; 2012. 81 p.

Notes
  • For more information about in-text citation, and creating a reference list see Creating a citation and reference list and click on the relevant section.
  • N.B. Thesis is used in American English do denote work undertaken as part of a master's degree. In this guide dissertation denotes work undertaken at master's level, whilst thesis denotes work undertaken for a doctorate.

For DVD see Video - Physical Format.

For Electronic Book see Book – Electronic or Book – Chapter/Section (in an electronic book).

For Electronic Journal see Journal Article with a DOI (Electronic) or Journal Article without a DOI (Electronic).

[Top of page]

F, G, H, I, J, K

For Film see Video sections.

In print

Number of reference. Author(s). Title. Edition (if not first edition). Secondary author (if needed, e.g. translator). Place of publication: Publisher; Year of publication. [Item Type] Number of item, Title of item; Page range.

44. Crossman AR, Neary D. Neuroanatomy: An illustrated colour text. 5th ed. Crossman B (illustrator). Edinburgh: Churchill Livingstone; 2015. [Photograph] 5.1. Floor of the skull showing he three cranial fossae and principal foramina; p. 51

Online

Number of reference. Author(s). Title [Medium e.g. Internet]. Edition (if not first edition). Secondary author (if needed, e.g. translator). Place of publication: Publisher; Year of publication. [Item type] Number of item, Title of item; [Date of update/Date of revision/Date of citation]; Page Range or extent. Available from: URL or DOI

45. Mtui E, Gruener G, Dockery P. Fitzgerald's Clinical Neuroanatomy and Neuroscience [Internet]. 7th ed. Philadelphia PA: Elsevier; 2016. [Figure] 5.3, Lateral view of the right cerebral hemisphere, showing the cortical branches and territories of the three cerebral arteries; [Cited 2018 Jul 18]; p. 52. Available from: https://ebookcentral.proquest.com/lib/sheffield/detail.action?docID=4595630

Notes
  • For more information about creating a reference list and citing foreign language materials see Creating a citation and reference list and click on the relevant section.
  • If adding a secondary author, such as a translator, they should follow the same format as the author, e.g. Smith A, translator.
  • If the page range is not available, replace with extent in square brackets e.g. [about 10 p.]. or [about 10 screens].
  • Only add date of update if available e.g. ; [updated 2014 May 1; cited 2015 Jun 1].
  • The format of the date for citation is Year/Month/Day. Use the three letter abbreviations for the month.
  • Convert Roman numerals to numbers, e.g. MMXV will become 2015.
  • Do not add a full stop to the end of the URL.
  • If a DOI is available, use a DOI and reference as follows: doi:
  • If a DOI is not available, use a stable URL.

Image with author and title provided

Number of reference. Author. Title [type of medium]. Place of Publication: Publisher; Date [Date Cited]. Available from: URL or doi:

47. Mayerle G. George Mayerle test chart [Image on internet]. [San Fransisco]: Schmidt Litho. Co.; circa 1907 [cited 2018 Jul 18]. Available from: http://resource.nlm.nih.gov/101573841

Image without author or title

Number of reference. [Description of image] [Type of medium]. Place of publication: Publisher; Date. [Date Cited]. Available from: URL or doi:

48. [Man with herpes zoster] [Image on internet]. Bethesda MD: US National Library of Medicine, National Institute of Health, Health & Human Services; [2010?] [cited 2018 Jul 18]. Available from: http://resource.nlm.nih.gov/101596477

Notes
  • No official guidance for online images
  • For more information about creating a reference list and citing foreign language materials see Creating a citation and reference list and click on the relevant section.
  • The role of author refers to the artist (e.g. engraver) or photographer responsible for creating the work. A printer is not considered an author.
  • You may include the role of the author, separating the name from the role with a comma. E.g. Smith A, engraver.
  • If there are multiple authors, separate the names with roles separate each authors' name and role with a semicolon, e.g. Smith A, engraver; Jones B, photographer.
  • If a person or corporation cannot be identified as the author, omit the author and start the reference with the title. Do not use anonymous.
  • If a title cannot be identified, add a description with enough details to make a meaningful title and enclose in square brackets, e.g. [Left foot with scarring] [photograph].
  • Include the type of medium, e.g. [poster], [photograph], [print], after the title.
  • Collections of images may include more than one medium, place them in square brackets separated by a + sign, e.g. [photographs + posters].
  • If a place of publication cannot be identified, but can be inferred with reasonable accuracy, include in square brackets, e.g. [Sheffield].
  • If a place of publication cannot be identified or inferred use [place unknown].
  • When identifying the publisher, do not use the distributor of the image. You may use the term Available from: and list the distributor after, at the end of the reference, e.g. Available from: Name of distributor.
  • If you cannot find a date of publication, you may use date of copyright. Use a lower case 'c' or © to identify that you have used a date of copyright, e.g. c1984 or ©1984.
  • If you cannot find a date of publication or ascertain a date of copyright, you can use an estimated date and place the information in square brackets, e.g. [1984?]
  • If you are unable to identify an estimated date, but know an estimated date range, precede the date range with 'circa', e.g. circa 1890s, or circa 1900.
  • For the location of a collection of items, include the name of the holding institution preceded by the holding department, e.g. Special Collections, University of Sheffield Library, Sheffield, GB.

The references in this section refer to individual prints and photographs, as well as collections of prints and photographs. This type of medium often lacks relevant details used when creating an entry in the reference list, see the notes below which explain how to deal with the missing information.

Image with author and title provided

Number of reference. Author. Title [type of medium]. Place of Publication: Publisher; Date.

46. Bontecou RB (photographer). John H. Bowers, hospital number 20.281 [photograph]. [Washington D.C: Harewood General Hospital]; 1865.

Image without author or title

Number of reference. [Description of image] [Type of medium]. Place of publication: Publisher; Date.

47. [Nurse wearing uniform from Hong Kong] [Photograph]. [Trenton, N.J]: Helene Fuld Health Foundation; [1961-1963?].

Notes
  • For more information about creating a reference list and citing foreign language materials see Creating a citation and reference list and click on the relevant section.
  • The role of author refers to the artist (e.g. engraver) or photographer responsible for creating the work. A printer is not considered an author.
  • You may include the role of the author, separating the name from the role with a comma. E.g. Smith A, engraver.
  • If there are multiple authors, separate the names with roles separate each authors' name and role with a semicolon, e.g. Smith A, engraver; Jones B, photographer.
  • If a person or corporation cannot be identified as the author, omit the author and start the reference with the title. Do not use anonymous.
  • If a title cannot be identified, add a description with enough details to make a meaningful title and enclose in square brackets, e.g. [Left foot with scarring] [photograph].
  • Include the type of medium, e.g. [poster], [photograph], [print], after the title.
  • Collections of images may include more than one medium, place them in square brackets separated by a + sign, e.g. [photographs + posters].
  • If a place of publication cannot be identified, but can be inferred with reasonable accuracy, include in square brackets, e.g. [Sheffield].
  • If a place of publication cannot be identified or inferred use [place unknown].
  • When identifying the publisher, do not use the distributor of the image. You may use the term Available from: and list the distributor after, at the end of the reference, e.g. Available from: Name of distributor.
  • If you cannot find a date of publication, you may use date of copyright. Use a lower case 'c' or © to identify that you have used a date of copyright, e.g. c1984 or ©1984.
  • If you cannot find a date of publication or ascertain a date of copyright, you can use an estimated date and place the information in square brackets, e.g. [1984?]
  • If you are unable to identify an estimated date, but know an estimated date range, precede the date range with 'circa', e.g. circa 1890s, or circa 1900.
  • For the location of a collection of items, include the name of the holding institution preceded by the holding department, e.g. Special Collections, University of Sheffield Library, Sheffield, GB.
In the reference list

Number of reference. Author(s). Article title. Journal title. Date of publication; Volume(Issue):Page number.

10. Longo DL, Armitage JO. Controversies in the treatments of early-stage Hodgkin's lymphoma. N Engl J Med. 2015 Apr 23; 372(17):1667-9.

Notes
  • For more information about in-text citation, and creating a reference list see Creating a citation and reference list and click on the relevant section.
  • Cite the version you saw, if you looked at the print version then do not cite the electronic version.
  • Cite the journal name used at the time of publication.
  • Do not include the header, e.g. News, Case Report, etc.
  • If there are more than six authors, list 6 and then use et al.
  • Abbreviate the journal title; sources for this are available from NLM's Citing Medicine Style Guide: Abbreviation rules for journal titles.
  • If an issue number is not available, use the volume number and follow with a colon and the page numbers.
  • Sometimes a special number, supplement, or part will further divide the issue of a journal. These are referenced as follows:
    • Supplement e.g. 2015 Apr 23; 372(17 Suppl):1667-9.
    • Part e.g. 2015 Apr 23; 372(17 Pt A):1667-9.
    • Special Number e.g. 2015 Apr 23; 372(17 Spec No):1667-9.
  • If the volume and issue number are unavailable, follow the date of publication with the page number, e.g. 2018: 20-4
In the reference list

Number of reference. Author(s). Article title. Journal title [Source e.g. Internet]. Date of publication [Date of citation]; Volume(Issue):Page numbers. DOI:

11. Birnbaum AD, French DD, Miraeidi M, Wehrli S. Sarcoidosis in the national veteran population: association of ocular inflammation and mortality. Ophthalmology [Internet]. 2015 May [cited 2015 May 20]; 122(5):934-8. doi: 10.1016/j.ophtha.2015.01.003

Notes
  • For more information about in-text citation, and creating a reference list see Creating a citation and reference list and click on the relevant section.
  • Cite the version you looked at; if you looked at the electronic version then do not cite the paper version.
  • Cite the journal name used at the time of publication.
  • Do not include the header, e.g. News, Case Report, etc.
  • If there are more than six authors, list 6 and then use et al.
  • Abbreviate the journal title; sources for this are available from NLM's Citing Medicine Style Guide: Abbreviation rules for journal titles.
  • If an issue number is not available, use the volume number followed by a colon and the page numbers.
  • Sometimes a special number, supplement, or part will further divide the issue of a journal. These are referenced as follows:
    • Supplement e.g. 2015 May [cited 2015 May 20]; 122(5 Suppl):934-98.
    • Part e.g. 2015 May [cited 2015 May 20]; 122(5 Pt A):934-38.
    • Special Number e.g. 2015 May [cited 2015 May 20]; 122(5 Spec No):934-8.
  • If the volume and issue number are unavailable, follow the date of publication with the page number, e.g. 2018: 20-4
  • Pagination is not always available on ejournals.
  • If the article is in PDF format, count the total numbers of page in the PDF. Place the amount of pages in square brackets followed by p where you would put the pagination, use a full stop after the closed bracket. E.g. 122(5):[4 p.].
  • If the article is in XML, HTML, or another format; you should count the screens, paragraphs, or how many pages it would print out on. E.g.
    • 122(5):[about 3 screens].
    • 122(5):[about 3 pages].
    • 122(5):[20 paragraphs].
In the reference list

Number of reference. Author(s). Article title. Journal title [Source e.g. Internet]. Date of publication [Date of citation]; Volume(Issue):Page numbers. Available from:

12. Carling PC, Perkins J, Ferguson JA, Thomasser A. Evaluating a new paradigm for comparing surface disinfection in clinical practice. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol [Internet]. 2014 Nov [cited 2015 May 22]; 35(11):1349-55. Available from: http://www.jstor.org/stable/10.1086/678424

Notes
  • For more information about in-text citation, and creating a reference list see Creating a citation and reference list and click on the relevant section.
  • Use a stable URL which will always work, rather than a session URL which stops working when you log off and are often very long.
  • Cite the version you looked at; if you looked at the electronic version then do not cite the paper version.
  • Cite the journal name used at the time of publication.
  • Do not include the header, e.g. News, Case Report, etc.
  • If there are more than six authors, list 6 and then use et al.
  • Abbreviate the journal title; sources for this are available from NLM's Citing Medicine Style Guide: Abbreviation rules for journal titles.
  • If an issue number is not available, use the volume number followed by a colon and the page numbers.
  • Sometimes a special number, supplement, or part will further divide the issue of a journal. These are referenced as follows:
    • Supplement e.g. 2015 May [cited 2015 May 20]; 122(5 Suppl):934-98.
    • Part e.g. 2015 May [cited 2015 May 20]; 122(5 Pt A):934-38.
    • Special Number e.g. 2015 May [cited 2015 May 20]; 122(5 Spec No):934-8.
  • If the volume and issue number are unavailable, follow the date of publication with the page number, e.g. 2018: 20-4
  • Pagination is not always available on ejournals.
    • If the article is in PDF format, count the total numbers of page in the PDF. Place the amount of pages in square brackets followed by p where you would put the pagination, use a full stop after the closed bracket. E.g. 122(5):[4 p.].
    • If the article is in XML, HTML, or another format; you should count the screens, paragraphs, or how many pages it would print out on. E.g.
      • 122(5):[about 3 screens].
      • 122(5):[about 3 pages].
      • 122(5):[20 paragraphs].
In the reference list

Number of reference. Author(s). Title of article. Title of journal [source e.g. Internet]. Forthcoming Date of publication. [Date of citation]. Available from: or DOI:

13. West LR. Strave: challenge yourself to greater heights in physical activity/cycling and running. British Journal of Sports Medicine [Internet]. Forthcoming 2015. [cited 2015 May 22]. doi: 10.1136/bjsports-2015-094899

Notes
  • For more information about in-text citation, and creating a reference list see Creating a citation and reference list and click on the relevant section.
  • Cite the version you looked at; if you looked at the electronic version then do not cite the paper version.
  • Cite the journal name used at the time of publication.
  • If a DOI is available, use a DOI and reference as follows: doi:
  • Do not include the header, e.g. News, Case Report, etc.
  • If there are more than six authors, list 6 and then use et al.
  • Abbreviate the journal title; sources for this are available from NLM's Citing Medicine Style Guide: Abbreviation rules for journal titles.
  • If an issue number is not available, use the volume number followed by colon and the page numbers.
  • Sometimes a special number, supplement, or part will further divide the issue of a journal. These are referenced as follows:
    • Supplement e.g. 2015 May [cited 2015 May 20]; 122(5 Suppl):934-98.
    • Part e.g. 2015 May [cited 2015 May 20]; 122(5 Pt A):934-38.
    • Special Number e.g. 2015 May [cited 2015 May 20]; 122(5 Spec No):934-8.
  • If the volume and issue number are unavailable, follow the date of publication with the page number, e.g. 2018: 20-4
  • Pagination is not always available on ejournals.
    • If the article is in PDF format, count the total numbers of page in the PDF. Place the amount of pages in square brackets followed by p where you would put the pagination, use a full stop after the closed bracket. E.g. 122(5):[4 p.].
    • If the article is in XML, HTML, or another format; you should count the screens, paragraphs, or how many pages it would print out on. E.g.
      • 122(5):[about 3 screens].
      • 122(5):[about 3 pages].
      • 122(5):[20 paragraphs].
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L, M, N, O, P, Q

To reference an article from a magazine see Journal Article.

Most magazines do have an issue and volume number, but it is normally hidden away as not to interfere with the content. You can check the front, back, and spine of the magazine for this information. You may also need to check the publication information, which is normally printed in the first or last few pages of a magazine. This information is normally in very small text.

For Masters Dissertation see Dissertation.

Print newspaper article

In the reference list

Number of reference. Author. Article title. Newspaper title. Date of publication. Section letter, number or name (if available). Page number(s)(column number).

36. Sample I. Why an octopus never gets itself tied in knots. The Guardian. 2014 May 16. 17 (col.1).

Online newspaper article

In the reference list

Number of reference. Author. Article title. Newspaper title [Medium e.g. Internet]. Date of publication [Date of update; Date of citation]. Section letter, number or name (if available). Location/page number if available. Available from:

37. Sample I. Why an octopus's suckers don't stick its arms together. The Guardian [Internet]. 2015 May 15 [updated 2015 May 16; cited 2015 May 22]. [about 2 p.]. Available from: http://www.theguardian.com/science/2014/may/15/octopus-suckers-arms-chemical-skin

Notes
  • For more information about in-text citation, and creating a reference list see Creating a citation and reference list and click on the relevant section.
  • Some online articles are modified after initial publication; add the date of update before the date of citation (as above).
  • If the page range is not available, replace with extent in square brackets e.g. ; [about 10 p.]. or ; [about 10 screens]. or ; [1 paragraph].
  • If you are referencing a local newspaper and the title does not indicate the city or town it is published in, add the city/town in round brackets either after the title or in the title e.g. The (Sheffield) Star.

For NICE Guidelines see Reports.

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R, S, T, U

In print

In the reference list

Number of Reference. Author(s). Title of report. Edition (If not first). Place of publication: Publisher; Date of publication. Report No.:

Wilkinson K, Martin IC, Gough MJ, et al. An age old problem: A review of the care received by elderly patients undergoing surgery. London: National Confidential Enquiry into Patient Outcome and Death; 2010.

Online

Number of Reference. Author(s). Title of report [Medium]. Edition (If not first). Place of publication: Publisher; Date of publication. Report No.: [Date of Update/Revision (if needed)]. [Date of citation]. Available from: URL or doi

43. Rooney C. An independent investigation into the care and treatment of mental health users (Miss B) in Rotherham [Internet]. Manchester: Niche Health and Social Care Consulting Ltd.; 2017 Oct. [Cited 2018 Jul 17]. Available from: https://www.england.nhs.uk/north/wp-content/uploads/sites/5/2017/10/independent-investigation-miss-b-new.pdf

Notes
  • For more information about in-text citation, and creating a reference list see Creating a citation and reference list and click on the relevant section.
  • Include a maximum of three contributors when referencing reports. If the item has more than three follow the last name with a comma and 'et al.', e.g. Smith GA, Johnson T, Turner PW, et al.'
  • Enter the title of the report as it appears, following the guidance regarding translation and transliteration as necessary.
  • It is common for reports to have an organisation as author, if this is the case, use the organisation name as author.
In the reference list

Number of Reference. Author(s). Title of report. Edition (If not first). Place of publication: Publisher; Date of publication. Report No.:

41. National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (GB). Lyme Disease. London: NICE; 2018. Report No.: NG95.

42. Tissue-engineered medical products. Quantification of sulfated glycosaminoglycans (sGAG) for evaluation of chrondrogensis. London: British Standards Institution; 2018. Report No.: BS ISO 13019:2018.

Notes
  • For more information about in-text citation, and creating a reference list see Creating a citation and reference list and click on the relevant section.
  • Add a country designation if an organisation has authored a report and does not have the country in the name.

Thesis - In print

In the reference list

Number of reference. Author. Title [Medium]. [Place of publication]: Publisher; Date. Total number of pages. Notes (e.g. Volumes).

24. Finnegan KS, Linguistic variation, stability and change in middle-class Sheffield English [PhD thesis]. [Sheffield]: University of Sheffield; 2011. 404 p. 2 vol.

Thesis - Online

Number of reference. Author. Title [medium and where available]. Place of publication: Publisher; Date of publication [Date of citation]. Pages. Notes (e.g. volumes). Available from: (e.g. URL)

25. Osler J. Studies towards the total synthesis of pyxidatol C; new insights into the Cope rearrangement [PhD thesis on the Internet]. [York]: University of York; 2014 [Cited 2015 June 1]. 211 p. Available from: http://etheses.whiterose.ac.uk/8615

Notes
  • For more information about in-text citation, and creating a reference list see Creating a citation and reference list and click on the relevant section.
  • N.B. Thesis is used in American English do denote work undertaken as part of a master's degree. In this guide dissertation denotes work undertaken at master's level, whilst thesis denotes work undertaken for a doctorate.

For translation and transliteration of items see the relevant section in Creating a citation and reference list.

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V, W, X, Y, Z

In the reference list

Number of reference. Author. Title [Type of medium e.g. Film, DVD]. Secondary Author (e.g. producer/director). Place of publication: Publisher; Date of production. Extent: Physical Description.

19. Black Swan [DVD]. Aronofsky D, director. Beverly Hills (CA): Twentieth Century Fox; 2010. 1 videodisc: 103 min., sound, colour, 4 3/4 in.

42. Howe A. Talking to patients: and helping them to talk to you [DVD]. Sheffield: University of Sheffield; 2014. 1 videodisc: 30 min., sound, colour, 4 3/4 in.

Notes
  • For more information about in-text citation, and creating a reference list see Creating a citation and reference list and click on the relevant section.
  • The role of secondary author, in the case of audio visual materials will be the director or producer.
In the reference list

Number of reference. Homepage [medium e.g. Internet]. Place of publication: Publisher; Date of publication of homepage [Date homepage updated]. [Video], Title; Date published [Date reviewed; Date of citation]; [Length e.g. 2min., 31sec]. Available from:

17. YouTube [Internet]. San Bruno, CA: YouTube (US); 2005 May [updated 2018]. [Video], Specialising in infectious diseases; 2017 Apr 10 [cited 2018 Jul 3]; [1 min., 2 sec]. Available from: https://youtu.be/gjsxGPGl_as

18. British Film Council [Internet]. London: British Council (UK); 2015. [Video], Steel; 1945 [cited 2015 Jun 1]; [31 min., 11 sec]. Available from: http://film.britishcouncil.org/steel

Notes

Whole website

In the reference list

Number of reference. Author (if available). Title [Type of medium]. Edition (if available, e.g. American ed.) Place of Publication: Publisher; Date of publication [Date of update; date of revision]. Available from: (e.g. URL)

20. Critical Appraisal Skills Programme (CASP): Making sense of evidence [Internet]. Oxford: CASP; 2013 [cited 2015 Aug 1]. Available from: http://www.casp-uk.net

Part of a website

In the reference list

Number of reference. Title of homepage [Medium e.g. Internet]. Place of Publication: Publisher; Date of Publication. Title of part of website; Date of publication if different to homepage [Date of Update/Revision; Date of citation]; [Number of screens/pages]: Available from:

21. NHS Choices [Internet]. Leeds (UK): Health and Social Care Information Centre; c2006. Behind the Headlines [Updated 2015 Aug 12; Cited 2015 Aug 12]; [about 3 p.]. Available from: http://www.nhs.uk/news/Pages/NewsIndex.aspx

Notes
  • For more information about in-text citation, and creating a reference list see Creating a citation and reference list and click on the relevant section.
  • If you are unable to find the author of the webpage, start the reference with the name of the homepage.
  • Sometimes an organisation can be the author of the webpage; if the organisation beings with 'The' do not include this in the organisation name.
  • Use the same spellings, punctuation, grammar, and capitalisation as the homepage.
  • If you are unable to find the place of publication on the homepage, you can do the following:
    • If you know where the organisation is based, you may assume the place of publication in square brackets.
    • If you are unable to reasonably assume place of publication and cannot find place of publication, use [place unknown]
  • If you are having problems locating the publisher, look at the copyright statement, or the 'contact us' link.
  • If you cannot identify the publisher you can use 'publisher unknown' in square brackets e.g. [place unknown: publisher unknown];
  • Date of publication can be difficult to find, firstly look in the 'about the site' section. If you are still unable to find this you can use the copyright date e.g. c2006.
  • If no date of publication or copyright can be found, use the date of update/revision or citation e.g. [Updated 2015 Aug 12; Cited 2015 Aug 12];
  • If the page range is not available, replace with extent in square brackets e.g. ; [about 10 p.]. or ; [about 10 screens]. or ; [10 paragraphs].

For YouTube see Video – Website.

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