MHRA Author-Date referencing

Reference list vs. Bibliography

In the MHRA Author-Date style, references are listed at the end of your work, and are organised alphabetically by the surname of the author.

A reference list includes all works that have been referred to in the assignment.

A bibliography includes all the material consulted in writing your assignment even if you have not cited them within it.

Many people use these terms interchangeably so, if you are unsure about whether you need to include a bibliography as well as a reference list, ask your tutor.


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MHRA Author-Date referencing is designed by the Modern Humanities Research Association. Some elements of the standard offer a choice of approaches, and/or for some of the sources, the standard does not provide official guidance. The examples given in this tutorial are based on the University Library's interpretation of the MHRA Style Guide: Third edition 2013. Reprinted with minor corrections 2015. Further details of the MHRA Author-Date style referencing can be found in Section 11.4 of the style guide.

Referencing in the MHRA Author-Date style is a two-part process:

It is important to be consistent and accurate when citing references. The same set of rules should be followed every time you reference, including the layout and punctuation.

Citing in the text and bibliography/reference list

In-text citations are enclosed in parentheses and consist of the surname(s) of the author(s), the publication date and a page reference (where needed). All other details about the publication are given in the reference list/bibliography at the end of your work.

  • The citation should be given wherever it is most convenient to make sense of that text, but it must be given before the end punctuation of the sentence.

  • It is essential to include the page number of the information you are citing when you are paraphrasing, or directly quoting the materials, e.g. (Smith 2010: 187), or Smith (2010: 187).

  • If the author(s) name does not appear in the body of the text, then you should include it in the parenthesis along with the date and (if required) page number(s), e.g. (Smith 2010: 187).

  • If the author(s) name appears in the text as part of the body of text then it should not be repeated in the in-text citation, e.g. Smith (2010: 187) highlighted...

  • If the item you are citing is by two or three authors, you would list all authors using and or &, e.g.
    • (Smith & Jones 2015: 13)... or Smith and Jones (2015: 13) noted...
    • (Smith, Jones & Wood 2016: 85)...or Smith, Jones and Wood (2016: 85) agreed...

  • If there are more than three authors, list only the first authors' surname followed by 'and others', e.g. (Platt and others 1996: 14-15) or Platt and others (1996: 14-15)...

  • When an author publishes more than one cited document in the same year, they are distinguished by using a lower-case letter after the date. The letter should be assigned in in the reference list as well as in the in-text citation, e.g. (Crystal 1997a: 11), (Crystal 1997b: 46) or Crystal (1997a: 11), Crystal (1997b: 46).
    • The lower-case letter designation is dependent on where the item is placed in the reference list - within the reference list these items should be arranged by alphabetical item of the title. The first item in the reference list, with the same author published in the same year, should be given the designation a, the second should be b, and so on e.g. (Crystal 1997a: 11).

  • Some authors have the same surname, if this is the case you will need to add initial(s) in order to distinguish that the items you are referencing were written by different people. This should occur in all of your citations, even if the year of publication is different, e.g. (Jones, A. 1979: 38), (Jones, C. 2011: 68).

  • You may also wish to refer to more than item you have used as your information source in your in-text citation. In such instances, you should separate the references with a semi-colon, listing them by date (oldest first). If there is more than one work with the same date, then list them alphabetically, e.g. (Storms 1948: 166-73; Nelson 1982; Burns 2000).

  • The author of an item may be a corporate author, association, or government agency.

  • Anonymous works, and works that have no identifiable author, should be referred to by the title in the in-text citation.

  • If the date of an item is an approximate date, circa should be used. This should be abbreviated to c., e.g. (Smith c. 1944).

  • If no date, or approximate date can be found, use n.d. e.g. (Jones n.d.) for in-text citations

  • When providing an in-text citation from an electronic item, and page number/location of the information you are citing is required:
    • If the electronic item is a stable document i.e. a PDF, you will be able to refer to page numbers you have used in your work e.g. (Smith 2010; 58).
    • If the item is not a stable document, but the item has numbered sections or paragraphs, you will be able to use these to direct the reader to the information used in your work e.g. para. 2 of 15 would refer to the second paragraph of 15.
    • If the electronic item is not a stable document, and does not have numbered sections or paragraphs, do not infer the location as the item may display differently depending on device/browser used.

  • Page numbers should be preceded with p. for example, p. 12 if you are referring to a single page. You should use pp. for a page range or a selection of pages e.g. pp. 10-14 or pp. 1, 10, 13
    • When a page range falls within the same hundred, you should write the page range as follows: pp. 101-23, or pp. 101-09.
    • When a page range falls within the thousands, and the last three numbers are not within the same hundred you should write the page range as follows: pp. 1225-1301.
    • When a page range falls within the thousands, and the last three numbers are within the same hundred you should write the page range as follows: pp. 1061-92.

  • If the item you are using is a reprint, you will need to acknowledge this in the in-text citation, this can be done by adding the reprint date after the original date of publication, e.g. (Jones 1882 repr. 1990).

Quoting

A quotation is when you use the exact phrase or words of the original author. Try not to over rely on quotations as this may show a lack of understanding of the subject area being studied.

Short Quotations

Short quotations up to 40 words in length, or two lines of verse, should be included in the body of the text enclosed in single quotation marks e.g.

Bybee (2001: 117) noted that 'the degree of semantic relatedness is determined by both the number and the nature of shared features'.

General Rules for Short Quotations
  • If the quotation is at the end of a sentence, the full stop should fall outside the quotation mark, e.g.

    Barton (1991: 98) states that the play As You Like It is ‘the fullest and most stable realization of Shakespearean comic form’. This can be considered...

  • If the quotation is preceded by punctuation and forms a full sentence, the full stop should be included after the punctuation mark. Note the comma before the quote below, this means that the full stop will fall within the quotation mark, e.g.

    Wilson (2009: 257) identifies that there is still a labelling issue when it comes to flavourings in food, ‘flavours such as vanillin, which occur naturally in food are called "nature identical", the label does not have to state where it comes from.’

  • You should use double quotation marks to identify a quotation that falls within a quotation, e.g. ‘Original quote "quote within quote" original quote‘.

Long Quotations

Long quotations are classed as a quote that is over 40 words, or two lines of verse. This should be presented on a separate paragraph, which is indented from the body of the text, and is not enclosed in quotation marks.

Phillips and Havely (1997: 43) argue that:

Chaucer's own judiciousness about when and where and how densely to place words of French and Latin origins - many of which still had a more learned or exotic air than modern readers immediately realize - amid familiar words is unrivalled among English poets. He can create a courtly French or Ovidian Latin manner in English without simply piling up French or Latin words.

This can be taken to mean...

General Rules for Long Quotations
  • Long quotations should end with a full stop even if the original does not. However, if there is a question mark or an exclamation mark, then this should be used instead.

Quoting Literature

When quoting literature from a play or poem, the original spelling and punctuation should be preserved where possible. Quotations and lines of verse, should in a short quote, be separated by a spaced upright stroke.

Tennyson (1987: 1-2) wrote: ‘"The fault was mine, the fault was mine" | Why am I sitting here so stunned and still.’

In a long quotation, which is indented in a separate paragraph and not enclosed in quotation marks, the lines of a verse should be reproduced with exact lineage of the original e.g.

In his poem Maud, Tennyson (1987: 1-2) wrote the following passage:

‘The fault was mine’ –
Why am I sitting here so stunned and still,
Plucking the harmless wild-flower on the hill? –
It is this guilty hand?  –
And there rises ever a passionate cry
From underneath in the darkening land –
What it is, that has been done.
      (Maud, II, 1-7)

  • Where a line of text is indented in the original, it should also be indented in your work as close to the original as possible.
  • If a verse quotation starts with a part-line, you should this in your work as close to the original as possible.
  • Where quotation contains both prose and verse, you should indicate the end point of one and the start point of the other.

Prose quotations from plays should follow the name of the speaker, which should be in small capitals. Stage directions should be italicised and separated from speech by a space. When stage direction occurs within speech, they should be enclosed in parentheses, e.g.

Beckett (1963: 9) makes good use of stage direction, as exemplified by the following passage:

She raises her head, gazes front. Long pause. She straightens up, lays her hands flat on the ground, throws her head back and gazes at zenith. Long pause

WINNIE (gazing at zenith) Another heavenly day. (Pause. Head back level, eyes front, pause...)

  • Stage directions which are on a line of their own and do not contain any speech are indented further than the lines of the play and are written using italics.
  • Stage directions, which occur within speech, are enclosed in parenthesis and are written in italics.

Verse quotations from plays are normally set with the speaker's name, in small capitals and no punctuation, to the left of the text e.g.

BOLINGBROKE Patience, good lady; wizards know their times.
Deep night, dark night, the silent of the night,
The time of night when Troy was set on fire,
The time when screech-owls cry, and badogs howl,
And spirits walk, and ghosts break up their graves;
That time best fits the work we have in hand.
Madam, sit you, and fear not.

(Shakespeare, 1994: 14-20)


Quoting in other languages

Quotations in languages which are not in English should be quoted as the same as a quote in English, this means using quotation marks for the MHRA style, e.g. ‘Quote’ rather than «Quote» or „Quote“.

When quoting a piece of text over 40 words, it is advisable to use a long dash, known as an em dash (—) to introduce the quote in French and Russian.


Quoting historical works

Quotations should always be the same as the piece of information you are referring to. However, there are some exceptions.

The forms of the letters i and j, u and v, the long s (ſ), the ampersand (&), the Tironian sign (), the tilde, the superior (superscript) letters in contractions, and other abbreviations are normalised in to modern use unless there is a specific reason to keep them e.g. in full bibliographic descriptions

For more information, see section 2.4 in The MHRA Style Guide.


Omissions

If part of the quotation is omitted then this should be indicated using an ellipsis e.g. [...].

It is not necessary to use an ellipsis at the beginning or end of a quotation as almost all quotes are taken from larger context, and this fact will be presumed.


References

Barton, Anne. 1994. ‘As You Like It and Twelfth Night: Shakespeare's "Sense of an Ending", in Essays, Mainly Shakespearean, ed. by Anne Barton (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press), pp.91-112

Beckett, Samuel. 1963. Happy Days (London: Faber and Faber)

Bybee, Joan. 1991. Phonology and Language Use (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press).

Shakespeare, William. 1991. The Second Part of King Henry VI, ed. by Michael Hattaway (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press) I. 4

Tennyson, Alfred. 1987. ‘Maud’, in The Poems of Tennyson, ed. by Christopher Ricks, 2nd edn, 3 Volumes (London: Longman) II

Wilson, Bee. 2009. Swindled: From Poison Sweets to Counterfeit Coffee - The Dark History of the Food Cheats (London: John Murray)


Paraphrasing is putting someone else's ideas into your own words. Paraphrasing does not mean just changing an odd word, or changing a sentence if the phrasing of the original is still evident. When you paraphrase, you should restate the meaning of the original text in your own words. Be sure to cite the reference when you are summarising someone else's work. This will also require a page number for the in-text citation.

When you paraphrase, it will show that you understand the original material and are able to restate the information in your own words. A paraphrase means that you avoid using too many direct quotations, which can distract from the coherence of the argument you are presenting. You can paraphrase to avoid using quotes that have a tenuous link to the argument you are presenting.

Booth and others (2016: 208-209), give the example of acceptable summarising using Gladwell as their example.1 This is the quote from Gladwell (2008: 38):

'Achievement is talent plus preparation. The problem with this view is that the closer psychologists look at the careers of the gifted, the smaller the role innate talent seems to play and the bigger the role of preparation seem to play.'

Below is an unacceptable summary of the above quote because it follows the original too closely

'Success seems to be depend on a combination of talent and preparation. However, when psychologists closely examine the gifted and their careers, they discover that innate talent plays a much smaller role than preparation' (Gladwell 2008: 38)

Below, Booth and others (2016: 208-209) provide an acceptable summary as the meaning of the original has been restated in the author's own words

As Gladwell (2008: 38) observes, summarising studies on the highly successful, we tend to overestimate the role of talent and underestimate that of preparation.


References

Booth, Wayne C. and others. 2016. The Craft of Research, 4th edn (Chicago: University of Chicago Press)

Gladwell, Malcolm. (2008). Outliers: The Story of Success (New York: Back Bay Books)

This is when you reference one author who is referring to the work of another, and the primary source is not available

Secondary referencing should be avoided if possible.

If you have only read the later publication, you are accepting someone else's opinion and interpretation of the author's original intention. You cannot have formed your own view or critically appraised whether the secondary author has adequately presented the original material.

You must make it clear to your reader which piece of information you have read whilst giving details of the original e.g.

Use ‘as cited in’ if the author has cited the work of another, e.g. (Ecott 2002 as cited in Wilson 2009).

If the author has directly quoted from an original piece of work, then you would use ‘as quoted in’ e.g. (Cannon 1989 as quoted in Wilson 2009: 269).

Try not to over-rely on quotations, as this may show a lack of understanding of the information yourself. You should summarise the key points you wish to make in your assignment, in your own words.

In the reference list you could cite the item you have used to find the material, in the examples above you would reference Wilson in the reference list, e.g.:

Wilson, Bee. 2009. Swindled: From Poison Sweets to Counterfeit Coffee - The Dark History of the Food Cheats (London: John Murray)


The MHRA Author-Date system requires a complete reference list of all items cited to be placed at the end of your work, this allows the reader to follow up your references. It is presented in alphabetical order by surname of the first author/editor of the work.

Rules about referencing
  • If a list contains more than one work by the same author a 2 em dash (——) should be substituted for the name after the first appearance and they should be listed in alphabetical order of title e.g.

    • Bryman, Alan. 1995. Research Methods and Organization Studies, (London: Routledge)

      —— 2016. Social Research Methods, 5th edn (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2016)

  • If you have cited items written by the same author and published in the same year, they should be arranged in alphabetical order using the title to determine the order. They should be distinguished in your in-text citation by a lower-case letter (using the alphabet for order e.g. Crystal 1997a, Crystal 1997b) this should also be present reference list entry in order to guide your reader to the correct piece of information, e.g.

    • Crystal, David. 1997a...

      —— 1997b...

  • Wherever possible, the details of the reference should be taken from the title page of the publication and not from the front cover, which may be different.

  • If an item has two or more authors, the MHRA style guide recommends the following pattern for listing authors: First author surname, Forename(s), and Second author forename(s) Second author surname. Note, if forenames are not available use the author's initials followed by a full-stop. e.g. Smith, D., and S. Jones.

  • You may use ‘and’ or ‘&’ to separate multiple authors in a reference. Whichever one you choose, you will need to use for the whole reference list to maintain consistency.

  • The names of up to three authors should be given; for works with more than three authors, only the first author name should be given, followed by ’and others‘. E.g. Booth, Wayne C., and others, or Radford, Andrew, and others.

  • The author of an item may be a corporate author.

  • Anonymous works are listed under their title; you should ignore any initial definite or indefinite article when placing in alphabetical order.

  • If the date is an approximate date, circa should be used. It should be abbreviated to c. e.g. c. 1496.

  • If the date cannot be found, ‘no date’. It should be abbreviated to ‘[n.d.]’.

  • You should capitalise each significant word of the title and subtitle even if they are not capitalised in the source material.

  • The titles of works of literature occurring within the titles of an item should be italicized or placed within quotation marks - whichever is deemed most suitable, even if it is not expressed as such on the item.

  • If quotation marks are used within the title of an item already enclosed in quotation marks (i.e. for a chapter of a book, journal article etc.), they should be enclosed in double quotation marks, as single quotation marks should have been used to enclose the title itself.

  • A colon should separate the title and subtitle, even if it is different to the grammar on the title page.

  • The first word after a colon should be capitalised.

  • Any detail of publication that is not included in the book, but can be determined should be included in square brackets e.g. [London]. For details that are not certain, include a question mark in the square brackets e.g. [London?].

  • If any detail of publication cannot be found then the following abbreviations should be used:
    • No place of publication [n.p.].
    • No publisher [n. pub.].

  • Two letter abbreviations of US states should only be used to avoid confusion with another place e.g. Cambridge MA would show that it is Cambridge in Massachusetts rather than Cambridge in the UK. If the name of the US state appears in the name of the publisher then omit the state abbreviation.

  • Page numbers should be given as p. e.g. p. 12 for a single page. You should use pp. for a page range or a selection of pages e.g. pp. 10-14 or pp. 1, 10, 13. However, there is no need to include p. or pp. when referencing a journal article.

  • Page numbers should be preceded with p. for example, p. 12 if you are referring to a single page. You should use pp. for a page range or a selection of pages e.g. pp. 10-14 or pp. 1, 10, 13.
    • When a page range falls within the same hundred, you should write the page range as follows: pp. 101-23, or pp. 101-09.
    • When a page range falls within the thousands, and the last three numbers are not within the same hundred you should write the page range as follows: pp. 1225-1301.
    • When a page range falls within the thousands, and the last three numbers are within the same hundred you should write the page range as follows: pp. 1061-92.

  • Do not use URL shorteners such as bitly, tinyurl etc. when quoting the URL in a reference.

  • You do not put a full stop at the end of the reference in the bibliography/reference list.

  • If the item you are using is a reprint, you will need to acknowledge this in the publication details, this can be done in two ways:
    • If the reprint is by the same publisher, add the reprint date to the original date of publication e.g. 1995 repr. 2008
    • If the item is printed by a different publisher, add the reprint date to the original date of publication as above, and include the publication details of the second publisher after the first using a semi-colon and repr. to separate the two e.g. (Leipzig: C F. Peters; repr. New York: Dover Press).

Citing material from non-roman script e.g. Cyrillic, East Asian languages

If you are citing materials from non-roman script, you should transliterate the references to roman script. The main reasoning is that you need to alphabetise your bibliography/reference list, and would be unable to do so if they are in a different alphabet. If you are unsure of the correct transliteration, you may want to consult with an expert of the language or an international standard to check.

For footnotes, references in the reference list/bibliography
  • The family name of the author should be written in full roman script. The initials of the author(s) should also be given in roman script.
  • The title of the item (article/book/book chapter, etc.) should be given in roman script using the standard conventions for that language.
  • The title should be translated into English and placed in square brackets immediately after the romanised title. The words in the square brackets should not use italics.
  • The journal title, or title of a book (if it is an edited book), publishers name all need to be given in roman script, but do not need to be translated. If there is an official English translation, then you may use it especially in cases where it provides greater understanding of the subject or publication.
Example in the text

Terao (1998)...
...(Terao 1998).

Example in the bibliograpy/reference list

Terao, M. 1998. Denai kugi wa suterareru [The nail that does not stick up may be thrown away] (Tokyo: Fusosha)

Materials in roman script

If you are citing materials produced in a language other than English, but in roman script, you may need place a translated title in square brackets after the original title, depending on who the intended audience for your work will be and the language the work is to be written in.

Frequently referenced items

For a full list of items see Alphabetical list of items

In the text

Minchom (2015)...
...(Minchom 2015).

Johnson (2003)...
...(Johnson 2003).

In the bibliography/reference list

Author surname, forename. Year of publication. Title of book, Series Statement/Edition Statement/Volume Statement (Place of publication: Publisher)

Minchom, Martin. 2015. Spain's Martyred Cities: From the Battle of Madrid to Picasso's ‘Guernica’ (Brighton: Sussex Academic Press)

Johnson, Keith. 2003. Acoustic and Auditory Phonetics, 2nd edn (Malden: Blackwell Publishing)

Notes
  • The author's name should be given as it appears on the title page.
  • The title should be given as it appears on the title page of the item.
  • A colon should separate the title and subtitle, even if it is different to the grammar on the title page.
  • A series statement needs to be included if the item is part of a numbered series. However, it may be omitted if it is an unnumbered series and the title does not provide important information.
  • The edition should be included if it any edition other than the first e.g. 2nd edn, rev. edn
  • If the work is more than one volume, the number of volumes should be given e.g. 2 vols
  • Foreign items that are more than one volume should use the abbreviation vol. (Note the full stop at the end).
  • A book which has more than one place of publication, with a different publisher in each place, should have both places and publishers referred to in the reference (Basel: Birkäuser; Munich: Edition Detail).
  • If you are directly quoting or paraphrasing, you will need to include the page number(s) where you located the information in the in-text citation, e.g. (Smith 2018: 10) or Smith (2018: 10).

For more information in text citations, referencing multiple authors, paraphrasing, quoting, and creating a bibliography/reference list, see Citing in the text, bibliography/reference list and click on the relevant section.

In the text

For an in-text citation in your work, you would cite the reference as follows:

Figes and Kolonitskii (1999)...
...(Figes and Kolonitskii 1999).

Hanley, Kerr and Waites (1984)...
...(Hanley, Kerr and Waites 1984).

In the bibliography/reference list

Author surname, Author forename, and Author forename Author Surname. Date. Title of book, Series Statement/Edition Statement/Volume Statement (Place of publication: Publisher)

Or

Author surname, Author Forename, Author Forename Author Surname, and (or &) Author forename Author surname. Year of publication. Title of book, Series Statement/Edition Statement/Volume Statement (Place of publication: Publisher)

Figes, Orlando, and Boris Kolonitskii. 1999. Interpreting the Russian Revolution: The Language and Symbols of 1917 (New Haven: Yale University Press)

Hanley, D.L., A.P. Kerr, and N.H. Waites. 1984. Contemporary France: Politics and Society Since 1945, rev. edn (London: Routledge)

Notes
  • The author's name should be given as it appears on the title page.
  • The title should be given as it appears on the title page of the item.
  • A colon should separate the title and subtitle, even if it is different to the grammar on the title page.
  • You should capitalise each significant word of the title and subtitle. The first word after a colon should be capitalised.
  • A series statement needs to be included if the item is part of a numbered series. However, it may be omitted if it is an unnumbered series and the title does not provide important information.
  • The edition should be included if it any edition other than the first e.g. 2nd edn, rev. edn
  • If the work is more than one volume, the number of volumes should be given e.g. 2 vols
  • Foreign items that are more than one volume should use the abbreviation vol. (Note the full stop at the end).
  • A book which has more than one place of publication, with a different publisher in each place, should have both places and publishers referred to in the reference (Basel: Birkäuser; Munich: Edition Detail).
  • If you are directly quoting or paraphrasing, you will need to include the page number(s) where you located the information in the in-text citation, e.g. (Smith 2018: 10) or Smith (2018: 10)

For more information in text citations, referencing multiple authors, paraphrasing, quoting, and creating a bibliography/reference list, see Citing in the text, bibliography/reference list and click on the relevant section.

In the text

For an in-text citation in your work, you would cite the reference as follows:

Booth and others (2016)...
...(Booth and others 2016).

Radford and others (2009)...
...(Radford and others 2009).

In the bibliography/reference list

First author surname, forename, and others. Year of publication. Title of book, Series Statement/Edition Statement/Volume Statement (Place of publication: Publisher)

Booth, Wayne C., and others. 2016. The Craft of Research, 4th edn (Chicago: The University of Chicago Press)

Radford, Andrew, and others. 2009. Linguistics: An Introduction, 2nd edn (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press)

Notes
  • The author's name should be given as it appears on the title page.
  • The names of up to three authors should be given in full, for works by more than three authors the name of the first author should be given followed by ‘and others’.
  • The title should be given as it appears on the title page of the item.
  • A colon should separate the title and subtitle, even if it is different to the grammar on the title page.
  • You should capitalise each significant word of the title and subtitle. The first word after a colon should be capitalised.
  • A series statement needs to be included if the item is part of a numbered series. However, it may be omitted if it is an unnumbered series and the title does not provide important information.
  • The edition should be included if it any edition other than the first e.g. 2nd edn, rev. edn
  • If the work is more than one volume, the number of volumes should be given e.g. 2 vols
  • Foreign items that are more than one volume should use the abbreviation vol. (Note the full stop at the end).
  • A book which has more than one place of publication, with a different publisher in each place, should have both places and publishers referred to in the reference (Basel: Birkäuser; Munich: Edition Detail).
  • If you are directly quoting or paraphrasing, you will need to include the page number(s) where you located the information in the in-text citation, e.g. (Smith 2018: 10) or Smith (2018: 10).

For more information in text citations, referencing multiple authors, paraphrasing, quoting, and creating a bibliography/reference list, see Citing in the text, bibliography/reference list and click on the relevant section.

In the text

For an in-text citation in your work, you would cite the reference as follows:

Skrelin and Kocharov (2014)...
(Skrelin and Kocherov 2014)

In the bibliography/reference list

Chapter author surname, forename. Date. ‘Chapter Title’, in Name of book, ed. by Editor forename surname, Series Statement/Edition Statement/Volume Statement (Place of publication: Publisher), pages used

Skrelin, Pavel, and Daniil Kocharov. 2014. ‘Russian Speech Corpora Framework for Linguistic Purposes’ in Best Practices for Spoken Corpora in Linguistic Research, ed. by Şükrie Ruhi and others (Newcastle upon Tyne: Cambridge Scholars Publishing), pp. 118-27

Notes
  • The author/editor's name should be given as it appears on the title page/contents page.
  • The title of the book should be given as it appears on the title page of the item.
  • The title of the chapter should be given as it appears on the contents page
  • A colon should separate the title and subtitle, even if it is different to the grammar on the title page.
  • You should capitalise each significant word of the title and subtitle. The first word after a colon should be capitalised.
  • A series statement needs to be included if the item is part of a numbered series. However, it may be omitted if it is an unnumbered series and the title does not provide important information.
  • The edition should be included if it any edition other than the first e.g. 2nd edn, rev. edn
  • If the work is more than one volume, the number of volumes should be given e.g. 2 vols
  • Foreign items that are more than one volume should use the abbreviation vol. (Note the full stop at the end).
  • A book which has more than one place of publication, with a different publisher in each place, should have both places and publishers referred to in the reference (Basel: Birkäuser; Munich: Edition Detail).
  • If you are directly quoting or paraphrasing, you will need to include the page number(s) where you located the information in the in-text citation, e.g. (Smith 2018: 10) or Smith (2018: 10)

For more information in text citations, referencing multiple authors, paraphrasing, quoting, and creating a bibliography/reference list, see Citing in the text, bibliography/reference list and click on the relevant section.

In the text

For an in-text citation in your work, you would cite the reference as follows:

Bridges (2008)...
...(Bridges 2008).

In the bibliography/reference list

Author surname, forename. Date (Year) Title of image, Type of source, Title of Website, day and month of publication, <URL> [Date accessed]

Bridges, Derek. 2008. Man Cat, digital photograph, Flickr, 22 December, <https://www.flickr.com/photos/derek_b/3145058691/> [accessed 18 January 2018]

Notes
  • If you include an image in your work, you must ensure that you have relevant permissions to use the image from the rights holders or follow any license conditions stated.
  • Do not use URL shorteners such as bitly, tinyurl etc. when quoting the URL in a reference.

For more information in text citations, referencing multiple authors, paraphrasing, quoting, and creating a bibliography/reference list, see Citing in the text, bibliography/reference list and click on the relevant section.

In the text

For an in-text citation in your work, you would cite the reference as follows:

Neuhäuserm (2017)...
...(Neuhäuserm, 2017)

In the bibliography/reference list

Author surname, forename. Year. ‘Title of article’, Title of Journal, Volume.Issue, page range

Neuhäuserm, Rudolf. 2017. ‘The International Dostoevsky Society: From the Beginnings to the End of its Existence as an Independent Voluntary Organisation’, Dostoevsky Studies: The Journal of the International Dostoevsky Society, n.s., 25, 13-42

Notes
  • Only include the issue number/month/season of the journal if every issue starts with page 1.
  • If you do need to refer to an issue of a journal, it would be given as 3.3. This refers to Volume 3 Part 3 of a journal.
  • The volume number should be given in Arabic numerals even if the journal which you are citing prefers the use of Roman numerals e.g. 12 rather than XII.
  • The page range in a journal article is not preceded with pp.
  • Only give the main title of the journal, only give a subheading or place of publication if it will distinguish the journal from another of the same name.
  • Only include the definite or indefinite article at the start of the journal title when the title of the journal title is made up of two words, otherwise omit, e.g. The Drama Review would be included as Drama Review, whilst The Economist would remain unchanged.
  • If the journal has restarted its numbering, it will have a series number. This should be provided after the title of the journal, e.g. n.s. for new series. For a numbered series you would use the number of the series followed by ser. e.g. 2nd ser.
  • If you are directly quoting or paraphrasing, you will need to include the page number(s) where you located the information in the in-text citation, e.g. (Smith 2018: 10) or Smith (2018: 10).

For more information in text citations, referencing multiple authors, paraphrasing, quoting, and creating a bibliography/reference list, see Citing in the text, bibliography/reference list and click on the relevant section.

A DOI refers to a Digital Object Identifier. It provides a stable, persistent link to the article you are referring to. In the MHRA style, a DOI should be presented with http://dx.doi.org/ before the alphanumeric string, regardless of if the article presents the DOI in this way.

In the text

For an in-text citation in your work, you would cite the reference as follows:

Parmenov (2018)...
...(Parmenov 2018)

In the bibliography/reference list

Author surname, forename. Year. ‘Title of Article’ Title of Journal, Volume.Issue, page range <DOI>

Parmenov, Viacheslav N. 2018. ‘The Russian Quality of Life, 1914-1917’, Russian Social Sciences Review, 59, 178-205 <https://doi.org/10.1080/10611428.2018.1475984>

Notes
  • Only include the issue number/month/season of the journal if every issue starts with page 1.
  • If you do need to refer to an issue of a journal, it would be given as 3.3. This refers to Volume 3 Part 3 of a journal.
  • The volume number should be given in Arabic numerals even if the journal which you are citing prefers the use of Roman numerals e.g. 12 rather than XII.
  • The page range in a journal article is not preceded with pp.
  • Only give the main title of the journal, only give a subheading or place of publication if it will distinguish the journal from another of the same name.
  • Only include the definite or indefinite article at the start of the journal title when the title of the journal title is made up of two words, otherwise omit, e.g. The Drama Review would be included as Drama Review, whilst The Economist would remain unchanged.
  • If the journal has restarted its numbering, it will have a series number. This should be provided after the title of the journal, e.g. n.s. for new series. for a numbered series you would use the number of the series followed by ser. e.g. 2nd ser.
  • If you are directly quoting or paraphrasing, you will need to include the page number(s) where you located the information in the in-text citation, e.g. (Smith 2018: 10) or Smith (2018: 10).

For more information in text citations, referencing multiple authors, paraphrasing, quoting, and creating a bibliography/reference list, see Citing in the text, bibliography/reference list and click on the relevant section.

In the text

For an in-text citation in your work, you would cite the reference as follows:

Rosen (n.d.)...
...(Rosen n.d.)

In the bibliography/reference list

Author surname, forename. Year. ‘Title of page’, Name of website <URL> [Date Accessed]

Rosen, Michael. [n.d.]. ‘Michael Rosen Biography’, Michael Rosen <http://www.michaelrosen.co.uk/for-adults-biography/> [accessed 22 January 2018]


Notes
  • No official guidance available for referencing a web page.
  • The MHRA Style Guide recommends that you look for the shortest form of a URL without long query strings, which is normally a question mark (?) followed by many numbers and letters.
  • Do not use URL shorteners such as bitly, tinyurl etc. when quoting the URL in a reference.
  • Sometimes the author of a web page will be a corporate author, place the name of the corporation in the place of author forename surname. The corporation name will be used to determine the place in the bibliography.
  • There is often a copyright statement at the bottom of web pages e.g. ©2018 The University of Sheffield. The date of copyright is often not an indication of when the web page was updated, but rather a footer to the website. Look for a date that says Last modified/updated for the year the web page was published/updated.
  • If you are unable to find a date of modification/update, but can ascertain an approximate date of modification/update, circa should be used. This should be abbreviated to c., e.g. (Smith c. 1990) for in-text citations, or c. 1990 in the bibliography/reference list.
  • If no date or approximate date can be found, use no date. This should be abbreviated to n.d., e.g. (Smith n.d.) for in-text citations, or [n.d.] in the bibliography/reference list.

For more information about footnotes, referencing multiple authors, and creating a bibliography, see Citing in the text, footnotes and bibliography and click on the relevant section.

For a full list of items see Alphabetical list of items

Alphabetical list of items

Jump to: A, B | C, D, E | F, G, H, I, J, K | L, M, N, O, P, Q | R, S, T, U | V, W, X, Y, Z

A, B

In print

In the text

For an in-text citation in your work, you would cite the reference as follows:

Euripides (2007)...
...(Euripides 2007)

Homer (1987)...
...(Homer 1987)

In the bibliography/reference list

Author surname, forename. Year of publication. Title of work, trans. by translator forename surname, Series Statement/Edition Statement/Volume Statement (if applicable) (Place of publication: Publisher)

Euripides. 2007. Hippolytus, trans. by Ben Shaw (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press)

Homer. 1987. The Odyssey, trans. by. E. V. Rieu (London: GuildPublishers)

Online

In the text

For an in-text citation in your work, you would cite the reference as follows:

Shakespeare (c. 1622)...
...(Shakespeare c. 1622)

In the bibliography/reference list

Author surname, forename, Title of work, trans. by translator forename surname, Series Statement/Edition Statement/Volume Statement (if applicable) (Place of publication: Publisher, Year of publication), page range used. Supplier/platform/file ebook

Shakespeare, William. c. 1622. The Most Excellent and Lamentable Tragedie of Romeo and Iuliet: As it Hath Beene ſundrie Times Publikely Acted by the Kings Maiesties Seruants at the Globe, Newly corrected, augmented and amended edn (London: Printed for John Smithwicke, and are to bee ſold at his Shop in Dunstances church-yard, in Fleetestreete vnder the Dyall.) Early English Books Online ebook

Notes
  • No official guidance for referencing Ancient or Historical Texts
  • If the full name of the translator is not available, you may use their initial as listed on the title page of the item.
  • Quotations should always be the same as the piece of information you are referring to. However, when referring to early historical works there are some exceptions. The forms of the following letters are normalised into modern use:
    • i and j
    • u and v
    • The long s (ſ)
    • The ampersand (&)
    • The Tironian sign ()
    • The tilde
    • The superior (superscript) letters in contractions
    • Other abbreviations
  • For more information on when to keep the above letters, see section 2.4 in The MHRA Style Guide.
  • If you are directly quoting or paraphrasing, you will need to include the page number(s) where you located the information in the in-text citation, e.g. (Smith 2018: 10) or Smith (2018: 10).

For more information in text citations, referencing multiple authors, paraphrasing, quoting, and creating a bibliography/reference list, see Citing in the text, bibliography/reference list and click on the relevant section.

In the text

For an in-text citation in your work, you would cite the reference as follows:

campusM (2017)...
...(campusM 2017).

In the bibliography/reference list

Author or designer surname, forename. Year of publication. Name of app, Platform app is available from

campusM. 2017. iSheffield, iOS and Android

Notes
  • No official guidance for an app.

For more information in text citations, referencing multiple authors, paraphrasing, quoting, and creating a bibliography/reference list, see Citing in the text, bibliography/reference list and click on the relevant section.

Work of Art in a Gallery/Museum

In the text

For an in-text citation in your work, you would cite the reference as follows:

Drouais (1786)...
...(Drouais 1786)

In the bibliography/reference list

Author surname, forename. Date. Title of work, medium of composition, dimensions (in cm if available), Holding institution, town of holding institution

Civitali, Matteo. c. 1496. Tabernacle, carved marble, Victoria and Albert Museum, London

Drouais, Jean-Germain. 1786. Marius at Minturnae, oil on canvas, 271 × 365cm, Musée du Louvre, Paris

Work of art online

In the text

For an in-text citation in your work, you would cite the reference as follows:

Keegan (1991)...
...(Keegan 1991)

In the bibliography/reference list

Author surname, forename. Date. Title of work, medium of composition, dimensions (in cm if available) <URL> [Date Accessed]

Keegan, Steven. 1991. Newby the Dog, raku fired earthenware <http://collections.vam.ac.uk/item/O155512/newby-the-dog-sculpture-keegan-steven/> [accessed 23 January 2018]

Notes
  • No official guidance for a work of art.
  • The name of the artist, title, date and method of composition should be given as a minimum when referring to a work of art.
  • If the date is an approximate date, circa should be used. It should be abbreviated to c. e.g. c. 1496.
  • When giving dimension, give the units in cm. You should also use a multiplication sign (×) rather than a lowercase x.
  • Do not use URL shorteners such as bitly, tinyurl etc. when quoting the URL in a reference.

For more information in text citations, referencing multiple authors, paraphrasing, quoting, and creating a bibliography/reference list, see Citing in the text, bibliography/reference list and click on the relevant section.

In the text

For an in-text citation in your work, you would cite the reference as follows:

Nordurm (2017)...
...(Nordrum 2017).

Whittle (2018)...
...(Whittle 2018).

In the bibliography/reference list

Author surname, forename. Date. ‘Title of Blog Post’, Title of blog <URL> [accessed Day Month Year]

Nordrum, Maria. 2017. ‘The Importance of Being Open to Think in New Ways’, Out of Our Minds <https://outofourminds.shef.ac.uk/2017/12/11/ooominds-through-the-eyes-of-a-visiting-research-student/> [accessed 10 August 2018]

Whittle, Sophie. 2018. ‘Of Concepts and Kings: Curating a Collection using EEBO-TP’, Linguistic DNA: Modelling Concepts and Semantic Change <https://www.linguisticdna.org/2018/05/22/concepts-kings/> [accessed 10 August 2018]

Notes
  • No official guidance for Blog
  • Do not use URL shorteners such as bitly, tinyurl etc. when quoting the URL in a reference.

For more information in text citations, referencing multiple authors, paraphrasing, quoting, and creating a bibliography/reference list, see Citing in the text, bibliography/reference list and click on the relevant section.

For Blu-Ray see Video - Physical Format.

In the text

For an in-text citation in your work, you would cite the reference as follows:

Minchom (2015)...
...(Minchom 2015).

Johnson (2003)...
...(Johnson 2003).

In the bibliography/reference list

Author surname, forename. Year of publication. Title of book, Series Statement/Edition Statement/Volume Statement (Place of publication: Publisher)

Minchom, Martin. 2015. Spain's Martyred Cities: From the Battle of Madrid to Picasso's ‘Guernica’ (Brighton: Sussex Academic Press)

Johnson, Keith. 2003. Acoustic and Auditory Phonetics, 2nd edn (Malden: Blackwell Publishing)

Notes
  • The author's name should be given as it appears on the title page.
  • The title should be given as it appears on the title page of the item.
  • A colon should separate the title and subtitle, even if it is different to the grammar on the title page.
  • A series statement needs to be included if the item is part of a numbered series. However, it may be omitted if it is an unnumbered series and the title does not provide important information.
  • The edition should be included if it any edition other than the first e.g. 2nd edn, rev. edn
  • If the work is more than one volume, the number of volumes should be given e.g. 2 vols
  • Foreign items that are more than one volume should use the abbreviation vol. (Note the full stop at the end).
  • A book which has more than one place of publication, with a different publisher in each place, should have both places and publishers referred to in the reference (Basel: Birkäuser; Munich: Edition Detail).
  • If you are directly quoting or paraphrasing, you will need to include the page number(s) where you located the information in the in-text citation, e.g. (Smith 2018: 10) or Smith (2018: 10).

For more information in text citations, referencing multiple authors, paraphrasing, quoting, and creating a bibliography/reference list, see Citing in the text, bibliography/reference list and click on the relevant section.

In the text

For an in-text citation in your work, you would cite the reference as follows:

Figes and Kolonitskii (1999)...
...(Figes and Kolonitskii 1999).

Hanley, Kerr and Waites (1984)...
...(Hanley, Kerr and Waites 1984).

In the bibliography/reference list

Author surname, Author forename., and Author forename Author Surname. Date. Title of book, Series Statement/Edition Statement/Volume Statement (Place of publication: Publisher)

Or

Author surname, Author Forename, Author Forename Author Surname, and (or &) Author forename Author surname. Year of publication. Title of book, Series Statement/Edition Statement/Volume Statement (Place of publication: Publisher)

Figes, Orlando, and Boris Kolonitskii. 1999. Interpreting the Russian Revolution: The Language and Symbols of 1917 (New Haven: Yale University Press)

Hanley, D.L., A.P. Kerr, and N.H. Waites. 1984. Contemporary France: Politics and Society Since 1945, rev. edn (London: Routledge)

Notes
  • The author's name should be given as it appears on the title page.
  • The title should be given as it appears on the title page of the item.
  • A colon should separate the title and subtitle, even if it is different to the grammar on the title page.
  • You should capitalise each significant word of the title and subtitle. The first word after a colon should be capitalised.
  • A series statement needs to be included if the item is part of a numbered series. However, it may be omitted if it is an unnumbered series and the title does not provide important information.
  • The edition should be included if it any edition other than the first e.g. 2nd edn, rev. edn
  • If the work is more than one volume, the number of volumes should be given e.g. 2 vols
  • Foreign items that are more than one volume should use the abbreviation vol. (Note the full stop at the end).
  • A book which has more than one place of publication, with a different publisher in each place, should have both places and publishers referred to in the reference (Basel: Birkäuser; Munich: Edition Detail).
  • If you are directly quoting or paraphrasing, you will need to include the page number(s) where you located the information in the in-text citation, e.g. (Smith 2018: 10) or Smith (2018: 10).

For more information in text citations, referencing multiple authors, paraphrasing, quoting, and creating a bibliography/reference list, see Citing in the text, bibliography/reference list and click on the relevant section.

In the text

For an in-text citation in your work, you would cite the reference as follows:

Booth and others (2016)...
...(Booth and others 2016)

Radford and others (2009)...
...(Radford and others 2009).

In the bibliography/reference list

First author surname, forename, and others. Year of publication. Title of book, Series Statement/Edition Statement/Volume Statement (Place of publication: Publisher)

Booth, Wayne C., and others. 2016. The Craft of Research, 4th edn (Chicago: The University of Chicago Press)

Radford, Andrew, and others. 2009. Linguistics: An Introduction, 2nd edn (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press)

Notes
  • The author's name should be given as it appears on the title page.
  • The names of up to three authors should be given in full, for works by more than three authors the name of the first author should be given followed by ‘and others’.
  • The title should be given as it appears on the title page of the item.
  • A colon should separate the title and subtitle, even if it is different to the grammar on the title page.
  • You should capitalise each significant word of the title and subtitle. The first word after a colon should be capitalised.
  • A series statement needs to be included if the item is part of a numbered series. However, it may be omitted if it is an unnumbered series and the title does not provide important information.
  • The edition should be included if it any edition other than the first e.g. 2nd edn, rev. edn
  • If the work is more than one volume, the number of volumes should be given e.g. 2 vols
  • Foreign items that are more than one volume should use the abbreviation vol. (Note the full stop at the end).
  • A book which has more than one place of publication, with a different publisher in each place, should have both places and publishers referred to in the reference (Basel: Birkäuser; Munich: Edition Detail).
  • If you are directly quoting or paraphrasing, you will need to include the page number(s) where you located the information in the in-text citation, e.g. (Smith 2018: 10) or Smith (2018: 10).

For more information in text citations, referencing multiple authors, paraphrasing, quoting, and creating a bibliography/reference list, see Citing in the text, bibliography/reference list and click on the relevant section.

In the text

For an in-text citation in your work, you would cite the reference as follows:

Skrelin and Kocharov (2014)...
(Skrelin and Kocherov 2014)

In the bibliography/reference list

Chapter author surname, forename. Date. ‘Chapter Title’, in Name of book, ed. by Editor forename surname, Series Statement/Edition Statement/Volume Statement (Place of publication: Publisher), pages used

Skrelin, Pavel, and Daniil Kocharov. 2014. ‘Russian Speech Corpora Framwork for Linguistic Purposes’ in Best Practices for Spoken Corpora in Linguistic Research, ed. by Şükrie Ruhi and others (Newcastle upon Tyne: Cambridge Scholars Publishing), pp. 118-27

Notes
  • The author/editor's name should be given as it appears on the title page/contents page.
  • The title of the book should be given as it appears on the title page of the item.
  • The title of the chapter should be given as it appears on the contents page
  • A colon should separate the title and subtitle, even if it is different to the grammar on the title page.
  • You should capitalise each significant word of the title and subtitle. The first word after a colon should be capitalised.
  • A series statement needs to be included if the item is part of a numbered series. However, it may be omitted if it is an unnumbered series and the title does not provide important information.
  • The edition should be included if it any edition other than the first e.g. 2nd edn, rev. edn
  • If the work is more than one volume, the number of volumes should be given e.g. 2 vols
  • Foreign items that are more than one volume should use the abbreviation vol. (Note the full stop at the end).
  • A book which has more than one place of publication, with a different publisher in each place, should have both places and publishers referred to in the reference (Basel: Birkäuser; Munich: Edition Detail).
  • If you are directly quoting or paraphrasing, you will need to include the page number(s) where you located the information in the in-text citation, e.g. (Smith 2018: 10) or Smith (2018: 10).

For more information in text citations, referencing multiple authors, paraphrasing, quoting, and creating a bibliography/reference list, see Citing in the text, bibliography/reference list and click on the relevant section.

In the text

For an in-text citation in your work, you would cite the reference as follows:

Halverson (2013)...
...(Halverson 2013)

In the bibliography/reference list

Chapter author surname, forename. Date. ‘Chapter Title’, in Name of book, ed. by Editor forename surname, Series Statement/Edition Statement/Volume Statement (Place of publication: Publisher), pages used. Supplier/Platform/File ebook.

Halverson, Sandra L. 2013. ‘Implications of Cognitive Linguistics for Translational Studies: Advances in Some Theoretical Models and Applications’, in Cognitive Linguistics and Translation ed. by Ana Rojo and Iraide Ibarretxe-Antuñano (Berlin: Walter de Gruyter GmbH), pp. 33-74. ProQuest Ebook Central

Notes
  • No official guidance for Book - Chapter/Section in an electronic book.
  • If the ebook is a stable document i.e. a PDF, you will be able to refer to page numbers you have used in your work. If the item is not a stable document, but the item has numbered sections or paragraphs, you will be able to use these to direct the reader to the information used in your work e.g. para. 2 of 15 would refer to the second paragraph of 15. Do not infer line number if they are not provided as different browsers or devices can change the display of the document.
  • If you are referencing a Kindle edition, you would include this information after the page range, e.g. pp. 12-13. Kindle edition.
  • The title of the book should be given as it appears on the title page of the item.
  • A colon should separate the title and subtitle, even if it is different to the grammar on the title page.
  • A series statement needs to be included if the item is part of a numbered series. However, it may be omitted if it is an unnumbered series and the title does not provide important information.
  • The edition should be included if it any edition other than the first e.g. 2nd edn, rev. edn
  • If the work is more than one volume, the number of volumes should be given e.g. 2 vols
  • Foreign items that are more than one volume should use the abbreviation vol. (Note the full stop at the end).
  • A book which has more than one place of publication, with a different publisher in each place, should have both places and publishers referred to in the reference (Basel: Birkäuser; Munich: Edition Detail).
  • If a particular page within a chapter or article is to be indicated, a full page span should still be given in the first full citation and a reference to the particular page should be added in rounded brackets, e.g. pp. 31-35 (p. 32)
  • If you are directly quoting or paraphrasing, you will need to include the page number(s) where you located the information in the in-text citation, e.g. (Smith 2018: 10) or Smith (2018: 10).

For more information in text citations, referencing multiple authors, paraphrasing, quoting, and creating a bibliography/reference list, see Citing in the text, bibliography/reference list and click on the relevant section.

In general, edited books are not cited in the text as they are a collection of chapters written by individual authors, collected together in one publication. If you use one or more chapter in your work, you should cite the chapter(s) using guidance for Book - Chapter in an edited book.

In the bibliography/reference list

Editor surname, forename. Year. Title of book, Series Statement/Edition Statement/Volume Statement (Place of publication: Publisher)

Philips, Helen and Nick Havely (eds.). 1997. Chaucer's Dream Poetry (London: Longman)

Notes
  • The author/editor's name should be given as it appears on the title page/contents page.
  • The title of the book should be given as it appears on the title page of the item.
  • The title of the chapter should be given as it appears on the contents page
  • A colon should separate the title and subtitle, even if it is different to the grammar on the title page.
  • A series statement needs to be included if the item is part of a numbered series. However, it may be omitted if it is an unnumbered series and the title does not provide important information.
  • The edition should be included if it any edition other than the first e.g. 2nd edn, rev. edn
  • If the work is more than one volume, the number of volumes should be given e.g. 2 vols
  • Foreign items that are more than one volume should use the abbreviation vol. (Note the full stop at the end).
  • A book which has more than one place of publication, with a different publisher in each place, should have both places and publishers referred to in the reference (Basel: Birkäuser; Munich: Edition Detail).

For more information in text citations, referencing multiple authors, paraphrasing, quoting, and creating a bibliography/reference list, see Citing in the text, bibliography/reference list and click on the relevant section.

In the text

For an in-text citation in your work, you would cite the reference as follows:

Pennycook (2018)...
...(Pennycook 2018).

In the bibliography/reference list

Author surname, forename. Year. Title of book, Series Statement/Edition Statement/Volume Statement (Place of publication: Publisher) Supplier/Platform/file ebook

Pennycook, Alastair. 2018. Posthumanist Applied Linguistics (London: Routledge). ProQuest Ebook Central

Notes
  • If the ebook is a stable document i.e. a PDF, you will be able to refer to page numbers you have used in your work. If the item is not a stable document, but the item has numbered sections or paragraphs, you will be able to use these to direct the reader to the information used in your work e.g. para. 2 of 15 would refer to the second paragraph of 15. Do not infer line number if they are not provided as different browsers or devices can change the display of the document.
  • If you are referencing a Kindle edition, you would include this information after the page range, e.g. pp. 12-13. Kindle edition.
  • The author/editor's name should be given as it appears on the title page/contents page. The author may be a corporate body or organisation.
  • The title of the book should be given as it appears on the title page of the item.
  • A colon should separate the title and subtitle, even if it is different to the grammar on the title page.
  • A series statement needs to be included if the item is part of a numbered series. However, it may be omitted if it is an unnumbered series and the title does not provide important information.
  • The edition should be included if it any edition other than the first e.g. 2nd edn, rev. edn
  • If the work is more than one volume, the number of volumes should be given e.g. 2 vols
  • Foreign items that are more than one volume should use the abbreviation vol. (Note the full stop at the end).
  • A book which has more than one place of publication, with a different publisher in each place, should have both places and publishers referred to in the reference (Basel: Birkäuser; Munich: Edition Detail).
  • If you are directly quoting or paraphrasing, you will need to include the page number(s) where you located the information in the in-text citation, e.g. (Smith 2018: 10) or Smith (2018: 10).

For more information in text citations, referencing multiple authors, paraphrasing, quoting, and creating a bibliography/reference list, see Citing in the text, bibliography/reference list and click on the relevant section.

[Top of page]

C, D, E

For Chapter in a book see Book - Chapter or Book - Chapter/Section in an electronic book.

For Compact Disc see Music - Album or Music - Album Track.

In print

In the text

For an in-text citation in your work, you would cite the reference as follows:

Ganiaris and Bateman (2004)...
...(Ganiaris and Bateman 2004).

In the bibliography

Chapter author surname, forename. Year of publication. ‘Chapter Title’, in Name of book, ed. by Editor forename surname, Series Statement/Edition Statement/Volume Statement (Place of publication: Publisher), pages of chapter

Ganiaris, Helen, and Nick Bateman. 2004. ‘From Arena to Art Gallery: The Preservation of London's Roman Amphitheatre in Situ’, in Preserving Archaeological Remains in Situ?: Proceedings of the 2nd Conference 12-14 September 2001, ed. by Taryn Nixon, (London: Museum of London Archaeology Service). pp. 198-201

Online

In the text

For an in-text citation in your work, you would cite the reference as follows:

Forbrig and Buchholz (2017)...
...(Forbrig and Buchholz 2017).

In the bibliography

Chapter author surname, forename. Year of publication. ‘Chapter Title’, in Name of book, ed. by Editor forename surname, Series Statement/Edition Statement/Volume Statement (Place of publication: Publisher), pages of chapter. Supplier/Platform/File ebook

Forbrig, Peter, and Gregor Buchholz. 2017. ‘Subject-Orientated Specification of Smart Environments’, in Proceedings of the 9th International Conference on Subject-orientated Business Process Management: S-BPM ONE 2017, Darmstadt, Germany, March 30-31, 2017, ed. by Max Mühlhäuser and Cornelia Zehbold (New York: Association for Computing Machinery). Article 8. ACM Digital Library ebook.

Notes
  • No official guidance for Conference Paper
  • If you are referencing a Kindle edition, you would include this information after the page range, e.g. pp. 12-13. Kindle edition.
  • The title of the book should be given as it appears on the title page of the item.
  • A colon should separate the title and subtitle, even if it is different to the grammar on the title page.
  • A series statement needs to be included if the item is part of a numbered series. However, it may be omitted if it is an unnumbered series and the title does not provide important information.
  • The edition should be included if it any edition other than the first e.g. 2nd edn, rev. edn
  • If the work is more than one volume, the number of volumes should be given e.g. 2 vols
  • Foreign items that are more than one volume should use the abbreviation vol. (Note the full stop at the end).
  • A book which has more than one place of publication and a different publisher in each place should be referred to e.g. (Basel: Birkäuser; Munich: Edition Detail).
  • If the online version is a stable document i.e. a PDF, you will be able to refer to page numbers you have used in your work. If the item is not a stable document, but the item has numbered sections or paragraphs, you will be able to use these to direct the reader to the information used in your work e.g. para. 2 of 15 would refer to the second paragraph of 15. Do not infer line number if they are not provided as different browsers or devices can change the display of the document.

For more information in text citations, referencing multiple authors, paraphrasing, quoting, and creating a bibliography/reference list, see Citing in the text, bibliography/reference list and click on the relevant section.

In print

In the bibliography

Editor surname, forename, ed(s). Year. Title of book, Series Statement/Edition Statement/Volume Statement (Place of publication: Publisher)

Nixon, Taryn, ed. 2004. Preserving Archaeological Remains in Situ?: Proceedings of the 2nd Conference 12-14 September 2001, (London: Museum of London Archaeological Service)

Online

In the bibliography

Editor surname, forename, ed(s). Year. Title of book, Series Statement/Edition Statement/Volume Statement (Place of publication: Publisher, Year of publication). Supplier/platform/file ebook

Mühlhäuser, Max, and Cornelia Zehbold, eds. 2017. Proceedings of the 9th International Conference on Subject-orientated Business Process Management: S-BPM ONE 2017, Darmstadt, Germany, March 30-31, 2017 (New York: Association for Computing Machinery). ACM Digital Library ebook

Notes
  • No official guidance for Conference Proceedings.
  • The author/editor's name should be given as it appears on the title page/contents page.
  • The title of the book should be given as it appears on the title page of the item.
  • A colon should separate the title and subtitle, even if it is different to the grammar on the title page.
  • A series statement needs to be included if the item is part of a numbered series. However, it may be omitted if it is an unnumbered series and the title does not provide important information.
  • The edition should be included if it any edition other than the first e.g. 2nd edn, rev. edn
  • If the work is more than one volume, the number of volumes should be given e.g. 2 vols
  • Foreign items that are more than one volume should use the abbreviation vol. (Note the full stop at the end).
  • A book which has more than one place of publication and a different publisher in each place should be referred to e.g. (Basel: Birkäuser; Munich: Edition Detail)

For more information in text citations, referencing multiple authors, paraphrasing, quoting, and creating a bibliography/reference list, see Citing in the text, bibliography/reference list and click on the relevant section.

For Dictionary see Reference Works.

In the text

For an in-text citation in your work, you would cite the reference as follows:

Bobcomb (2005)...
...(Bobcomb 2005).

In the bibliography/reference list

Author surname, forename. Year. ‘Title of thesis’ (unpublished masters dissertation, Name of University)

Bobcombe, Paul. 2005. ‘An Historical Study of the Development of the Adult Education Unit of the Ministry of Education in Trinidad and Tobago for the Period 1944-2004’ (unpublished master's dissertation, University of Sheffield)

Notes
  • No official guidance for Dissertation (Undergraduate or Masters).
  • The US refer to a doctoral dissertation and a master's thesis, in the UK it is referred to as a doctoral thesis and a master's dissertation
  • If you are directly quoting or paraphrasing, you will need to include the page number(s) where you located the information in the in-text citation, e.g. (Smith 2018: 10) or Smith (2018: 10)

For more information in text citations, referencing multiple authors, paraphrasing, quoting, and creating a bibliography/reference list, see Citing in the text, bibliography/reference list and click on the relevant section.

For DVD see Video - Physical Format.

For Electronic Book see Book - Electronic or Book - Chapter/Section in an electronic book.

For Electronic Journal see Journal Article with a DOI (Electronic) or Journal Article without a DOI (Electronic).

For Encylopaedia see Reference Works.

Viewed in person

In the text

‘Beatles to Bowie: The 60's Exposed’ (2009-2009)...
...(Beatles to Bowie: The 60's Exposed 2009-2010).

In the bibliography/reference list

Title of Exhibition, date of exhibition, holding institution, place of holding institution

Beatles to Bowie: The 60s Exposed. 15 October 2009 - 24 January 2010. National Portrait Gallery, London

Viewed online

In the bibliography/reference list

Title of Exhibition, date of exhibition, holding institution, place of holding institution <URL> [Date accessed]

Beatles to Bowie: The 60s Exposed. 15 October 2009 - 24 January 2010. National Portrait Gallery, London <https://www.npg.org.uk/beatles/exhib.htm> [accessed 31 January 2018]

Notes
  • No official guidance for an exhibition
  • Do not use URL shorteners such as bitly, tinyurl etc. when quoting the URL in a reference.
  • Titles of exhibitions should be enclosed in single quotation marks referred to in the text.

For more information about footnotes, referencing multiple authors, and creating a bibliography, see Citing in the text, footnotes and bibliography and click on the relevant section.

[Top of page]

F, G, H, I, J, K

For Facebook see Social Media.

For Film see the Video sections.

For Historical Texts see Ancient or Historical Texts.

In the text

Bridges (2008)...
...(Bridges 2008).

In the bibliography/reference list

Author surname, forename. Date (Year) Title of image, Type of source, Title of Website, day and month of publication, <URL> [Date accessed]

Bridges, Derek. 2008. Man Cat, digital photograph, Flickr, 22 December, <https://www.flickr.com/photos/derek_b/3145058691/> [accessed 18 January 2018]

Notes
  • No official guidance for images - online.
  • If you include an image in your work, you must ensure that you have relevant permissions to use the image from the rights holders or follow any license conditions stated.
  • Do not use URL shorteners such as bitly, tinyurl etc. when quoting the URL in a reference.

For more information in text citations, referencing multiple authors, paraphrasing, quoting, and creating a bibliography/reference list, see Citing in the text, bibliography/reference list and click on the relevant section.

In the text
In the bibliography/reference list

Author surname, forename. Year. ‘Title of article’, Title of Journal, Volume.Issue, page range

Neuhäuserm Rudolf. 2017. ‘The International Dostoevsky Society: From the Beginnings to the End of its Existence as an Independent Voluntary Organisation’, Dostoevsky Studies: The Journal of the International Dostoevsky Society, n.s., 25, 13-42

Notes
  • Only include the issue number/month/season of the journal if every issue starts with page 1.
  • If you do need to refer to an issue of a journal, it would be given as 3.3. This refers to Volume 3 Part 3 of a journal.
  • The volume number should be given in Arabic numerals even if the journal which you are citing prefers the use of Roman numerals e.g. 12 rather than XII.
  • The page range in a journal article is not preceded with pp.
  • Only give the main title of the journal, only give a subheading or place of publication if it will distinguish the journal from another of the same name.
  • Only include the definite or indefinite article at the start of the journal title when the title of the journal title is made up of two words, otherwise omit, e.g. The Drama Review would be included as Drama Review, whilst The Economist would remain unchanged.
  • If the journal has restarted its numbering, it will have a series number. This should be provided after the title of the journal, e.g. n.s. for new series. for a numbered series you would use the number of the series followed by ser. e.g. 2nd ser.
  • If you are directly quoting or paraphrasing, you will need to include the page number(s) where you located the information in the in-text citation, e.g. (Smith 2018: 10) or Smith (2018: 10).

For more information in text citations, referencing multiple authors, paraphrasing, quoting, and creating a bibliography/reference list, see Citing in the text, bibliography/reference list and click on the relevant section.

A DOI refers to a Digital Object Identifier. It provides a stable, persistent link to the article you are referring to. In the MHRA style, a DOI should be presented with http://dx.doi.org/ before the alphanumeric string, regardless of if the article presents the DOI in this way.

In the text

Parmenov (2018)...
...(Parmenov 2018)

In the bibliography/reference list

Author surname, forename. Year. ‘Title of Article’ Title of Journal, Volume.Issue, page range <DOI>

Parmenov, Viacheslav N. 2018. ‘The Russian Quality of Life, 1914-1917’, Russian Social Sciences Review, 59, 178-205 <https://doi.org/10.1080/10611428.2018.1475984>



Notes
  • Only include the issue number/month/season of the journal if every issue starts with page 1.
  • If you do need to refer to an issue of a journal, it would be given as 3.3. This refers to Volume 3 Part 3 of a journal.
  • The volume number should be given in Arabic numerals even if the journal which you are citing prefers the use of Roman numerals e.g. 12 rather than XII.
  • The page range in a journal article is not preceded with pp.
  • Only give the main title of the journal, only give a subheading or place of publication if it will distinguish the journal from another of the same name.
  • Only include the definite or indefinite article at the start of the journal title when the title of the journal title is made up of two words, otherwise omit, e.g. The Drama Review would be included as Drama Review, whilst The Economist would remain unchanged.
  • If the journal has restarted its numbering, it will have a series number. This should be provided after the title of the journal, e.g. n.s. for new series. for a numbered series you would use the number of the series followed by ser. e.g. 2nd ser.
  • If you are directly quoting or paraphrasing, you will need to include the page number(s) where you located the information in the in-text citation, e.g. (Smith 2018: 10) or Smith (2018: 10).

For more information in text citations, referencing multiple authors, paraphrasing, quoting, and creating a bibliography/reference list, see Citing in the text, bibliography/reference list and click on the relevant section.

URL refers to Universal Resource Locator, this is the address that you will see in your web browser. If a journal article does not have a DOI (See Journal Article with a DOI for a description), you should use this guidance. The MHRA Style Guide recommends that you look for the shortest form of a URL without long query strings, which is normally a question mark (?) followed by many numbers and letters.

In the text

Antonova-Ünlü (2015)...
...(Antonova-Ünlü 2015)

In the bibliography/reference list

Author surname, forename. Year. ‘Title of Article’ Title of Journal, Volume.Issue, page range <URL> [Date accessed]

Antonova-Ünlü, Elena. 2015 ‘Can the Pro-Drop Parameter Account for All the Errors in the Acquisition of Non-Referential It in L2 English?’, The Canadian Journal of Applied Linguistics, 8.1, 21-41 <https://search.proquest.com/docview/1692719247?accountid=13828>

Notes
  • Only include the issue number/month/season of the journal if every issue starts with page 1.
  • If you do need to refer to an issue of a journal, it would be given as 3.3. This refers to Volume 3 Part 3 of a journal.
  • The volume number should be given in Arabic numerals even if the journal which you are citing prefers the use of Roman numerals e.g. 12 rather than XII.
  • The page range in a journal article is not preceded with pp.
  • Only give the main title of the journal, only give a subheading or place of publication if it will distinguish the journal from another of the same name.
  • Only include the definite or indefinite article at the start of the journal title when the title of the journal title is made up of two words, otherwise omit, e.g. The Drama Review would be included as Drama Review, whilst The Economist would remain unchanged.
  • Do not use URL shorteners such as bitly, tinyurl etc. when quoting the URL in a reference.
  • If the journal has restarted its numbering, it will have a series number. This should be provided after the title of the journal, e.g. n.s. for new series. for a numbered series you would use the number of the series followed by ser. e.g. 2nd ser.
  • If you are directly quoting or paraphrasing, you will need to include the page number(s) where you located the information in the in-text citation, e.g. (Smith 2018: 10) or Smith (2018: 10)

For more information in text citations, referencing multiple authors, paraphrasing, quoting, and creating a bibliography/reference list, see Citing in the text, bibliography/reference list and click on the relevant section.

A DOI refers to a Digital Object Identifier. It provides a stable, persistent link to the article you are referring to. In the MHRA style, a DOI should be presented with http://dx.doi.org/ before the alphanumeric string, regardless of if the article presents the DOI in this way.

In the text

Charlson (2018)...
...(Charlson 2018).

Lucia-Casaemunt, Cuéllar-Molina and Garcia-Cabrera (2018)...
...(Lucia-Casaemunt, Cuéllar-Molina and Garcia-Cabrera 2018).

In the bibliography

Author(s) surname, forename ‘Title of Article’ Title of Journal, Volume.Issue (if available, if not use advance online publication) (Year), page range <DOI>

Charlson, Jennifer, ‘Regeneration of Brownfield Land: The Environmental Law Challenges’, Journal of Property, Planning and Environmental Law, Advance online publication (2018) <http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/JPPEL-12-2017-0038>

Lucia-Casademunt, Ana M., Deybbie Cuéllar-Molina, and Antonia M.. Garcia-Cabrera, ‘The Role of Human resource Practices and Managers in the Development of Well-being: Cultural Differences in the Changing Workplace’, Cross Cultural & Strategic Management, Advance online publication (2018) <http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/CCSM-05-2017-0054>

Notes
  • Only include the issue number/month/season of the journal if every issue starts with page 1.
  • If you do need to refer to an issue of a journal, it would be given as 3.3. This refers to Volume 3 Part 3 of a journal.
  • The volume number should be given in Arabic numerals even if the journal which you are citing prefers the use of Roman numerals e.g. 12 rather than XII.
  • The page range in a journal article is not preceded with pp.
  • Only give the main title of the journal, only give a subheading or place of publication if it will distinguish the journal from another of the same name.
  • Only include the definite or indefinite article at the start of the journal title when the title of the journal title is made up of two words, otherwise omit, e.g. The Drama Review would be included as Drama Review, whilst The Economist would remain unchanged.
  • Advanced online publications, or preprints, will tend to have a DOI. If it does not, you would include the URL in place of the DOI followed by the date you accessed the paper in square brackets e.g. [accessed 19 October 2018].

For more information in text citations, referencing multiple authors, paraphrasing, quoting, and creating a bibliography/reference list, see Citing in the text, bibliography/reference list and click on the relevant section.

For Kindle or other e-reader see Book - electronic.

[Top of page]

L, M, N, O, P, Q

MHRA guidance states that magazines, which are defined as regularly non-scholarly periodicals, should be referenced the same as you would reference a Newspaper Article.

In the text

Guardians of the Galaxy: Awesome Mix Vol. 1 (2014)...
...(Guardians of the Galaxy: Awesome Mix Vol. 1 2014)

Hall and Oates (1984)...
...(Hall and Oates 1984)

Prodigy (1997)...
...(Prodigy 1997)

In the bibliography/reference list

Artist surname, forename, or Band name. Year Title of Album (Recording Company, Album Reference (if available)) [medium accessed e.g. on CD, on Vinyl]

Guardians of the Galaxy: Awesome Mix Vol. 1. 2014. (Hollywood Records) [on MP3]

Hall, Daryl and John Oates. 1984. Big Bam Boom (RCA, AFL1-5309, 1984) [on vinyl]

Prodigy. 1997. The Fat of the Land (XL Recordings, XLCD 121) [on CD]

Notes
  • No official guidance for Music - Album

For more information in text citations, referencing multiple authors, paraphrasing, quoting, and creating a bibliography/reference list, see Citing in the text, bibliography/reference list and click on the relevant section.

In the text

The Beatles (1965: Track 7)...
...(The Beatles 1965: Track 7).

Terrell and Gaye (2014: Track 12)...
...(Terrell and Gaye 2014: Track 12).

In the bibliography/reference list

Artist forename surname or Band name. Year. ‘Title of song’, Title of Album (Recording Company, Album Reference) [medium accessed e.g. on CD, on Vinyl].

The Beatles. 1965. ‘Ticket to Ride’, Help! (EMI Records, CDP 7464392) [on CD].

Terrell, Tammi, and Marvin Gaye. 2014. ‘Ain't No Mountain High Enough’, Guardians of the Galaxy: Awesome Mix Vol. 1 (Hollywood Records) [on MP3].

Mangan, Dan. 2009. ‘Road Regrets’, Nice, Nice, Very Nice (File Under: Music, FUM06) [on CD].

Notes
  • No official guidance for Music - Album Track

For more information in text citations, referencing multiple authors, paraphrasing, quoting, and creating a bibliography/reference list, see Citing in the text, bibliography/reference list and click on the relevant section.

For Music - Digital Format see Music – Album or Music – Album Track.

Full Score

In the text

Verdi (n.d. repr. 1978)...
...(Verdi n.d. repr. 1978)

In the bibliography/reference list

Composer surname, forename. Year of publication. Title of score, Forename surname of editor/translator [if needed], Series Statement/Edition Statement/Volume Statement (Place of publication: Publisher), act/scene number/pages used.

Verdi, Giuseppe. [n.d.] repr. 1978. Requiem in Full Score, ed. by Kurt Soldan (Leipzig: C F. Peters; repr. New York: Dover Press)

Item from a score

In the text

Loesser (1998)...
...(Loesser 1998).

In the bibliography/reference list

Composer surname, forename. Year of publication. ‘Title of item’, in Name of score, Forename Surname of editor/translator/compiler, Series Statement/Edition Statement/Volume Statement (Place of publication: Publisher), pages of section

Loesser, Frank. 1998. ‘I've Never Been In Love Before’, in The Black Book: 50 Showstoppers, comp. by Peter Evans (London: Wise Publications), pp. 80-82

Notes
  • No official guidance for Music - Score
  • The name of the composer(s) should be given as it appears on the title page.
  • The title should be given as it appears on the title page of the item.
  • A colon should separate the title and subtitle, even if it is different to the grammar on the title page.
  • A series statement needs to be included if the item is part of a numbered series. However, it may be omitted if it is an unnumbered series and the title does not provide important information.
  • The edition should be included if it any edition other than the first e.g. 2nd edn, rev. edn
  • If the work is more than one volume, the number of volumes should be given e.g. 2 vols
  • Foreign items that are more than one volume should use the abbreviation vol. (Note the full stop at the end).
  • A book which has more than one place of publication and a different publisher in each place should be referred to e.g. (Basel: Birkäuser; Munich: Edition Detail)
  • If the item you are using is a reprint, you will need to acknowledge this in the publication details, this can be done in two ways:
    • If the reprint is by the same publisher, add the reprint date to the original date of publication e.g. 1995 repr. 2008
    • If the item is printed by a different publisher, add the reprint date to the original date of publication as above, and include the publication details of the second publisher after the first using a semi-colon and repr. to separate the two e.g. Leipzig: C F. Peters; repr. New York: Dover Press).

For more information about footnotes, referencing multiple authors, and creating a bibliography, see Citing in the text, footnotes and bibliography and click on the relevant section.

In print

In the text

Sample (2015)...
...(Sample 2015)

In the bibliography/reference list

Author surname, forename. Year. ‘Title of article’, Title of Newspaper, Date of article (Day Month), Section of newspaper (if applicable), page number of article

Sample, Ian. 2015. ‘Briton to Blast Off on Mission of a Lifetime’, Guardian, 15 December, pp. 1, 24-25

Online

In the footnotes

Sample (2015)...
...(Sample 2015)

In the bibliography/reference list

Author surname, forename. Year. ‘Title of article’, Title of Newspaper, Date of article (Day Month) <URL> [Date accessed]

Sample, Ian. 2015. ‘Tim Peake, Britain's First ESA Astronaut Set for Liftoff from Kazakhstan’, Guardian, 15 December <https://www.theguardian.com/science/2015/dec/14/britain-iss-astronaut-tim-peake-international-space-station> [accessed 26 January 2018]


Newspaper Database e.g. Nexis

In the text

Sample (2015)...
...(Sample 2015)

In the bibliography/reference list

Author surname, forename. Year. ‘Title of article’, Title of Newspaper, Date of article (Day Month) <URL of database homepage> [Date accessed]

Sample, Ian. 2015. ‘Tim Peake, Britain's First ISS Astronaut, Set for Liftoff from Kazakhstan: Principia Mission to International Space Station Opens UK to Serious Involvement in Human Spaceflight’, Guardian, 15 December <https://www.nexis.com> [accessed 26 January 2018]


Notes
  • When citing English newspapers, ‘The’ or ‘A’ are normally omitted from the title. The only newspaper this does not apply to is The Times.
  • The month should always be cited in English even if you are referencing a foreign language newspaper.
  • For online articles, do not infer page, line or paragraph number unless they are marked on the article, as these may differ depending on browser or device used.
  • Do not use URL shorteners such as bitly, tinyurl etc. when quoting the URL in a reference.
  • If you are directly quoting or paraphrasing, you will need to include the page number(s) where you located the information in the in-text citation, e.g. (Smith 2018: 10) or Smith (2018: 10).

For more information in text citations, referencing multiple authors, paraphrasing, quoting, and creating a bibliography/reference list, see Citing in the text, bibliography/reference list and click on the relevant section.

In print

In the text

Shakespeare (1990)...
...(Shakespeare 1990).

In the bibliography/reference list

Author surname, forename. Year of publication. Title of book, ed. by Editor forename surname, series statement/Edition statement/Volume statement (Place of publication: publisher, Year).

Shakespeare, William. 1990. The Tragedy of Macbeth, ed. by Nicholas Brooke (Oxford: Clarendon Press)


Online

In the text

Shakespeare (1785)...
...(Shakespeare 1785).

In the bibliography/reference list

Author surname, forename. Year of publication. Title of book ed. by Editor forename surname, series statement/Edition statement/Volume statement (Place of publication: publisher, Year). Supplier/platform/file ebook

Shakespeare, William. 1785. Macbeth: A Tragedy. Written by William Shakespeare, with the additions set to muſic by Mr. Locke and Dr. Arne. Marked with the Variations in the Manager's Book at the Theatre Royal in Drury Lane. (London: Printed for C. Bathurst, W. and A. Strathan, J.F. & C. Rivington, L. Davis, W. Lowdnes, W. Owen & Son, B. White & Son, T. Longman, B. Law, C. Dilly, T. Cadell, T. Payne & Son, J. Robson, G.G.J. & J. Robsinson, T. Davies, T. Bowles, R. Baldwin, H.L. Gardener, J. Nicholls, J. Bew, W. Cater, J. Murray, W. Stuart, S. Hayes, W. Bent, S. Bladon, W. Fox, & E. Newbery). Eighteenth Century Collections Online (ECCO) ebook


Notes
  • No official guidance for Plays
  • The Scene, Act, and line numbers should be separated with full stops (.) rather than commas (,).
  • Small capital Roman numerals should be used for the numbers of acts, the number of books, and major subdivisions.
  • Scenes, cantos, chapters use Arabic numerals.
  • For later references, you will be able to use the name of the play along with scene, act and line information.

For more information about footnotes, referencing multiple authors, and creating a bibliography, see Citing in the text, footnotes and bibliography and click on the relevant section.

[Top of page]

R, S, T, U

Episode of a series

In the text

'Charlie Brooker' (2018)...
...(Charlie Brooker 2018).

In the bibliography/reference list

‘Title of Episode’. Year of broadcast. Name of series, Radio Station of Broadcast, Day and Month of original broadcast, Time of broadcast if necessary <URL if available/needed> [Date accessed if needed].

‘Charlie Brooker’. 2018. Desert Island Discs, BBC Radio 4, 12 January, 9:00am <http://www.bbc.co.uk/programmes/b09kx840> [accessed 31 January 2018]

Programme

In the text

Today (2018)...
...(Today 2018)

In the bibliography/reference list

Name of series. Year of broadcast. Radio Station of Broadcast, Day and Month of Original Broadcast, Time of broadcast if necessary <URL if necessary> [Date accessed if necessary].

Today. 2018. BBC Radio 4, 29 January, 6:00am <https://learningonscreen.ac.uk/ondemand/index.php/prog/108B0705> [accessed 31 January 2018].

Notes
  • No official guidance for Radio

For more information in text citations, referencing multiple authors, paraphrasing, quoting, and creating a bibliography/reference list, see Citing in the text, bibliography/reference list and click on the relevant section.

Reference Work Entry - In print

In the text

Brown (2004)...
...(Brown 2004)

In the bibliography/reference list

Author of entry surname, forename. Year. ‘Title of Entry’, in Name of reference work, ed. by Editor forename surname Series statement/Edition Statement/Volume Statement (Place of Publication: Publisher)

Brown, E. Keith. 2004. ‘Generative Grammar’, in The Linguistics Encyclopedia, ed. by Kirsten Malmkaejrær, 2nd edn (London: Routledge)

Reference Work Entry - Online

In the text

Matthews (2014)...
...(Matthews 2014).

In the bibliography/reference list

Author of entry surname, forename. Year. ‘Title of Entry’, in Name of reference work, ed. by Editor forename surname Series statement/Edition Statement/Volume Statement (Place of Publication: Publisher). Supplier/Platform/File ebook

Matthews, P.H. 2014. ‘Zero Anaphora’, in The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Linguistics, 3rd edn (Oxford: Oxford University Press). Oxford Reference Premium Collection ebook

Reference Work Full - In print

In the bibliography/reference list

Author/Editor surname, Forename (ed. if editor). Year. Title of reference work, Series/Edition/Volume statement (Place of Publication: Publisher)

Malmkaejrær, Kirsten (ed.). 2004. The Linguistics Encyclopedia, 2nd edn (London: Routledge)

Reference Work Full - Online

Author/Editor forename surname (ed. if editor). Year. Title of reference work, Series/Edition/Volume statement (Place of Publication: Publisher, Year of publication). Supplier/Platform/File ebook

Matthews, P.H. 2014. Oxford Concise Dictionary of Linguistics, 3rd edn (Oxford: Oxford University Press). Oxford Reference Premium Collection ebook

Notes
  • No official guidance for Reference Works.
  • Some reference items will only have an editor listed, if this is the case, use the names of the editors followed by (ed). or (eds). in place of the author(s).
  • If the item is a translated item, you would place the name of the translator after the title and use the abbreviation trans.
  • The author/editor's name should be given as it appears on the title page/contents page.
  • The title of the book should be given as it appears on the title page of the item.
  • The title of the chapter should be given as it appears on the contents page.
  • A colon should separate the title and subtitle, even if it is different to the grammar on the title page.
  • A series statement needs to be included if the item is part of a numbered series. However, it may be omitted if it is an unnumbered series and the title does not provide important information.
  • The edition should be included if it any edition other than the first e.g. 2nd edn, rev. edn
  • If the work is more than one volume, the number of volumes should be given e.g. 2 vols
  • Foreign items that are more than one volume should use the abbreviation vol. (Note the full stop at the end).
  • If you are directly quoting or paraphrasing, you will need to include the page number(s) where you located the information in the in-text citation, e.g. (Smith 2018: 10) or Smith (2018: 10).
  • A book which has more than one place of publication, with a different publisher in each place, should have both places and publishers referred to in the reference (Basel: Birkäuser; Munich: Edition Detail).

For more information in text citations, referencing multiple authors, paraphrasing, quoting, and creating a bibliography/reference list, see Citing in the text, bibliography/reference list and click on the relevant section.

In print

In the text

United Nations Human Settlement Programme (2005)...
...(United Nations Human Settlement Programme 2005).

In the bibliography/reference list

Author forename surname OR Corporate Author. Year. Title of report, Report number (if available) (Place of publication: Publisher, Year of Publication)

United Nations Human Settlement Programme. 2005. Financing Urban Shelter: Global Report on Human Settlements 2005 (London: Earthscan)

Online

In the text

Association for Low Countries Studies (2018)...
...(Association for Low Countries Studies 2018)

In the bibliography/reference list

Author surname, forename. Year. Title of report, Report number (Place of publication: Publisher) <URL> [Date accessed]

Association for Low Countries Studies. 2018. The State of Dutch Studies in the UK and Ireland: A Study into the Provision of Dutch Language and Culture Teaching in Higher Education, 2017-2018 (Sheffield: Germanic Studies, School of Languages and Cultures - University of Sheffield) <http://alcs.ac.uk/wp-content/uploads/2018/06/The-state-of-Dutch-studies-in-the-UK-and-Ireland-2018-v5-SMALL.pdf> [accessed 9 October 2018]

Notes
  • The author's name should be given as it appears on the title page.
  • The names of up to three authors should be given in full, for works by more than three authors the name of the first author should be given followed by ‘and others’.
  • The title should be given as it appears on the title page of the item.
  • A colon should separate the title and subtitle, even if it is different to the grammar on the title page.
  • You should capitalise each significant word of the title and subtitle. The first word after a colon should be capitalised.
  • A series statement needs to be included if the item is part of a numbered series. However, it may be omitted if it is an unnumbered series and the title does not provide important information.
  • The edition should be included if it any edition other than the first e.g. 2nd edn, rev. edn
  • If the work is more than one volume, the number of volumes should be given e.g. 2 vols
  • Foreign items that are more than one volume should use the abbreviation vol. (Note the full stop at the end).
  • A book which has more than one place of publication, with a different publisher in each place, should have both places and publishers referred to in the reference (Basel: Birkäuser; Munich: Edition Detail).
  • If you are directly quoting or paraphrasing, you will need to include the page number(s) where you located the information in the in-text citation, e.g. (Smith 2018: 10) or Smith (2018: 10).

For more information in text citations, referencing multiple authors, paraphrasing, quoting, and creating a bibliography/reference list, see Citing in the text, bibliography/reference list and click on the relevant section.

For Scultupre see Art in a gallery, museum or online.

In the text

Peake (2017)...
...(Peake 2017).

The University of Sheffield...
...(The University of Sheffield 2017)

In the bibliography/reference list

Author Surname, Forename or Organisational name. Date (Year, Day Month). ‘Title of Tweet/Facebook post’. (Format, username)

Peake, Tim. 2017, 5 December. ‘A good day in the office today - spacewalk training with @Explornaut. Thanks to the amazing divers @esa who keep us safe’. (tweet, @astro_timpeake)

The University of Sheffield. 2017, 6 January. ‘Our campus, seen from St. George's Terrace. #shefunilife (Photo by ES KWON)’. (Facebook post)

Notes

No official guidance available for Social Media

  • You should keep the spelling and punctuation used in the social media post
  • The title in you reference entry is usually the full social media post (up to 40 words).
  • If a post is a retweet or a share, then use the original post rather than the shared item.
  • Do not use shortened URLs from services such as bit.ly or Tinyurl, even if quoted in a tweet, replace with the original URL.
  • If the name of the creator is not available, you may use the screen name of the creator instead.
  • Be careful when citing any personal communication that has taken place online. You will need the written consent of anyone who was involved in the communications that have taken place even if you were the recipient of the message, and you may not name individuals in your work. This includes non-public postings such as:
    • Direct messages
    • Posts on someone's Facebook wall
    • Posts to members only groups
    • Online conversations

For more information in text citations, referencing multiple authors, paraphrasing, quoting, and creating a bibliography/reference list, see Citing in the text, bibliography/reference list and click on the relevant section.

For Television see Video sections.

In print

In the text

Boon (2014)...
...(Boon 2014)

In the bibliography/reference list

Author surname, forename. Year. ‘Title of thesis’ (unpublished doctoral thesis, Name of University).

Boon, James. 2014. ‘ Pseudo-factual Discourses and Decentred Textual Realities in Contemporary Fiction’ (unpublished doctoral thesis, University of Sheffield)

Online

In the text

Di Bari (2015)...
...(Di Bari 2015).

In the bibliography/reference list

Author surname, forename. Year. ‘Title of thesis’ (unpublished doctoral thesis, Name of University) in Database of Name of database <URL> [Date accessed]

Di Bari, Marilena. 2015. ‘Improving Multilingual Sentiment Analysis Using Linguistic Knowledge’ (unpublished doctoral thesis, University of Leeds) in Database of White Rose eThesis Online <http://etheses.whiterose.ac.uk/11883/> [accessed 3 October 2018]

Notes
  • The US refer to doctoral dissertation and master's thesis whilst the UK refer to doctoral thesis and master's thesis. You should refer to the works according to the country, for example if you are using a US doctoral dissertation, you would refer to it as doctoral dissertation in your work.
  • Do not use URL shorteners such as bitly, tinyurl etc. when including a URL in your reference.
  • If the electronic version is a stable document, such as a PDF, you will be able to refer to page numbers you have used in your work. If the item is not a stable document, but the item has numbered sections or numbered paragraphs, you will be able to use these to direct the reader to the information used in your work e.g. para. 2 of 15 would refer to the second paragraph of 15. Do not infer line number if they are not provided as the browser may change the display of the document.

For more information in text citations, referencing multiple authors, paraphrasing, quoting, and creating a bibliography/reference list, see Citing in the text, bibliography/reference list and click on the relevant section.

In print

In the text

Tolstoy (1995 repr. 2008)...
...(Tolstoy 1995 repr. 2008).

In the bibliography/reference list

Author surname, forename. Year. Title of item, trans. by. Translator forename surname (Place of publication: Publisher)

Tolstoy, Leo. 1995 repr. 2008. Anna Karenina, trans by. Louise Maude and Aylmer Maue, intro. by W. Gareth Jones (Oxford: Oxford University Press)

Online

In the text

Tolstoy (1995)...
...(Tolstoy 1995).

In the bibliography/reference list

Author surname, forname. Year. Title of item, Translator forename surname (Place of publication: Publisher).

Tolstoy, Leo. 1995. Anna Karenina, trans. by Lousie Maude and Aylmer Maude, intro. by W Gareth Jones (Oxford: Oxford University Press) Dawson Era Ebook

Notes
  • No official guidance for Translated Item.
  • The author/translator/editor's name should be given as it appears on the title page.
  • Translated by is abbreviated to trans. by.
  • Introduction by is abbreviated to intro by.
  • The title should be given as it appears on the title page of the item.
  • A colon should separate the title and subtitle, even if it is different to the grammar on the title page.
  • A series statement needs to be included if the item is part of a numbered series. However, it may be left out if it is an unnumbered series and the title does not provide important information about the item.
  • Items which are not written in English and consist of more than one volume should use the abbreviation vol. (Note the full stop at the end).
  • A book which has more than one place of publication, with a different publisher in each place, should have both places and publishers referred to in the reference (Basel: Birkäuser; Munich: Edition Detail).
  • If the item you are using is a reprint, you will need to acknowledge this in the publication details, this can be done in two ways:
    • If the reprint is by the same publisher, add the reprint date to the original date of publication e.g. 1995 repr. 2008
    • If the item is printed by a different publisher, add the reprint date to the original date of publication as above, and include the publication details of the second publisher after the first using a semi-colon and repr. to separate the two e.g. (Leipzig: C F. Peters; repr. New York: Dover Press).

For more information in text citations, referencing multiple authors, paraphrasing, quoting, and creating a bibliography/reference list, see Citing in the text, bibliography/reference list and click on the relevant section.

For transliteration of items see Citing and referencing foreign language materials in Citing in the text and bibliography/reference list.

For Twitter see Social Media.

[Top of page]

V, W, X, Y, Z

Episode of a TV Programme

In the text

Bernie Clifton's Dressing Room (2018)...
...(Bernie Clifton's Dressing Room 2018).

In the bibliography

‘Title of Episode’. Year of broadcast. Name of Series, Channel of Broadcast, Day & Month of broadcast, time of broadcast <Full URL> [Date accessed]


‘Bernie Clifton’s Dressing Room’. 2018. Inside No. 9, BBC2, 9 January, 10.00pm <https://learningonscreen.ac.uk/ondemand/index.php/prog/106A1D6B> [accessed 10 January 2018]

TV Programme

In the text

Newsnight (2018)...
...(Newsnight 2018).

In the bibliography

Title of programme. Year of broadcast. Channel of Broadcast, Day & Month of broadcast, time of broadcast <Full URL> [Date accessed]


Newsnight. 2018. BBC2, 4 January, 10:30pm <https://learningonscreen.ac.uk/ondemand/index.php/prog/105C0FEA> [accessed 10 January 2018].

Notes
  • No official guidance for Video - Database.

For more information in text citations, referencing multiple authors, paraphrasing, quoting, and creating a bibliography/reference list, see Citing in the text, bibliography/reference list and click on the relevant section.

In the text

Johnson (2017)...
...(Johnson 2017).

In the bibliography

Director surname, forename, dir. Year of release. Title of film/motion picture (Distributor, date)

Johnson, Rian, dir. 2017. Star Wars: The Last Jedi (Walt Disney Studios Motion Pictures)

Notes
  • No official guidance for Video - Film/Motion Picture.

For more information in text citations, referencing multiple authors, paraphrasing, quoting, and creating a bibliography/reference list, see Citing in the text, bibliography/reference list and click on the relevant section.

Film/Motion Picture

In the text

Branagh (1996)...
...(Branagh 1996).

Scott (2015)...
...(Scott 2015).

In the bibliography

Director surname, forename, dir. Year of release. Title of film (Distributor) [on DVD or on Blu-Ray]

Branagh, Kenneth, dir. 1996. Hamlet (Sony Pictures Entertainment) [on DVD]

Scott, Ridley, dir. 2015. The Martian (20th Century Fox) [on Blu-Ray]

TV programme

In the text

The Door (2016)...
...(The Door 2016).

Bibliography

‘Title of Episode’. Year of release. Name of series (Distribution Company) [on DVD or on Blu-Ray]


‘The Door’. 2016. Game of Thrones: The Complete Sixth Series (Warner Home Video/HBO) [on Blu-Ray]

Notes
  • No official guidance for Video - Physical Format

For more information in text citations, referencing multiple authors, paraphrasing, quoting, and creating a bibliography/reference list, see Citing in the text, bibliography/reference list and click on the relevant section.

In the text

Author surname, forename. Year. Title of video, Type of Source, Title of website, Day & Month of publication, <URL> [Date Accessed]

The University of Sheffield. 2017. The Arts Tower Paternoster, online video recording, YouTube, 21 December <https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ZYbyaj4G9FM> [accessed 15 January 2018]

Notes
  • No official guidance for Video - Sharing Website
  • If the name of the creator is not available, use the screen name.

For more information in text citations, referencing multiple authors, paraphrasing, quoting, and creating a bibliography/reference list, see Citing in the text, bibliography/reference list and click on the relevant section.

Note

If you have used a streaming service such as iPlayer to view something recently broadcast on television, use the example given for Video - Database (e.g. Box of Broadcasts). If you are using the streaming service to watch a box set and it has no date of broadcast (such as Television programmes available on 4OD marketed as Box Sets where all episodes are available without a date of broadcast) follow the examples below.

Film/Motion picture

In the text

Chazelle (2016)...
...(Chazelle 2016).

Owen (1964)...
...(Owen 1964).

In the bibliography

Director surname, forename, dir. Year of release. Title of film (Distributor) <Full URL> [Date accessed]

Chazelle, Damien, dir. 2016. La La Land. (Lionsgate) <https://www.netflix.com/watch/80095365> [accessed 11 January 2018]

Owen, Alun, dir. 1964. A Hard Day's Night (United Artists Corporation, 1964) <https://www.bbc.co.uk/iplayer/episode/b0074q9m/a-hard-days-night> [accessed 11 January 2018]

Episode of a TV Programme

In the text

Chapter Six: The Spy (2017)...
...(Chapter 6: The Spy).

The Red Door (2006)...
...(The Red Door 2006).

In the bibliography

‘Title of Episode’. Year of release. Name of series (Distribution Company) <Full URL> [Date accessed]

‘Chapter Six: The Spy’. 2017. Stranger Things 2 (Netflix). <https://www.netflix.com/title/80057281> [accessed 27 October 2017]

‘The Red Door’. 2006. The IT Crowd (Channel 4 Television Corporation) <http://www.channel4.com/programmes/the-it-crowd/on-demand/35925-004> [accessed 12 January 2018]

TV Programme

In the text

Anjelica Houston on James Joyce: A Shout in the Street (2017)...
...(Anjelica Houston on James Joyce: A Shout in the Street, 2017).

In the bibliography

Name of TV programme. Year. (Distribution Company) <Full URL> [Date accessed]

Anjelica Houston on James Joyce: A Shout in the Street. 2017. (BBC; Arte; RTE) <https://www.bbc.co.uk/iplayer/episode/b09mb966/anjelica-huston-on-james-joyce-a-shout-in-the-street> [accessed 22 January 2018]

Notes
  • No official guidance for Video - Streaming Service

For more information about footnotes, referencing multiple authors, and creating a bibliography, see Citing in the text, footnotes and bibliography and click on the relevant section.

For Vinyl Record see Music - Album or Music - Album Track.

In the text

Rosen (n.d.)...
...(Rosen n.d.)

In the bibliography/reference list

Author surname, forename. Year. ‘Title of page’, Name of website <URL> [Date Accessed]

Rosen, Michael. [n.d.]. ‘Michael Rosen Biography’, Michael Rosen <http://www.michaelrosen.co.uk/for-adults-biography/> [accessed 22 January 2018]

Notes
  • No official guidance available for Web Page
  • The MHRA Style Guide recommends that you look for the shortest form of a URL without long query strings, which is normally a question mark (?) followed by many numbers and letters.
  • Do not use URL shorteners such as bitly, tinyurl etc. when quoting the URL in a reference.
  • Sometimes the author of a web page will be a corporate author, place the name of the corporation in the place of author forename surname. The corporation name will be used to determine the place in the bibliography.
  • There is often a copyright statement at the bottom of web pages e.g. ©2018 The University of Sheffield. The date of copyright is often not an indication of when the web page was updated, but rather a footer to the website. Look for a date that says Last modified/updated for the year the web page was published/updated.
  • If you are unable to find a date of modification/update, but can ascertain an approximate date of modification/update, circa should be used. This should be abbreviated to c., e.g. (Smith c. 1990) for in-text citations, or c. 1990 in the bibliography/reference list.
  • If no date or approximate date can be found, use no date. This should be abbreviated to n.d., e.g. (Smith n.d.) for in-text citations, or [n.d.] in the bibliography/reference list.

For more information about footnotes, referencing multiple authors, and creating a bibliography, see Citing in the text, footnotes and bibliography and click on the relevant section.

In the text

Council of Europe (n.d.)...
...(Council of Europe n.d.).

In the bibliography/reference list

Author of website surname, forename. Year. Name of website <URL> [Date accessed]

Council of Europe. [n.d.]. European Centre for Modern Languages <https://www.ecml.at/> [accessed 15 October 2018]

Notes

No official guidance for referencing a website

  • The MHRA Style Guide recommends that you look for the shortest form of a URL without long query strings, which is normally a question mark (?) followed by many numbers and letters.
  • Do not use URL shorteners such as bitly, tinyurl etc. when quoting the URL in a reference.
  • Sometimes the author of a web page will be a corporate author, place the name of the corporation in the place of author forename surname. The corporation name will be used to determine the place in the bibliography.
  • There is often a copyright statement at the bottom of websites e.g. ©2018 The University of Sheffield. The date of copyright is often not an indication of when the website was updated, but rather a footer to the website, look for a date that says ‘Last modified/updated’ for the year the website was published.
  • If you are unable to find a date of modification/update, but can ascertain an approximate date of modification/update, circa should be used. This should be abbreviated to c., e.g. (Smith c. 1990) for in-text citations, or c. 1990 in the bibliography/reference list.
  • If no date or approximate date can be found, use no date. This should be abbreviated to n.d., e.g. (Smith n.d.) for in-text citations, or [n.d.] in the bibliography/reference list.

For more information about footnotes, referencing multiple authors, and creating a bibliography, see Citing in the text, footnotes and bibliography and click on the relevant section.

For YouTube see Video - Sharing Website (e.g. YouTube).