IEEE referencing

Reference list vs. Bibliography

In the IEEE style, references are listed at the end of your work, and are organised numerically in order of reference.

A reference list includes all works that have been referred to in the assignment.

A bibliography includes all the material consulted in writing your assignment even if you have not cited them within it.

Many people use these terms interchangeably so, if you are unsure about whether you need to include a bibliography as well as a reference list, ask your tutor.


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IEEE referencing style is a numerical style designed by the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers. It is used in technical fields. Within the IEEE style sources are cited in references at the end of the assignment, with a corresponding reference number placed in the text. Further details of IEEE referencing can be found in Section V of the IEEE Editorial Style Manual.

Some elements of the standard offer a choice of approaches and/or for some sources, the standard does not provide official guidance. The examples given in this tutorial are based on the University Library's interpretation of the IEEE Editorial Style Manual.

It is essential that you use a consistent style in your own work.

Referencing in the IEEE style is a two-part process:

Creating in-text citations and references

In-text citations

Each time you introduce in your work an idea, thought or theory that belongs to another person, a reference number should be added and enclosed in square brackets e.g. [1], [2].

The general rules for creating a in-text citation are:

  • Numbers are added sequentially.
  • The reference number should be included inside the punctuation within a sentence.
  • If you are using the same reference more than once, it will keep the same number all the way through, e.g. Burton [3] will be [3] all the way through your work. If a new page number or other information is acknowledged, add this after the reference number within the square brackets, e.g. [3, p.28].
  • Put the names of all authors up to six authors up to six names. If more than six names use "et al." after the first author, e.g. Demonstrated by Herron et al.

Examples:

  • As shown by Edwards [2], Matthews and Smith [3]...
  • For example, see [1], [3]–[5]...
  • This problem was first noted in 2001 [4]...
  • As argued in [6, pp.11–14]...

Referring to a specific figure, section/chapter or equation:

  • As shown in [7, Fig. 3]...
  • According to [6, Ch. 2]...
  • As reported in [8, Sec. IV]...
  • As demonstrated in [9, eq. (5)]...

A quotation is where you use the exact phrase or words of the original author.

The IEEE Editorial Style Manual does not give advice for direct quotations and using lots of quotations within your assignments is not encouraged. If you wish to include a direct quotation from a source within your work, the author and source must be acknowledged in the bibliography/reference list. Within the body of the assignment the quotation should be enclosed in quotation marks and the page number given e.g. [5, p.2].

You can demonstrate that you understand the ideas and concepts within your reading by putting the information into your own words. This is called paraphrasing.

Please note, this does not mean just changing a word here or there, or even a sentence or two if the phrasing of the original is still evident. The paraphrase should clearly be a restatement of the meaning of the original text in your own words.

When paraphrasing you still need to acknowledge the source of the arguments and include page numbers if appropriate.

Secondary Referencing

This is when you reference one author who is referring to the work of another, and the primary source is not available.

Secondary referencing should be avoided if possible.

A reference list of items cited is located at the end of your work, starting on a new page.

The general rules for creating a list are:

  • The citations in the reference list are numbered sequentially, i.e. 1–5, and not in alphabetical order.
  • Reference numbers are listed on the left side of the page and form a column of their own. They are enclosed in square brackets.
  • The name of the author(s) is abbreviated to the initial(s) only and precedes the surname(s).
  • Use "and" in between two authors names or before the last if listing more than two.
  • Put the names of all authors up to six names. If more than six names use "et al." (in italics) after the first author.
  • Anonymous works should start with the title.
  • Each reference should end with a full stop unless it is a URL or a DOI.
  • Abbreviations are used and common abbreviations are given at p.40 of the IEEE Editorial Style Manual. A list of IEEE's titles, including historic publications with their official reference abbreviations and acronyms, are found in IEEE Abbreviations for Transactions, Journals, Letters, and Magazines.

Citing material from non-roman script e.g. Cyrillic, East Asian languages

If you are citing materials from non-roman script, you should transliterate the references to roman script. If you are unsure of the correct transliteration, you may want to consult with an expert of the language or an international standard to check.

For references in the reference list/bibliography
  • The family name of the author should be written in full roman script. The initials of the author(s) should also be given in roman script.
  • The title of the item (article/book/book chapter, etc.) should be given in roman script using the standard conventions for that language.
  • The title should be translated into English and placed in square brackets immediately after the romanised title. The words in the square brackets should not use italics.
  • The journal title, or title of a book (if it is an edited book), publisher's name all need to be given in roman script, but do not need to be translated. If there is an official English translation, then you may use it especially in cases where it provides greater understanding of the subject or publication.
Example

[1] M. Terao. Denai kugi wa suterareru [The nail that does not stick up may be thrown away]. Tokyo: Fusosha, 1998.

Materials in roman script

If you are citing materials produced in a language other than English, but in roman script, you may need place a translated title in square brackets after the original title, depending on who the intended audience for your work will be.

Frequently referenced items

For a full list of items see Alphabetical list of items

In the bibliography/reference list

[  ] INITIAL(S). Surname, Title, ed. (if not first edition) City of publisher, U.S. State if necessary, Country: Publisher, year.

[3] A. Bryman, Social Research Methods, 4th ed. Oxford, UK: Oxford Univ. Press, 2012.

[34] Y.A. Cengel, Heat and Mass Transfer: Fundamentals and Applications, 5th ed. New York, NY, USA: Mcgraw-Hill, 2015.

Notes
  • The name of the author is abbreviated to the initial(s) only and precedes the surname.
  • Book title is in italics, use capitals for all significant words.
  • If necessary to add USA states and territories after the City of Publisher, these are abbreviated with no full stops.
  • Publishers names can be abbreviated.
  • The title of a book is followed by a full stop if there is no edition statement.

For more information about in-text citation and creating a reference list see Creating in-text citations and reference list and click on the relevant section.

In the bibliography/reference list

[  ] INITIAL(S). Surname, Title, ed. (if not first edition) City of publisher, U.S. State if necessary, Country: Publisher, year.

[4] F. Roters, P. Einlohr, T. R. Bieler and D. Raabe, Crystal Pasticity Finite Element Methods in Materials Science and Engineering. Weinheim, Germany: Wiley-VCH, 2010.

Notes
  • The names of the authors are abbreviated to the initials only and precedes the surnames.
  • Use "and" in between two authors names or before the last if listing more than two.
  • Put the names of all authors up to six names. If more than six names use "et al." (in italics) after the first author.
  • Book title is in italics, use capitals for all significant words.
  • The title of a book is followed by a full stop if there is no edition statement.
  • If necessary to add USA states and territories after the City of Publisher, these are abbreviated with no full stops.
  • Publishers names can be abbreviated.

For more information about in-text citation and creating a reference list see Creating in-text citations and reference list and click on the relevant section.

In the bibliography/reference list

[  ] INITIAL(S). Surname, "Chapter title," in Book title, ed. (if not first edition) Editor's INITIAL(S). Surname, Ed(s). City of publisher, U.S. State if necessary, Country: Publisher, year, pp. numbers.

[5] M. Jamshidian, "Strategies for analysis of incomplete data," in Handbook of Data Analysis. M. Hardy and A. Bryman, Eds. London, UK: Sage, 2004, pp. 113-130.

Notes
  • The name of the author(s) and editor(s) are abbreviated to the initial(s) only and precedes the surname(s).
  • Use "and" in between two authors/editors names or before the last if listing more than two.
  • Put the names of all authors/editors up to six names. If more than six names use "et al." (in italics) after the first author.
  • Chapter title is between quotation marks, only the first letter of the first word should be capitalised.
  • Book title is in italics, use capitals for all significant words.
  • If a volume of a work is indicated, add this where edition statement is required e.g. vol. 2.
  • The title of a book is followed by a full stop if there is no edition statement.
  • If necessary to add USA states and territories after the City of Publisher, these are abbreviated with no full stops.
  • Publishers names can be abbreviated.
  • Use "p." for a single page and "pp." for a range of pages.

For more information about in-text citation and creating a reference list see Creating in-text citations and reference list and click on the relevant section.

In the bibliography/reference list

[  ] INITIAL(S). Surname, "Article title," Abbrev. of Journal Title, vol. , no. , pp. , Abbrev. Month. Year . [Online]. Available: URL or DOI:

[16] V. Fargnoli, C.G. Gragnando, D. Boldini and A. Amorosi, "3D numerical modelling of soil–structure interaction during EPB tunnelling," Geotechnique, vol. 65, no. 1, pp. 23–37, Jan. 2015. [Online]. doi: 10.1680/geot.14.P.091

[17] C. Pritchard, "Virtual Reality: Night Sight", ASEE Prism, vol. 26, no. 27, p. 13, Mar. & Apr. 2017. [Online]. Available: http://www.jstor.org/stable/44160952

Notes
  • The name of the author(s) is abbreviated to the initial(s) only and precedes the surname(s).
  • Use "and" in between two authors names or before the last if listing more than two.
  • Put the names of all authors up to six names. If more than six names use "et al." (in italics) after the first author.
  • Article title is between quotation marks, only the first letter of the first word should be capitalised.
  • Journal title is in italics, use capitals for all significant words. Abbreviations are used and common abbreviations are given at p.40 of the IEEE Editorial Style Manual. A list of IEEE's titles, including historic publications with their official reference abbreviations and acronyms, are found in IEEE Abbreviations for Transactions, Journals, Letters, and Magazines.
  • Use "p." for a single page and "pp." for a range of pages.
  • If you do not know the month of publication include the year only
  • Do not add a full stop to the end of the URL or the DOI.

For more information about in-text citation and creating a reference list see Creating in-text citations and reference list and click on the relevant section.

In the bibliography/reference list

[  ] INITIAL(S). Surname, "Article title," Abbrev. of Journal Title, vol. , no. , pp. , Abbrev. Month. Year.

[19] U. Goltz, R.H. Reussner, M. Goedicke, W. Hasselbring, L. Martin, and B. Vogel-Heuser, "Design for future: managed software evolution," Comput. Sci. - Res. and Develop., vol. 30, no. 3, pp. 321–331, Aug. 2015.

Notes
  • The name of the author(s) is abbreviated to the initial(s) only and precedes the surname(s).
  • Use "and" in between two authors names or before the last if listing more than two.
  • Put the names of all authors up to six names. If more than six names use "et al." (in italics) after the first author.
  • Article title is between quotation marks, only the first letter of the first word should be capitalised.
  • Journal title is in italics, use capitals for all significant words. Abbreviations are used and common abbreviations are given at p.40 of the IEEE Editorial Style Manual. A list of IEEE's titles, including historic publications with their official reference abbreviations and acronyms, are found in IEEE Abbreviations for Transactions, Journals, Letters, and Magazines.
  • Use "p." for a single page and "pp." for a range of pages.
  • If you do not know the month of publication include the year only.

For more information about in-text citation and creating a reference list see Creating in-text citations and reference list and click on the relevant section.

In print

In the bibliography/reference list

[  ] Title of Standard, Standard Number, year.

[22] Railway Applications. Fire Protection on Railway Vehicles. Fire Safety Requirements for Flammable Liquid and Flammable Gas Installations, BS EN 45545-7, 2013.

Online

In the bibliography/reference list

[  ] Title of Standard, Standard Number, year. [Online]. Available: URL or DOI

[23] IEEE Standard for Documentation Schema for Repair and Assembly of Electronic Devices, IEEE Std 1874-2013, 2014. [Online]. doi: 10.1109/IEEESTD.2014.6712032

Notes
  • Standard title is in italics, use capitals for all significant words.
  • Do not add a full stop to the end of the URL or DOI.

For more information about in-text citation and creating a reference list see Creating in-text citations and reference list and click on the relevant section.

In print

In the bibliography/reference list

[  ] INITIAL(S). Surname, "Report/paper title," Abbrev. of name of Co. or Inst., City, U.S. State if necessary, Country, Report/paper number, Abbrev. Month. Year.

[24] R. Arenz, H. Krasowski and W. Wahl, "Computer-assisted product structure analysis for the automotive industry regarding optimal end of life strategies," SAE, Warrendale, PA, USA, Tech. Paper 2001-01-3733, Nov. 2001.

Online

In the bibliography/reference list

[  ] INITIAL(S). Surname, "Report/paper title," Abbrev. of name of Co. or Inst., City, U.S. State if necessary, Country, Report/paper number, Abbrev. Month. Year. [Online]. Available: URL or DOI

[25] D. Stauffer, "Effects of near surface porosity on automotive powertrain gears," SAE, Warrendale, PA, USA, Tech. Paper 2004-01-0490, March 2004. [Online]. doi: 10.4271/2004-01-0490

Notes
  • Report/paper title is between quotation marks, only the first letter of the first word should be capitalised.
  • If necessary to add USA states and territories after the City, these are abbreviated with no full stops.
  • If you do not know the month of publication include the year only.
  • Do not add a full stop to the end of the URL or DOI.

For more information about in-text citation and creating a reference list see Creating in-text citations and reference list and click on the relevant section.

In the bibliography/reference list

[  ] INITIAL(S). Surname, "Title of web page," in Title of Website, Abbrev. Month. Day, Year. [Online]. Available: URL. Accessed on: Abbrev. Month. Day, Year.

[34] Met Office, "New UK LiDAR network to detect volcanic ash," in Met Office, June, 1, 2015. [Online]. Available: http://unisheffieldlib-scieng.blogspot.co.uk/2015/05/ieee-xplore-celebrating-15-years.html. Accessed on: June 3, 2015.

Notes
  • No official guidance is available for referencing web pages from the IEEE Editorial Style Manual.
  • If no personal author is given, you can use the name of the organisation, company or institution.
  • Web page title is between quotation marks, only the first letter of the first word should be capitalised.
  • Website name is in italics, use capitals for all significant words.

For more information about in-text citation and creating a reference list see Creating in-text citations and reference list and click on the relevant section.

For a full list of items see Alphabetical list of items

Alphabetical list of items

Jump to: A, B | C, D, E | F, G, H, I, J, K | L, M, N, O, P, Q | R, S, T, U | V, W, X, Y, Z

A, B

In the bibliography/reference list

[  ] INITIAL(S). Surname, Title of App, Version number, Year. [App]. Available: Name of App Store or URL. Accessed on: Abbrev. Month. Day, Year.

[1] campusM, iSheffield, v5.4.2, 2016. [App]. Available: Google Play. Accessed on: Feb. 26, 2016.

Notes
  • No official guidance is available for referencing Apps from the IEEE Editorial Style Manual.
  • Put the Developer’s Name or Rightsholder in place of the author's name and surname.
  • The App's name is in italics.
  • For the "Available:" information put where the App can be viewed or purchased. This could be Google Play, the App Store or a URL if necessary.

For more information about in-text citation and creating a reference list see Creating in-text citations and reference list and click on the relevant section.

In the bibliography/reference list

[  ] INITIAL(S). Surname, "Title of blog post," in Title of Blog, Abbrev. Month. Day, Year. [Blog]. Available: URL. Accessed on: Abbrev. Month. Day, Year.

[2] E. Stock, "IEEE Xplore - celebrating 15 years," in Librarians’ Blog for Science and Engineering, May 20, 2015. [Blog]. Available: http://unisheffieldlib-scieng.blogspot.co.uk/2015/05/ieee-xplore-celebrating-15-years.html. Accessed on: Feb. 22, 2015.

Notes
  • No official guidance is available for referencing Blogs from the IEEE Editorial Style Manual.
  • If no personal author is given, you can use the name of the organisation, company or institution.
  • Post title is between quotation marks, only the first letter of the first word should be capitalised.
  • The blog's name is in italics, use capitals for all significant words.

For more information about in-text citation and creating a reference list see Creating in-text citations and reference list and click on the relevant section.

For Blu-ray see Video – Physical Format.

In the bibliography/reference list

[  ] INITIAL(S). Surname, Title, ed. (if not first edition) City of publisher, U.S. State if necessary, Country: Publisher, year.

[3] A. Bryman, Social Research Methods, 4th ed. Oxford, UK: Oxford Univ. Press, 2012.

Notes
  • The name of the author is abbreviated to the initial(s) only and precedes the surname.
  • Book title is in italics, use capitals for all significant words.
  • If necessary to add USA states and territories after the City of Publisher, these are abbreviated with no full stops.
  • Publishers names can be abbreviated.
  • The title of a book is followed by a full stop if there is no edition statement.

For more information about in-text citation and creating a reference list see Creating in-text citations and reference list and click on the relevant section.

In the bibliography/reference list

[  ] INITIAL(S). Surname, Title, ed. (if not first edition) City of publisher, U.S. State if necessary, Country: Publisher, year.

[4] F. Roters, P. Einlohr, T. R. Bieler and D. Raabe, Crystal Pasticity Finite Element Methods in Materials Science and Engineering. Weinheim, Germany: Wiley-VCH, 2010.

Notes
  • The names of the authors are abbreviated to the initials only and precedes the surnames.
  • Use "and" in between two authors names or before the last if listing more than two.
  • Put the names of all authors up to six names. If more than six names use "et al." (in italics) after the first author.
  • Book title is in italics, use capitals for all significant words.
  • The title of a book is followed by a full stop if there is no edition statement.
  • If necessary to add USA states and territories after the City of Publisher, these are abbreviated with no full stops.
  • Publishers names can be abbreviated.

For more information about in-text citation and creating a reference list see Creating in-text citations and reference list and click on the relevant section.

In the bibliography/reference list

[  ] INITIAL(S). Surname, "Chapter title," in Book title, ed. (if not first edition) Editor's INITIAL(S). Surname, Ed(s). City of publisher, U.S. State if necessary, Country: Publisher, year, pp. numbers.

[5] M. Jamshidian, "Strategies for analysis of incomplete data," in Handbook of Data Analysis. M. Hardy and A. Bryman, Eds. London, UK: Sage, 2004, pp. 113-130.

Notes
  • The name of the author(s) and editor(s) are abbreviated to the initial(s) only and precedes the surname(s).
  • Use "and" in between two authors/editors names or before the last if listing more than two.
  • Put the names of all authors/editors up to six names. If more than six names use "et al." (in italics) after the first author.
  • Chapter title is between quotation marks, only the first letter of the first word should be capitalised.
  • Book title is in italics, use capitals for all significant words.
  • If a volume of a work is indicated, add this where edition statement is required e.g. vol. 2.
  • The title of a book is followed by a full stop if there is no edition statement.
  • If necessary to add USA states and territories after the City of Publisher, these are abbreviated with no full stops.
  • Publishers names can be abbreviated.
  • Use "p." for a single page and "pp." for a range of pages.

For more information about in-text citation and creating a reference list see Creating in-text citations and reference list and click on the relevant section.

In the bibliography/reference list

[  ] INITIAL(S). Surname, "Chapter title," in Book Title, ed. (if not first edition) Editor's INITIAL(S). Surname, Ed(s). City of publisher, U.S. State if necessary, Country: Publisher, year, pp. numbers. [Online]. Available: URL or DOI:

[6] K. Sigman, "Stationary marked point processes," in Springer Handbook of Engineering Statistics. H. Pham, Ed. London, UK: Springer, 2006, pp. 137–152. [Online]. Available: https://www.dawsonera.com/abstract/9781846282881

Notes
  • The name of the author(s) and editor(s) are abbreviated to the initial(s) only and precedes the surname(s).
  • Use "and" in between two authors/editors names or before the last if listing more than two.
  • Put the names of all authors/editors up to six names. If more than six names use "et al." (in italics) after the first author.
  • Chapter title is between quotation marks, only the first letter of the first word should be capitalised.
  • Book title is in italics, use capitals for all significant words.
  • The title of a book is followed by a full stop if there is no edition statement.
  • Use "p." for a single page and "pp." for a range of pages.
  • If necessary to add USA states and territories after the City of Publisher, these are abbreviated with no full stops.
  • Publishers names can be abbreviated.
  • Do not add a full stop to the end of the URL.

For more information about in-text citation and creating a reference list see Creating in-text citations and reference list and click on the relevant section.

In the bibliography/reference list

[  ] INITIAL(S). Surname, Ed(s)., Title, ed. (if not first edition) City of publisher, U.S. State if necessary, Country: Publisher, year.

[7] D. Hobbs and R. Wright, Eds., Sage Handbook of Fieldwork. London, UK: Sage, 2006.

Notes
  • The name of the editor(s) is abbreviated to the initial(s) only and precedes the surname(s).
  • Editor(s) is abbreviated to "Ed(s)."
  • Use "and" in between two editors names or before the last if listing more than two.
  • Put the names of all editors up to six names. If more than six names use "et al." (in italics) after the first editor.
  • Book title is in italics, use capitals for all significant words.
  • The title of a book is followed by a full stop if there is no edition statement.
  • If necessary to add USA states and territories after the City of Publisher, these are abbreviated with no full stops.
  • Publishers names can be abbreviated.

For more information about in-text citation and creating a reference list see Creating in-text citations and reference list and click on the relevant section.

In the bibliography/reference list

[  ] INITIAL(S). Surname, Title, ed. (if not first edition) City of publisher, U.S. State if necessary, Country: Publisher, year. [Online]. Available: URL or DOI:

[8] J. Pallant, SPSS Survival Manual: A Step-by-Step Guide to Data Analysis using SPSS, 4th ed. Maidenhead, UK: McGraw-Hill, 2010. [Online]. Available: https://www.dawsonera.com/abstract/9780335242405

Notes
  • The name of the author(s) is abbreviated to the initial(s) only and precedes the surname(s).
  • Use "and" in between two authors names or before the last if listing more than two.
  • Put the names of all authors up to six names. If more than six names use "et al." (in italics) after the first author.
  • If an edited work include "Ed(s)." after the author details.
  • Book title is in italics, use capitals for all significant words.
  • The title of a book is followed by a full stop if there is no edition statement.
  • If necessary to add USA states and territories after the City of Publisher, these are abbreviated with no full stops.
  • Publishers names can be abbreviated.
  • Do not add a full stop to the end of the URL.

For more information about in-text citation and creating a reference list see Creating in-text citations and reference list and click on the relevant section.

[Top of page]

C, D, E

For Chapter in a book see Book Chapter or Book – Chapter/Section (in an electronic book).

In print

In the bibliography/reference list

[  ] INITIAL(S). Surname, "Title of paper," in Abbrev. Name of Conf., location of conf. (if given), year (if not given in conf. name), pp. numbers.

[9] R. Joye, J. Verbeken, S. Heyde and H. Librecht, "Location-aware mobile devices and landscape reading," in Peer-reviewed Proc. Digital Landscape Architecture, Anhalt University of Applied Sciences, 2012, pp.425-436.

Online

In the bibliography/reference list

[  ] INITIAL(S). Surname, "Title of paper," in Abbrev. Name of Conf., location of conf. (if given), year (if not given in conf. name), pp. numbers. [Online]. Available: URL or DOI

[10] J.L. Bessede, S. Elkoun, C. Stochmil and S. Etiene, "Dielectric properties of PTFE-based composite insulating materials: interfaces effects," in 2000 Conf. Electrical Insulation and Dielectric Phenomena, Villeurbanne, France, pp.772-775. [Online]. doi: 10.1109/CEIDP.2000.884072

Notes
  • The name of the author(s) and editor(s) are abbreviated to the initial(s) only and precedes the surname(s).
  • Use "and" in between two authors/editors names or before the last if listing more than two.
  • Put the names of all authors/editors up to six names. If more than six names use "et al." (in italics) after the first author.
  • Paper title is between quotation marks, only the first letter of the first word should be capitalised.
  • Conference name is in italics, use capitals for all significant words and omit most articles and prepositions like "of the" and "on". Abbreviations are used and standard abbreviations are given at p. 36 of the IEEE Editorial Style Manual.
  • All published conference proceedings have page numbers, use "p." for a single page and "pp." for a range of pages.
  • Do not add a full stop to the end of the URL or DOI.

For more information about in-text citation and creating a reference list see Creating in-text citations and reference list and click on the relevant section.

In person

In the bibliography/reference list

[  ] INITIAL(S). Surname, "Title of paper," presented at the Abbrev. Name of Conf., location of conf. (if given), year (if not given in conf. name).

[11] H. Moore, "New in 2014...," presented at the Engineering and Teaching Shorts, University of Sheffield, 2015.

Online

In the bibliography/reference list

[  ] INITIAL(S). Surname, "Title of paper," presented at the Abbrev. Name of Conf., location of conf. (if given), year (if not given in conf. name). [Online]. Available: URL or DOI

[12] V. Grant and M. Mawson, "Sharpening information literacy skills: for and through assessment and feedback," presented at the 9th Ann. Learning and Teaching Conf. Developing Student Learning Beyond Knowledge Acquisition, University of Sheffield, 2014. [Online]. Available: http://conferencesheffield2015.blogspot.co.uk/2014/12/16-asharpening-information-literacy.html

Notes
  • The name of the author(s) and editor(s) are abbreviated to the initial(s) only and precedes the surname(s).
  • Use "and" in between two authors/editors names or before the last if listing more than two.
  • Put the names of all authors/editors up to six names. If more than six names use "et al." (in italics) after the first author.
  • Paper title is between quotation marks, only the first letter of the first word should be capitalised.
  • In conference name use capitals for all significant words and omit most articles and prepositions like "of the" and "on". Abbreviations are used and standard abbreviations are given at p. 36 of the IEEE Editorial Style Manual.
  • Unpublished conference papers do not have page numbers.
  • Do not add a full stop to the end of the URL or DOI.

For more information about in-text citation and creating a reference list see Creating in-text citations and reference list and click on the relevant section.

[  ] INITIAL(S). Surname, "Title of Data Set," Version or edition. Repository or Website Name, Year. DOI:

[56] O. Saz Torralba et al. "Interspeech 2016 - Experiment results for paper ‘webASR 2 - Improved could based speech technology’". ORDA (Online Research Data), 2016. doi: 10.21437/Interspeech.2016-700

Notes
  • The name of the author(s) and editor(s) are abbreviated to the initial(s) only and precedes the surname(s).
  • Use "and" in between two authors/editors names or before the last if listing more than two.
  • Put the names of all authors/editors up to six names. If more than six names use "et al." (in italics) after the first author.
  • No official guidance available for Data Set.
  • Interpreted from Force11 Joint Declaration of Data Citation Principles

For more information about in-text citation and creating a reference list see Creating in-text citations and reference list and click on the relevant section.

[  ] INITIAL(S). Surname, "Title of Data Set," Version. Repository or Archive Name, Year. DOI:

[23] R. Di Marco, S. Rossi, V. Racic, P. Cappa and C. Mazza. "Kinematic data for the Concurrent repeatability and reproducability analysis of four gait models for foot-ankle complex," v.1. Figshare, 2016. doi: 10.15131/shef.data.3502712.v1

Notes
  • The name of the author(s) and editor(s) are abbreviated to the initial(s) only and precedes the surname(s).
  • Use "and" in between two authors/editors names or before the last if listing more than two.
  • Put the names of all authors/editors up to six names. If more than six names use "et al." (in italics) after the first author.
  • No official guidance available for Data Set.
  • Interpreted from Force11 Joint Declaration of Data Citation Principles

For more information about in-text citation and creating a reference list see Creating in-text citations and reference list and click on the relevant section.

In print

In the bibliography/reference list

[  ] INITIAL(S). Surname, "Dissertation/Thesis title," Type and level of Award, Abbrev. of Dept., Abbrev. of Univ., City, U.S. State if necessary, Country, Year.

[13] J.Griffin, "Transition metal oxides and their use as hole extraction materials in organic photovoltaic devices," Ph.D. thesis, Dept. of Physics and Astronomy, Univ. of Sheffield, Sheffield, UK, 2014.

Online

In the bibliography/reference list

[  ] INITIAL(S). Surname, "Dissertation/Thesis title," Type and level of Award, Abbrev. of Dept., Abbrev. of Univ., City, U.S. State if necessary, Country, Year. [Online]. Available: URL

[14] R.M. Delaine-Smith, "Mechanical and physical guidance of osteogenic differentiation and matrix production," Ph.D. thesis, Materials Sci. and Eng., Univ. of Sheffield, Sheffield, UK, 2013. [Online]. Available: http://etheses.whiterose.ac.uk/

Notes
  • Title is between quotation marks, only the first letter of the first word should be capitalised.
  • Examples of "Type and level of Award" are: "M.A. dissertation", "M.Sc. dissertation", Ph.D. thesis".
  • If necessary to add USA states and territories, these are abbreviated with no full stops. However, omit the name of the USA state if given in the title of the university.
  • Abbreviations are used and common abbreviations are given at p.40 of the IEEE Editorial Style Manual.
  • Do not add a full stop to the end of the URL.

For more information about in-text citation and creating a reference list see Creating in-text citations and reference list and click on the relevant section.

For DVD see Video – Physical Format.

For Electronic Book see Book – Electronic.

For Electronic Journal see Journal article – Electronic or Journal article – Pre-Print.

[Top of page]

F, G, H, I, J, K

For Facebook see Social Media.

Pre-1963 Act of Parliament

In the bibliography/reference list

[  ] Legislative Body, Title of Act and Year. Regnal Years Name of Monarch. [Medium]. Available: URL

[40] UK Parliament, Official Secrets Act 1939, 2&3 Geo. 6. c 121. [Online]. Available http://www.legislation.gov.uk/ukpga/1939/121/pdfs/ukpga_19390121_en.pdf

Post-1963 Act of Parliament

In the bibliography/reference list

[  ] Legislative Body, Title of Act and Year. Chapter. [Medium]. Available: URL

[41] UK Parliament, Psychoactive Substances Act 2016, c 2. [Medium]. Available http://www.legislation.gov.uk/ukpga/2016/2/pdfs/ukpga_20160002_en.pdf

Local Act of Parliament

In the bibliography/reference list

[  ] Legislative Body, Title of Act and Year. Chapter. [Medium]. Available: URL

[42] UK Parliament, South Yorkshire Light Rail Transit Act 1993, c ii. [Online]. Available http://www.legislation.gov.uk/ukla/1993/2/introduction/enacted

Notes
  • No official guidance available for UK Governmental publications
  • Legislation passed pre-1963 was numbered by regnal year of the monarch (number of years since the monarch's ascension).
  • Legislation passed post-1963 are numbered by the year in which it received Royal Assent.
  • Local Acts of Parliament are numbered using Roman numerals.

For more information about in-text citation and creating a reference list see Creating in-text citations and reference list and click on the relevant section.

In the bibliography/reference list

[  ] Author (Governmental Department at the time of publication), Title, Number. Abbrev. Month. Year. [Medium]. Available: URL.

[43] Department of Business Innovation & Skills, Fulfilling Our Potential: Teaching Excellence, Social Mobility and Student Choice, Cm 9141. Nov. 2015. [Online]. Available: https://www.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/474227/BIS-15-623-fulfilling-our-potential-teaching-excellence-social-mobility-and-student-choice.pdf

Notes
  • No official guidance available for UK Governmental publications
  • The numbering of Command Papers is done by running numbers with a prefix which changes as the number gets close to 10,000. The prefixes are listed below:
    • 1869-1869 – 1 - 4222
    • 1870-1899 – C 1 - C 9550
    • 1900-1918 – Cd 1 - Cd 9239
    • 1919-1956 – Cmd 1 - Cmd 9889
    • 1956-1986 – Cmnd 1 - Cmnd 9927
    • 1986-present – Cm 1 -

For more information about in-text citation and creating a reference list see Creating in-text citations and reference list and click on the relevant section.

In the bibliography/reference list

[  ] INITIAL(S). Surname, "Title of Data Set," Version or edition. Name of Website or Respoitory. Year. Available: URL or DOI

[46] Office of National Statistics, "Annual Population Survey, April 2015-2016," 2nd ed. Office of National Statistics, 2016. doi: 10.3886/ICPSR30122.v2

Notes
  • No official guidance available for UK Governmental publications

For more information about in-text citation and creating a reference list see Creating in-text citations and reference list and click on the relevant section.

In the bibiography/reference list

[  ] Name of House, Name [Hansard], Series (if applicable), volume, number, column. Abbrev. Month. Day, Year. [Medium]. Available: URL

[44] House of Commons, Official Report: Parliamentary Debates [Hansard], vol. 619, no. 37, cc. 527-528. Jul. 18, 2016. [Online]. Available: https://hansard.parliament.uk/Commons/2016-07-18/debates/ec393458-e5ca-4028-9af4-b089242c7273/CommonsChamber

[45] House of Lords, Official report: Parliamentary Debates [Hansard], vol. 764, no. 46, cc. 1957-59. Sept. 17, 2015. [Online]. Available: https://hansard.parliament.uk/lords/2015-09-17/debates/15091736000770/BBCCharter2017

Notes
  • No official guidance available for UK Government Publications
  • If you are citing more than one column, use cc as the prefix
  • If you are referencing older Hansards, you will need to include the series, these are as follow:
    • 1st Series – Cobbett's Parliamentary Debates: Vol.1 (1803) – Vol.22 (March/May 1812) continued by
      The Parliamentary Debates: Vol.23 (May/June 1812) to Vol.41 (February 1820). N.B. Some reissued sets were numbered Vol.1 – Vol.22 as The Parliamentary Debates.
    • 2nd Series – The Parliamentary Debates, New Series: Vol.1 (April 1820) – Vol.25 (July 1830).
    • 3rd Series – Hansard's Parliamentary Debates (3rd Series): Vol.1 (October 1830) – Vol.356 (August 1891).
    • 4th Series – The Parliamentary Debates (4th Series): Vol.1 (February 1892) – Vol.199 (December 1908)
    • 5th Series – The Official Report, House of Commons (5th Series): Vol.1 (January 1909) – Vol.1000 (March 1981). N.B. The name Hansard was officially restored in 1941.
    • 5th Series – The Official Report, House of Lords (5th Series): Vol.1 (January 1909) –
    • 6th Series – The Official Report, House of Commons (6th Series): Vol.1 (March 1981) –
  • There are 6 different types of numbered columns in Hansard, the letters should appear after the column number as a suffix – these are as follow:
    • No letters – Discussions in the chamber
    • WH – Westminster Hall
    • WS – Written Statements
    • W – Written Answers
    • P – Petitions
    • C – Ministerial Corrections

For more information about in-text citation and creating a reference list see Creating in-text citations and reference list and click on the relevant section.

In the bibliography/reference list

[  ] Government Department, Title, Number (if applicable), parliamentary session. Abbrev. Month. Day, Year. [Medium]. Available: URL

[49] Select Committee on Economic Affairs, Economic Affairs Committee 1st Report: Building More Houses: Volume 1, Report HL20, 2016-2107. Jul. 15, 2016. [Online]. Available https://publications.parliament.uk/pa/ld201617/ldselect/ldeconaf/20/20.pdf

For more information about in-text citation and creating a reference list see Creating in-text citations and reference list and click on the relevant section.

In the bibliography/reference list

[  ] INITIAL(S). Surname, Title, Number (if applicable). Abbrev. Month. Year. [Medium]. Available: URL

[48] Office for Nuclear Regulation, Office for Nuclear Regulation Strategic Plan 2016-2020: Presented to Parliament Pursuant to Paragraph 25(3) of Schedule 7 to the Energy Act. Mar. 2016. [Online]. Available: http://www.onr.org.uk/documents/2016/strategic-plan-2016-2020.pdf

Notes
  • No official guidance available for UK Government Publications

For more information about in-text citation and creating a reference list see Creating in-text citations and reference list and click on the relevant section.

[  ] Government Department, Title Number (if available), parliamentary session. Abbrev of Month. Day, Year. [Medium]. Available URL

[50] House of Commons, Digital Economy Bill HCB 45, 2016-2017. 2016. [Online]. Available https://publications.parliament.uk/pa/bills/cbill/2016-2017/0045/cbill_2016-20170045_en_1.htm

[51] House of Lords, Energy Bill Explanatory Notes HLB 56-EN, 2015-2016. Jul. 9, 2015. [Online]. Available https://publications.parliament.uk/pa/bills/lbill/2015-2016/0056/en/16056en.pdf

[52] House of Lords, Policing and Crime Bill Amendments HLB 55(c), 2016-2017. Jul. 22, 2016 [Online]. Available http://www.publications.parliament.uk/pa/bills/lbill/2016-2017/0055/17055(c).pdf

[53] House of Commons, Votes and Proceedings no. 38, 2016-2017. Sept. 15, 2016. [Online]. Available http://www.publications.parliament.uk/pa/cm201617/cmvote/160915v01.pdf

For more information about in-text citation and creating a reference list see Creating in-text citations and reference list and click on the relevant section.

In the bibliography/reference list

[  ] Legislative body, Title of Statutory Instrument and Year, Number. [Medium]. Available: URL

[47] UK Parliament, The Police (Amendment) (No.2) Regulations 2006, SI2006/3449. [Online]. Available: http://www.legislation.gov.uk/uksi/2006/3449/pdfs/uksi_20063449_en.pdf

Notes
  • No official guidance available for UK Governmental publications

For more information about in-text citation and creating a reference list see Creating in-text citations and reference list and click on the relevant section.

[  ] Legislative body. Number of Congress, Session. (Year, Month Day). Number of bill or resolution, Title. [Type of medium]. Available:

[55] US House. 111th Congress , 2nd Session. (2010, Dec 16). H.R.6533, Local Community Radio Act of 2010. [Online]. Available: https://www.congress.gov/bill/111th-congress/house-bill/6533?r=1

For more information about in-text citation and creating a reference list see Creating in-text citations and reference list and click on the relevant section.

In the bibliography/reference list

[  ] INITIAL(S). Surname, "Article title," Abbrev. of Journal Title, vol. , no. , pp. , Abbrev. Month. Year . [Online]. Available: URL or DOI:

[16] V. Fargnoli, C.G. Gragnando, D. Boldini and A. Amorosi, "3D numerical modelling of soil–structure interaction during EPB tunnelling," Geotechnique, vol. 65, no. 1, pp. 23–37, Jan. 2015. [Online]. doi: 10.1680/geot.14.P.091

[17] C. Pritchard, "Virtual Reality: Night Sight", ASEE Prism, vol. 26, no. 27, p. 13, Mar. & Apr. 2017. [Online]. Available: http://www.jstor.org/stable/44160952

Notes
  • The name of the author(s) is abbreviated to the initial(s) only and precedes the surname(s).
  • Use "and" in between two authors names or before the last if listing more than two.
  • Put the names of all authors up to six names. If more than six names use "et al." (in italics) after the first author.
  • Article title is between quotation marks, only the first letter of the first word should be capitalised.
  • Journal title is in italics, use capitals for all significant words. Abbreviations are used and common abbreviations are given at p.40 of the IEEE Editorial Style Manual. A list of IEEE's titles, including historic publications with their official reference abbreviations and acronyms, are found in IEEE Abbreviations for Transactions, Journals, Letters, and Magazines.
  • Use "p." for a single page and "pp." for a range of pages.
  • If you do not know the month of publication include the year only
  • Do not add a full stop to the end of the URL or the DOI.

For more information about in-text citation and creating a reference list see Creating in-text citations and reference list and click on the relevant section.

In the bibliography/reference list

[  ] INITIAL(S). Surname, "Article title," Abbrev. of Journal Title., to be published. doi:

[18] F. Dietrich, S. Martin, and M. Jungers, "Control via leadership of opinion dynamics with state and time-dependent interactions," IEEE Trans. Autom. Control., to be published. doi: 10.1109/TAC.2017.2742139

Notes
  • The name of the author(s) is abbreviated to the initial(s) only and precedes the surname(s).
  • Use "and" in between two authors names or before the last if listing more than two.
  • Put the names of all authors up to six names. If more than six names use "et al." (in italics) after the first author.
  • Article title is between quotation marks, only the first letter of the first word should be capitalised.
  • Journal title is in italics, use capitals for all significant words. Abbreviations are used and common abbreviations are given at p.40 of the IEEE Editorial Style Manual. A list of IEEE's titles, including historic publications with their official reference abbreviations and acronyms, are found in IEEE Abbreviations for Transactions, Journals, Letters, and Magazines.

For more information about in-text citation and creating a reference list see Creating in-text citations and reference list and click on the relevant section.

In the bibliography/reference list

[  ] INITIAL(S). Surname, "Article title," Abbrev. of Journal Title, vol. , no. , pp. , Abbrev. Month. Year.

[19] U. Goltz, R.H. Reussner, M. Goedicke, W. Hasselbring, L. Martin, and B. Vogel-Heuser, "Design for future: managed software evolution," Comput. Sci. - Res. and Develop., vol. 30, no. 3, pp. 321–331, Aug. 2015.

Notes
  • The name of the author(s) is abbreviated to the initial(s) only and precedes the surname(s).
  • Use "and" in between two authors names or before the last if listing more than two.
  • Put the names of all authors up to six names. If more than six names use "et al." (in italics) after the first author.
  • Article title is between quotation marks, only the first letter of the first word should be capitalised.
  • Journal title is in italics, use capitals for all significant words. Abbreviations are used and common abbreviations are given at p.40 of the IEEE Editorial Style Manual. A list of IEEE's titles, including historic publications with their official reference abbreviations and acronyms, are found in IEEE Abbreviations for Transactions, Journals, Letters, and Magazines.
  • Use "p." for a single page and "pp." for a range of pages.
  • If you do not know the month of publication include the year only.

For more information about in-text citation and creating a reference list see Creating in-text citations and reference list and click on the relevant section.

For Kindle or other e-reader see Book – electronic.

[Top of page]

L, M, N, O, P, Q

Magazine articles can be referenced either as a Journal Article (Electronic or Print) or as a Newspaper Article depending on the publication information (such as volume and issue numbers) available.

In order to locate the publication information (such as volume and issue) you will need to look in the following places:

  • The front of the magazine, near the barcode.
  • The back of the magazine, near the barcode.
  • The table of contents.
  • The publication information, which is normally written in very small text, near the front or back of the magazine. This usually also contains contact details and copyright statements as well.

If you are unable to locate information, such as volume number, then you would reference the magazine article using guidance for Newspaper Article.

For Masters Dissertation see Dissertation/Thesis.

In print

In the bibliography/reference list

[  ] INITIAL(S). Surname, "Title of Article," in Title of Newspaper, Abbrev. Month. Day, Year, page numbers (if available)

[37] I. Sample, "Briton to blast off on mission of a lifetime," in The Guardian, Dec. 15, 2015, 1,24-25.

Online

In the bibliography/reference list

[  ] INITIAL(S). Surname, "Title of Article," in Title of Newspaper, Abbrev. Month. Day, Year, Available: URL Accessed on Abbrev. Month. Day, Year.

[38] I. Sample, "Tim Peake, Britain's first ISS astronaut, set for lift off from Kazakhstan," in The Guardian, Dec. 15, 2015, Available: https://www.theguardian.com/science/2015/dec/14/britain-iss-astronaut-tim-peake-international-space-station Accessed on Nov. 6, 2017.

[39] I. Sample, "Tim Peake, Britain's first ISS astronaut, set from lift off from Kazakhstan; Principia mission to International Space Station opens UK to serious involvement in human spaceflight," in The Guardian, Dec. 15, 2015, https://www.nexis.com/docview/getDocForCuiReq?lni=5HM3-G061-F021-64NN&csi=242772&oc=00240&perma=true Accessed on Nov. 8, 2017.

Notes
  • The name of the author(s) and editor(s) are abbreviated to the initial(s) only and precedes the surname(s).
  • Use "and" in between two authors/editors names or before the last if listing more than two.
  • Put the names of all authors/editors up to six names. If more than six names use "et al." (in italics) after the first author.

For more information about in-text citation and creating a reference list see Creating in-text citations and reference list and click on the relevant section.

In print

In the bibliography/reference list

[  ] INITIAL(S). Surname, "Title of patent," Country Patent Number, Abbrev. Month. Day, Year.

[20] T. Vidil, F.G. Tournilhac and L. Leiber, "Supramolecular initiator for latent cationic epoxy polymerization," GB Patent 25020463, May 20, 2015.

Online

In the bibliography/reference list

[  ] Name of the invention, by INITIAL(S). Surname. (Year, Abbrev. Month. Day). Patent Number [Online]. Available: URL or DOI:

[21] Unfolding cylindrical sonar, by G. Riccardi and A. Lemar. (2013, Dec. 25). GB Patent 2503183 [Online]. Available: https://www.ipo.gov.uk/p-find-publication-getPDF.pdf?PatentNo=GB2503183&DocType=A&JournalNumber=6501

Notes
  • The name of the author(s) and editor(s) are abbreviated to the initial(s) only and precedes the surname(s).
  • Use "and" in between two authors/editors names or before the last if listing more than two.
  • Put the names of all authors/editors up to six names. If more than six names use "et al." (in italics) after the first author.
  • If several dates are given, use the "issued date".
  • Do not add a full stop to the end of the URL.

For more information about in-text citation and creating a reference list see Creating in-text citations and reference list and click on the relevant section.

For Preprint see Journal article – Preprint.

[Top of page]

R, S, T, U

In the bibliography/reference list

[  ] INITIAL(S). Surname (Username if available), "Title of post," Item type (E.g. Instagram, Facebook, Twitter), Abbrev. Month. Day, Year (of post), Available: URL Accessed Abbrev of Month. Day, Year.

[35] NASA Godard Space Flight Center (@nasagoddard), "NASA's Webb Telescope Clean Room 'Transporter'," Instagram, Dec. 1, 2016, Available: https://www.instagram.com/p/BNe92DjDByx Accessed Nov. 6, 2017

[36] Intl. Space Station (@SpaceStation), "Approaching the 2.5 hour mark of today's spacewalk," Twitter, Oct. 20, 2017, Available: https://twitter.com/Space_Station/status/921382272678297601 Accessed Nov. 6, 2017.

Notes
  • No official guidance is available for referencing social media in the IEEE Editorial Style Manual.
  • In place of the title, use up to the first 160 charachters of the post if no title is available

For more information about in-text citation and creating a reference list see Creating in-text citations and reference list and click on the relevant section.

In the bibliography/reference list

[  ] INITIAL(S). Surname, Name of Software Version. Year. [Medium]. Available: URL Accessed on: Abbrev. Month. Day, Year.

[54] ANSYS, ANSYS AIM Student v18.2. 2017. [Online]. Available: http://www.ansys.com/academic/free-student-products Accessed on: Nov. 27, 2017

For more information about in-text citation and creating a reference list see Creating in-text citations and reference list and click on the relevant section.

In print

In the bibliography/reference list

[  ] Title of Standard, Standard Number, year.

[22] Railway Applications. Fire Protection on Railway Vehicles. Fire Safety Requirements for Flammable Liquid and Flammable Gas Installations, BS EN 45545-7, 2013.

Online

In the bibliography/reference list

[  ] Title of Standard, Standard Number, year. [Online]. Available: URL or DOI

[23] IEEE Standard for Documentation Schema for Repair and Assembly of Electronic Devices, IEEE Std 1874-2013, 2014. [Online]. doi: 10.1109/IEEESTD.2014.6712032

Notes
  • Standard title is in italics, use capitals for all significant words.
  • Do not add a full stop to the end of the URL or DOI.

For more information about in-text citation and creating a reference list see Creating in-text citations and reference list and click on the relevant section.

In print

In the bibliography/reference list

[  ] INITIAL(S). Surname, "Report/paper title," Abbrev. of name of Co. or Inst., City, U.S. State if necessary, Country, Report/paper number, Abbrev. Month. Year.

[24] R. Arenz, H. Krasowski and W. Wahl, "Computer-assisted product structure analysis for the automotive industry regarding optimal end of life strategies," SAE, Warrendale, PA, USA, Tech. Paper 2001-01-3733, Nov. 2001.

Online

In the bibliography/reference list

[  ] INITIAL(S). Surname, "Report/paper title," Abbrev. of name of Co. or Inst., City, U.S. State if necessary, Country, Report/paper number, Abbrev. Month. Year. [Online]. Available: URL or DOI

[25] D. Stauffer, "Effects of near surface porosity on automotive powertrain gears," SAE, Warrendale, PA, USA, Tech. Paper 2004-01-0490, March 2004. [Online]. doi: 10.4271/2004-01-0490

Notes
  • The name of the author(s) and editor(s) are abbreviated to the initial(s) only and precedes the surname(s).
  • Use "and" in between two authors/editors names or before the last if listing more than two.
  • Put the names of all authors/editors up to six names. If more than six names use "et al." (in italics) after the first author.
  • Report/paper title is between quotation marks, only the first letter of the first word should be capitalised.
  • If necessary to add USA states and territories after the City, these are abbreviated with no full stops.
  • If you do not know the month of publication include the year only.
  • Do not add a full stop to the end of the URL or DOI.

For more information about in-text citation and creating a reference list see Creating in-text citations and reference list and click on the relevant section.

For Television see video sections.

For Thesis see Dissertation/Thesis.

For transliteration of items see Citing and referencing foreign language materials in the section Creating in text citations and reference list.

For Twitter see Social Media.

In the bibliography/reference list

[  ] INITIAL(S). Surname, "Title of paper/document," unpublished.

[26] S. Evans, "Thoughts on referencing," unpublished.

For more information about in-text citation and creating a reference list see Creating in-text citations and reference list and click on the relevant section.

[Top of page]

V, W, X, Y, Z

Film

In the bibliography/reference list

[  ] Title of film. Directed by INITIALS. Surname. City of publication, U.S. State if necessary, Country: Publisher, Year. [Medium e.g. Online]. Available from: Name of Database e.g. Box of Broadcasts. Accessed Month abbr. Day, Year.

[27] The World's End. Director E. Wright. Universal City, CA, USA: Universal Pictures, 2013. [Online Database]. Available from: Box of Broadcasts. Accessed Sept. 11. 2017.

Episode in a TV series

In the bibliography/reference list

[   ] "Title of Episode or Episode Number," in Title of Series, written INITIALS. Surname (or presenter/narrator if writier unavailable), directed INITIALS. Surname, Broadcast Channel, Date of Broadcast Month Abbr. Day, Year. Time of broadcast. [Medium Online Database]. Available from: Name of streaming service. Accessed: Month abbr. Day, Year.

[28] "Time and Distance," in Precision: The measure of all things, presenter M. du Sorby, director by M. Cunliffe. BBC 4. Sept. 11, 2017. 00:30. [Online Database]. Available from: Box of Broadcasts. Accessed Sept. 12, 2017.

Notes

For more information about in-text citation and creating a reference list see Creating in-text citations and reference list and click on the relevant section.

Film

In the bibliography/reference list

[  ] Title of film. Directed by INITIALS. Surname. City of Publication, State, Country: Publisher, Year. [Medium e.g. Blu-ray]

[29] The Martian. Directed by R. Scott. Century City, CA, USA: Twentieth Century Fox, 2015. [Blu-Ray].

Episode from a TV series

[  ] "Title of episode or episode number," in Title of series, Written by INITIALS. Surname (or presented/narrated by if writer unavailable), directed by INITIALS. Surname. City of Publication, State, Country: Publisher, Year. [Medium e.g. Blu-Ray].

[30] "Urban Heart Surgery" in Fifteen Billion Pound Railway, narrated by J. Barratt, directed by J. Lubman. London, UK; Windfall Films, 2014. (DVD).

Notes

For more information about in-text citation and creating a reference list see Creating in-text citations and reference list and click on the relevant section.

Film

In the bibliography/reference list

[  ] Title of Film. Directed by INITIALS. Surname. City of Publication, State, Country: Publisher, Year. [Medium e.g. Online]. Available from: Name of Streaming Service. Accessed Month abbr. Day, Year.

[31] The Martian. Directed by R. Scott. Century City, CA, USA: Twentieth Century Fox, 2015. [Online]. Available from: Netflix. Accessed: Sept. 12, 2017.

Episode from a TV series

[  ] "Title of episode or episode number," in Title of Series, written by INITIALS. Surname (or presenter/narrator if writier unavailable), directed by INITIALS. Surname. City of Publication, State, Country: Publisher, Year. [Medium e.g. Online]. Available from: Name of Streaming Service. Accessed Month abbr. Day, Year.

[32] "London Aquatics Centre," in Mega Builders, written and directed by W. Trueman. Silver Spring, MD, USA: Discovery Channel, 2009. [Online]. Available from: Netflix. Accessed: Sept. 11, 2017.

Notes
In the bibliography/reference list

[  ] INITIAL(S). Surname and/or [Screen name], Video title, Abbrev. Month. Day, Year. [Video]. Available: URL. Accessed on: Abbrev. Month. Day, Year.

[33] University of Sheffield [UniSheffieldLib], Introduction to the University Library, Sept. 25, 2015. [Video]. Available: https://youtu.be/HTNPUmI8_8w. Accessed on: Oct. 28, 2015.

Notes
  • No official guidance is available for referencing videos from the IEEE Editorial Style Manual.
  • Both the author and screen name may be given if known. This may help the reader track down the video.
  • Video title is in italics, use capitals for all significant words.

For more information about in-text citation and creating a reference list see Creating in-text citations and reference list and click on the relevant section.

In the bibliography/reference list

[  ] INITIAL(S). Surname, "Title of web page," in Title of Website, Abbrev. Month. Day, Year. [Online]. Available: URL. Accessed on: Abbrev.Month. Day, Year.

[34] Met Office, "New UK LiDAR network to detect volcanic ash," in Met Office, June, 1, 2015. [Online]. Available: http://unisheffieldlib-scieng.blogspot.co.uk/2015/05/ieee-xplore-celebrating-15-years.html. Accessed on: June 3, 2015.

Notes
  • No official guidance is available for referencing web pages from the IEEE Editorial Style Manual.
  • If no personal author is given, you can use the name of the organisation, company or institution.
  • Web page title is between quotation marks, only the first letter of the first word should be capitalised.
  • Website name is in italics, use capitals for all significant words.

For more information about in-text citation and creating a reference list see Creating in-text citations and reference list and click on the relevant section.

For YouTube see Video – Sharing Website.

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