Harvard referencing

Reference list vs. Bibliography

In the Harvard style, references are listed at the end of your work, and are organised alphabetically by the surname of the author.

A reference list includes all works that have been referred to in the assignment.

A bibliography includes all the material consulted in writing your assignment even if you have not cited them within it.


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This tutorial details the Harvard style of referencing based upon the advice given in the book "British Standard BS ISO 690:2010 Information and documentation. Guidelines for bibliographic references and citations to information resources." This is the style of Harvard that The University Of Sheffield supports.

Referencing in the Harvard style is a two–part process:

Creating a citation and reference list

Harvard style referencing is an author/date method. Sources are cited within the body of the text by giving the name of the author(s) followed by the date of publication. All other details about the publication are given in the list of references or bibliography at the end.

If a citation refers to a complete information resource, or an idea/theme which runs through the entire work, then you would include author and date, e.g. (Smith 2005) or Smith (2005).

Citations which are used alongside direct quotations, or is referring to a particular part of a resource, then you should include the page number in your citation e.g. (Smith 2005, p. 42) or Smith (2005, p. 42).


Rules about citing
  • If the author(s) name appears in the text as part of the body of the assignment, then the year will follow in round brackets, e.g. According to Smith (2015).

  • If the author(s) name does not appear in the body of the text, then the name and date should follow in round brackets, e.g. (Smith 2015).

  • If more than one of your citations has the same author and year of publication, then you must distinguish between them by using a lower–case letter following the year, e.g. (Smith 2015a), (Smith 2015b).

  • Some authors have the same surname and works published in the same year, if this is the case use their initial to distinguish between them, e.g. (Williams, A. 2009), (Williams, J. 2009).

  • In some instances you may need to cite more than one piece of work for an idea. If this occurs, you should separate the references with a semicolon and cite them in chronological order, e.g. (Jones 2014; Smith 2015).

  • When citing in-text, include the name of up to three authors, if there are more than three authors for the work you are citing then use the name of the first author followed by "et al.", e.g. (Taylor et al. 2015).

  • For items where the author is a corporation, cite the name of the corporation in full unless they are a well–known corporation e.g. (BBC 2011), (Woodland Trust 2011).

  • If a work is designated as Anonymous, use Anon instead of the creator's name, e.g. (Anon 2011).

  • If the year of publication is not given, but can be established, it should be supplied.

  • If the exact date is not known, an approximate date followed by a question mark (?), or preceded by ca. should be given. e.g.
    • (Hill 2005?).
    • (Hill ca. 2005)
    • (Hill 21st century).

  • If you use the date of copyright you should precede the date with any of the following:
    • e.g. cop. 2015
    • or © e.g. ©2015

  • If no date, or approximate date can be found, then you would state this, e.g. (Wells no date).

Quotations

If you are directly quoting from a source, then you must include the page number in your citation. A short quotation (under two lines), should be within the body of the text and in quotation marks, e.g. There is still a labelling issue when it comes to flavourings in food, it is noted that, "flavours such as vanillin which occur naturally in food are called ‘nature–identical’. The label does not have to state where it comes from." (Wilson 2009, p. 257)

If the quote is more than two lines, then it should be presented as a new paragraph which is preceded by a colon and indented from the normal margins. You do not need to use quotation marks, e.g.

Wilson (2009, p. 257) has looked at food flavourings in the UK and makes the following observation about Vanilla:

In Britain, flavours such as vanillin which occur naturally in food are called ‘nature–identical’. The label does not have to state where it comes from. A flavouring only counts as fully ‘artificial’ if it does not occur in nature at all, as is the case with another, stronger vanilla–substitute called ethyl–vanillin (often used in chocolate).

If you are omitting part of a quotation then you can indicate this by using three dots [...]. This does not need to be done at the beginning or end of a quotation.

Quotation from:

Wilson, C., 2009. Swindled: From poison sweets to counterfeit coffee – the dark history of the food cheats. London: John Murray (Publishers).


Secondary referencing

This is when you reference one author who is referring to the work of another and the primary source is not available. Secondary referencing should be avoided if possible.

If you have only read the later publication you are accepting someone else's opinion and interpretation of the author's original intention. You cannot have formed your own view or critically appraised whether the secondary author has adequately presented the original material.

You must make it clear to your reader which author you have read whilst giving details of original term by using ‘cited in’ if the author has only cited work by another author, or ‘quoted in’ if the information you are using is directly quoted from the original piece of work, e.g. (Ecott 2002, cited in Wilson 2009) or (Cannon 1989, quoted in Wilson 2009, p. 269).


Paraphrasing

Paraphrasing is putting someone else's ideas into your own words. It does not mean changing the odd word / sentence or rearranging the sentence. The paraphrase should clearly be a restatement of the meaning of the original text in your own words.

When you are paraphrasing, or referring indirectly to a secondary source without making a direct quotation, the statements still need to be referenced, and page numbers should still be given, e.g.

Matisse's method of papier–découpé is rather different from the collage technique exploited by the Cubists and Dadaists several decades earlier (Jacobus 1973, p. 49). During Matisse's last years, from 1948, this was his preferred method of working.

A reference list is the list of items you have used in your work, whilst a bibliography is a list of items you have used whilst researching your work. Reference lists and bibliographies are presented alphabetically, and then in chronological order.

The general rules for creating a list are:

  • If you have distinguished between authors in your citation, you should use the same letter in your reference list to distinguish e.g. (Smith 2015b) will be Smith, S. 2015b...

  • A reference with one author will appear before a reference with two plus authors, if the first author has the same last name.

  • Multiple references by the same author or creator are listed in chronological order.

  • Corporations are listed using the first proper noun of the name, e.g. Royal Academy of Arts (The).

  • For references with more than three authors, list all the authors in the reference list in the order they appear in the source. In some cases, there may be a long list of authors (in medical and scientific papers), if this is the case it is permissible to include the first author followed by et al. See Journal article with many authors for an example.

  • Author/Editor names should be given in the following format: Surname, Initials e.g. Smith, G.A.

  • Certain types of material, such as encyclopedias or dictionaries, may not have one person or persons as the main author or editor. These can be referenced by title first e.g. OED online, ©2015. Oxford: Oxford University Press. [Viewed 17 December 2015). Available from: http://www.oed.com

  • Each reference should end in a full stop unless it is a link or DOI.

  • Anonymous works should begin with Anon, followed by the date e.g. Anon, 1754. in your reference list.

  • If the year of publication is not given, but can be established, it should be supplied.

  • If the exact date is not known, an approximate date followed by a question mark (?), or preceded by ca. should be given e.g.
    • [2005?].
    • [ca. 2005].
    • [21st century].

  • If you use the date of copyright you should precede the date with any of the following:
    • e.g. cop. 2015
    • or © e.g. ©2015

  • If no date, or approximate date can be found, then you would use [no date].

 

Jump to: Creating a citation and reference list | Books | Journals | Online Sources | Dissertations and Theses | Images | Government Publications | Other

Books

In the text

For an in–text citation in your work, you would cite the reference as follows:

Bryman (2016) recommends...
Quantitative data is more suited to the study due to... (Bryman 2016).

In the bibliography/reference list

Author Surname, Initial(s)., Year. Title. Edition (if not first edition). Place of publication: Publisher.

Bryman, A., 2016. Social research methods. 5th ed. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

For more information about in–text citation and referencing multiple authors, see Creating a citation and reference list and click on the relevant section.

In the text

For an in–text citation in your work, you would cite the reference as follows:

Wallace and Wolf (2006) found that...
Globalization is a theory that has many concepts... (Wallace & Wolf 2006).

In the bibliography/reference list

Author Surname, Initial(s). and Author Surname, Initial(s)., Year. Title. Edition (if not first edition). Place of publication: Publisher.

Wallace, R. A., and Wolf, A. 2006. Contemporary sociological theory: expanding the classical tradition. 6th ed. Upper Saddle River, N.J.: Prentice Hall.

For more information about in–text citation and referencing multiple authors, see Creating a citation and reference list and click on the relevant section.

In the text

For an in–text citation in your work, you would cite the reference as follows:

Begg et al. (2014) found that...
The elasticity of demand demonstrates... (Begg et al. 2014).

In the bibliography/reference list

Author Surname, Initial(s)., Author Surname, Initial(s)., Author Surname, Initial(s). and Author Surname, Initial(s)., Year. Title. Edition (if not first edition). Place of publication: Publisher.

Begg, D.K.H., Vernasca, G., Fischer, S. and Dornbusch, R., 2014. Economics. 11th ed. London: McGraw–Hill.

For more information about in–text citation and referencing multiple authors, see Creating a citation and reference list and click on the relevant section.

In the bibliography/reference list for one editor

Editor Surname, Initial(s). ed., Year. Title. Edition (if not the first. Place of publication: Publisher.

Ikeo, A. ed., 1997. Economic development in twentieth century East Asia: the international context. London: Routledge.

In the bibliography/reference list for two editors

Editor Surname, Initial(s). and Editor Surname, Initial(s). eds., Year. Title. Edition (if not the first). Place of publication: Publisher.

Parker, R. and Aggleton, P. eds., 2007. Culture, society and sexuality: a reader. 2nd ed. London: Routledge.

In the bibliography/reference list for three editors

Editor Surname, Initials., Editor Surname, Initials. and Editor Surname, Initial. eds., Year. Title. Edition (if not the first). Place of Publication: Publisher.

Alcock, P., May, M. and Wright, S. eds., 2012. The student's companion to social policy. 4th ed. Oxford: Wiley–Blackwell.

For more information about in–text citation and referencing multiple authors, see Creating a citation and reference list and click on the relevant section.

In the text

For an in–text citation in your work, you would cite the reference as follows:

He (1997) found that...
The ethnic relations in China ...(He 1997).

Zheng (1997) looked at the cultural influences...
The culture of western business during the period...(Zheng 1997).

In the bibliography/reference list

Chapter Author Surname, Initials., Year. Title of chapter. In: Editor(s) Initial. Editor(s) Surname, ed(s). Title of book. Edition (if not first). Place of publication: Publisher. Page numbers.

He, X., 1997. The market economy and ethnic relations in China. In: A. Ikeo, ed. Economic development in twentieth century East Asia: the international context. London: Routledge. pp. 190–205.

Zheng, X., 1997. Chinese business culture from the 1920s to the 1950s. In: A. Ikeo, ed. Economic development in twentieth century East Asia: the international context. London: Routledge. pp. 35–54.

For more information about in–text citation and referencing multiple authors, see Creating a citation and reference list and click on the relevant section.

In the text

For an in–text citation in your work, you would cite the reference as follows:

Walliman (2011) looks at identifying the research problem by...
By refining what information...(Walliman 2011).

In the bibliography/reference list

Author Surname, Initial(s)., Year. Title of item [online]. Edition (if not first). Place of publication: Publication. [Date Viewed]. Available from: DOI or URL.

Walliman, N.S.R., 2011. Research methods: The basics [online]. Abingdon: Routledge. [Viewed 19 November 2015]. Available from: https://www.dawsonera.com/readonline/9780203836071/

For more information about in–text citation and referencing multiple authors, see Creating a citation and reference list and click on the relevant section.

In the text

For an in–text citation in your work, you would cite the reference as follows:

Becker (2012) identifies...
The research methodology for social policy...(Becker 2012)

In the bibliography/reference list

Chapter Author Surname, Initial(s)., Year. Chapter of title. In: Editor(s) Initials, Editor(s) Surnames. Title of book [online]. Edition (if not first). Place of publication: Publisher. Page numbers. [Date viewed]. Available from: URL or DOI

Becker, S., 2012. Approaches and methods. In: P. Alcock, M. May and S. Wright, eds. The student's companion to social policy [online]. 4th ed. pp.12–18. [Viewed 5 October 2015]. Available from: https://www.dawsonera.com/abstract/9781119960805

For more information about in–text citation and referencing multiple authors, see Creating a citation and reference list and click on the relevant section.

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Journals

In the text

For an in–text citation in your work, you would cite the reference as follows:

Austin (2009) argues that periodical conflict may be expected...
It can be assumed that pickpocketing...(Austin 2009)

In the bibliography, in the reference list

Author of article Surname, Initial(s)., Year. Title of article. Journal title. Volume in bold(Issue), page range.

Austin, T., 2012. Takers keepers, losers weepers: theft as customary play in southern Phillipines. Journal of Folklore Research. 49(3), 263–284.

For more information about in–text citation and referencing multiple authors, see Creating a citation and reference list and click on the relevant section.

In the text

For an in–text citation in your work, you should cite the reference as follows

Dobson (2006) identified that the depiction...
The stereotypical portrayal of cultures...(Dobson 2006).

In the bibliography/reference list

Author of article Surname, Initial(s)., Year. Title of article. Title of journal [online]. Volume in bold(Issue), Page range. [Date viewed]. Available from: doi:

Dobson, H., 2006. Mister Sparkle meets the 'Yakuza': depictions of Japan in The Simpsons. Journal of Popular Culture [online]. 39(1), 44–68. [Viewed 5 October 2015]. Available from: doi: 10.1111/j.1540-5931.2006.00203.x

For more information about in–text citation and referencing multiple authors, see Creating a citation and reference list and click on the relevant section.

In the text

For an in–text citation in your work, you would cite the reference as follows:

Ashby (1999) identified Zappa's style...
The melodies in Zappa's work...(Ashby 1999).

In the bibliography/reference list

Author of article Surname, Initial(s)., Year. Title of article. Title of journal [online]. Volume in bold(Issue), Page range. [Date Viewed]. Available from: URL

Ashby, A., 1999. Frank Zappa and the anti–fetishist orchestra. The Musical Quarterly [online]. 83(4), 557–606. [Viewed 5 October 2015]. Available from: http://www.jstor.org/stable/742617

For more information about in–text citation and referencing multiple authors, see Creating a citation and reference list and click on the relevant section.

In the text

For an in–text citation in your work, you would cite the reference as follows:

Lichtenthaler (2016) demonstrated an innovation–based view...
Complex relationships that appear in companies...(Lichtenthaler 2016)

In the bibliography/reference list

Author Surname, Initial(s)., Year. [Forthcoming]. Title of Article. Title of journal [online]. Volume in bold(Issue), Page range (if available). [Date viewed]. Available from: URL or DOI

Lichtenthaler, U., 2016. [Forthcoming]. Towards an innovation–based persepective on company performance. Management Decision [online]. 54(1). [Viewed 7 January 2016]. Available from: http://www.emeraldinsight.com/doi/abs/10.1108/MD-05-2015-0161

For more information about in–text citation and referencing multiple authors, see Creating a citation and reference list and click on the relevant section.

In some fields, such as medicine and physics, an article may have hundreds of authors, in such cases it may be impractical to list each one. You would reference as follows:

In the text

For an in–text citation in your work, you would cite the reference as follows:

Abbott et al. (2016) observed gravitational waves...
The first observation of a binary black hole merger included...(Abbott et al. 2016)

In the bibliography/reference list

First or lead author of article Surname, Initial(s)., et al. Year. Title of article. Journal title. Volume in bold(Issue), page range.

Or if available online

First or lead author of article Surname, Initial(s)., et al. Year. Title of article. Title of journal [online]. Volume in bold(Issue), Page range. [Date viewed]. Available from: doi:

Abbott, B.P., et al. 2016. Observation of gravitational waves from a binary blackhole merger. Physical Review Letters. 116(6), 061102

Aubert, B., et al. 2002. The BABAR detector. Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A: Accelorators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated Equipment [online]. 479(1), 1-116. [Viewed 12 December 2016]. Available from: doi: 10.1016/S0168-9002(01)02012-5

For more information about in–text citation and referencing multiple authors, see Creating a citation and reference list and click on the relevant section.

Notes

This is an example for papers where there are hundreds of authors, in other instances you would cite all authors in the order they appear in the source material

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Online Sources

In the text

For an in–text citation in your work, you would cite the reference as follows:

campusM (2015) created...
The app iSheffield allows the user...(campusM 2015)

In the bibliography/reference list

Creator. Name of software. Version. [Software type]. Update or revision date [date of access]. Available from: URL

campusM. iSheffield. Version 5.4.2. [app on android]. 25 November 2015 [accessed 26 November 2015]. Available from: https://play.google.com/store/apps/details?id=com.ombiel.campusm.sheffield&hl=en_GB

For more information about in–text citation and referencing multiple authors, see Creating a citation and reference list and click on the relevant section.

In the text

For an in–text citation in your work, you would cite the reference as follows:

Steel (2015) looks to promote...
The promotion of new materials is demonstrated...(Steel 2015)

In the bibliography/reference list

Name of creator Surname, Initial(s)., Year. Title of blog post. Title of blog [online]. Date blog was posted (Day/Month/Year). [Date viewed]. Available from: URL

Steel, B., 2015. New edition of Journal Citation Reports now available. Librarians' Blog for Social Sciences [online]. 22 June 2015. [Viewed 1 December 2015]. Available from: http://unisheffieldlib-socialsciences.blogspot.co.uk/2015/06/new-edition-of-journal-citation-reports.html

For more information about in–text citation and referencing multiple authors, see Creating a citation and reference list and click on the relevant section.

Film

In the text

For an in–text citation in your work, you would cite the reference as follows:

Black Swan (2010) used imagery to represent...
The hidden images in contained in the film... (Black Swan 2010)

In the bibliography/reference list

Title., Year. [Medium]. Directed by (Full Name). Place of production: Production company.

Black Swan, 2010. [Film]. Directed by Darren Aronofsky. USA: Twentieth Century Fox.

Notes

When citing, use the name of the film as it is a collaborative work between many people with no one person classed as the creator.

Episode of TV programme on DVD

In the text

For an in–text citation in your work, you would cite the reference as follows:

The detectives Bunk and McNulty revisit an old crime scene...(The Wire, Old Cases 2002)
In the episode Old Cases...(The Wire 2002)

In the bibliography/reference list

Title of TV show, Series, Episode, Episode Title. Year. [Medium]. Director of episode (full name). Place of production: Production Company.

The Wire, Series 1, Old Cases, 2002. [TV Series]. Directed by Clement Virgo. New York: HBO Video

Online e.g. YouTube

In the text

For an in–text citation in your work, you would cite the reference as follows:

uniSheffieldLib (2016) have provided a useful video...
A video which introduces the Open Acccess (uniSheffieldLib 2016)

In the bibliography/reference list

Author (or username). Year of video. Title of video [online]. Title of website. [Date viewed]. Available from: URL

uniSheffieldLib, 2016. The benefits of Open Access: researchers' perspectives [online]. YouTube. [Viewed 17 August 2016]. Available from: https://youtu.be/Tcc–SwhDlD4

Online database e.g. Box of Broadcasts

In the text

For an in–text citation in your work, you would cite the reference as follows:

In the episode 'The Agreement Dissection' (The Big Bang Theory 2016)...
Sheldon and Leonard disagree about the conditions of the roommate agreement (The Big Bang Theory, The Agreement Dissection 2016)

In the bibliography/reference list

Name of TV show, Series, Episode, Episode Title (if available), Year of Broadcast. Name of channel. Date of Broadcast and time. Database name [online database]. [Date viewed]. Available from: URL

The Big Bang Theory, Series 4, Episode 21, The Agreement Dissection, 2016. Channel 4. 17 August 2016, 09:00. Box of Broadcasts [online database]. [Viewed 17 August 2016]. Available from: https://learningonscreen.ac.uk/ondemand/index.php/prog/01D4F03F

For more information about in–text citation and referencing multiple authors, see Creating a citation and reference list and click on the relevant section.

Full Website

In the text

For an in–text citation in your work, you would cite the reference as follows:

Rosen (2005) uses the website...
The website contains poetry...(Rosen 2005)

World Bank Group (©2015)...
The website...(World Bank Group ©2015)

In the bibliography/reference list

Author of website Surname, Initial(s)., Year. Name of website. [Date viewed]. Available from: URL

Rosen, M., 2005. Michael Rosen — The Website. [Viewed 4 December 2015]. Available from: http://www.michaelrosen.co.uk/

World Bank Group, ©2015. The World Bank. [Viewed 6 October 2015]. Available from: http://www.worldbank.org

Part of a website

In the text

For an in–text citation in your work, you would cite the reference as follows:

The Met Office (2013) explains the climate...
Climate is the...(Met Office 2013)

In the bibliography/reference list

Author of section Surname, Initial(s)/corporate author., Year. Title of part [online]. Name of website. [Date viewed]. Available from: URL.

Met Office, 2013. What do we mean by climate? [online]. Met Office. [Viewed 14 October 2015]. Available from: http://www.metoffice.gov.uk/climate-guide/climate

NHS Choices, ©2015. Behind the Headlines [online]. NHS Choices. [Viewed 14 October 2015]. Available from: http://www.nhs.uk/news/Pages/NewsIndex.aspx

For more information about in–text citation and referencing multiple authors, see Creating a citation and reference list and click on the relevant section.

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Dissertations and Theses

Unpublished Dissertation

In the text

For an in–text citation in your work, you would cite the reference as follows:

Vickers (2008) noted that the impact of technology has changed the way spaces within a library buidling are provided...
Learning spaces and services provided are changing due to technological advances (Vickers 2008)...

In the bibliography/reference list

Author Surname, Initial(s)., Year. Title. Type of qualification (Award and type), Awarding body.

Vickers, S., 2008. An oral history examination of how technology has impacted on library space using the University of Sheffield Library as a case study. M.A. Dissertation, University of Sheffield.

For more information about in–text citation and referencing multiple authors, see Creating a citation and reference list and click on the relevant section.

In the text

For an in–text citation in your work, you would cite the reference as follows:

Wilson (2014) notes that whilst Rage Against the Machine signed with a major record label, their music still hold the intended meaning to the audience...
Popular music is still relevant to society when it makes a political statement even though the artist may be signed to a major record label... (Wilson 2014).

In the bibliography/reference list

Author Surname, Initial(s)., Year. Title. Type of qualification (Award and type), Awarding body.

Wilson, B., 2014. It sounds like revolution: the changing role of popular music within political resistance movements. Ph.D. thesis, University of Sheffield.

For more information about in–text citation and referencing multiple authors, see Creating a citation and reference list and click on the relevant section.

In the text

For an in–text citation in your work, you would cite the reference as follows:

Tomlinson (2009) found that differing amounts of grip...
Moisture can affect grip when examining...(Tomlinson 2009)

In the bibliography/reference list

Author Surname, Initial(s)., Year. Title. Type of qualification (Award and type), Awarding body. [Date viewed]. Available from: URL

Tomlinson, S.E., 2009. Understanding the friction between human fingers and contacting surfaces. Ph.D. thesis, University of Sheffield. [Viewed 14 October 2015]. Available from: http://etheses.whiterose.ac.uk/150

For more information about in–text citation and referencing multiple authors, see Creating a citation and reference list and click on the relevant section.

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Images

Online image (e.g. Flikr) with full details

In the text

For an in–text citation in your work, you would cite the reference as follows:

Sunblocker by Schlamann (2015) depicts the lionfish...
The image Sunblocker shows the lionfish...(Schlamann 2015)

The image Ladybower Plughole by Andy_C (2005) shows the overflow...
The overflow of the Ladybower reservoir can be seen in the image Ladybower Plughole (Andy_C 2005)

In the bibliography/reference list

Artist surname, Initial(s)., Year. Title of image [Type of image]. [Date viewed]. Available from: URL

Schlamann, C., 2015. Sunblocker [digital image]. [Viewed 6 July 2016]. Available from: http://photography.nationalgeographic.com/photography/photo-of-the-day/lionfish-underwater-sunlight/

Andy_C, 2005. Ladybower Plughole [digital image]. [Viewed 6 July 2016]. Available from: https://www.flickr.com/photos/andycpics/3035948922

Online image without a clear title

In the text

For an in–text citation in your work, you would cite the reference as follows:

The beach huts in the image by Ren_7 (2010) depict...
The beach huts shown in the image (Ren_7 2010) are typical of those at British resorts

The image from NASA Johnson Space Center (2015) shows the Earth as observed from...
The image of Earth (NASA Johnson Space Center 2015)

Pluto as seen by the New Horizons Spacecraft (NASA Johnson Space Center 2015) shows the suface...
The surface of the dwarf planet Pluto by NASA Johnson Space Center (2015)...

In the bibliogrpahy/reference list

Artist surname, Initials., Year. Title of image [Type of image]. [Date viewed]. Available from: URL.

Ren_7, 2010. [Beach huts] [digital image]. [Viewed 11 July 2010]. Available from: https://www.flickr.com/photos/ren7/5108123117/

NASA Johnson Space Center, 2015. [Earth from Deep Space Climate Observatory] [digital image]. [Viewed 11 July 2016]. Available from: https://www.instagram.com/p/5Xs5tgqpIL

NASA Johnson Space Center, 2015. [Pluto from New Horizons Spacecraft] [digital image]. [Viewed 11 July 2016]. Available from: https://www.instagram.com/p/5Htd_cqpLC

Online image without a clear date

In the text

For an in–text citation in your work, you would cite the reference as follows:

The Spicebush Swallowtail Butterfly as photographed by Marawski (ca. 2008) shows...
The image of the Spicebush Swallowtail Butterfly (Murawski ca. 2008)

In the bibliography/reference list

Artist surname, Initials., Year. Title of image [Type of image]. [Date viewed]. Available from: URL

Murawski, D. A., [ca. 2008]. Spicebush swallowtail butterfly [digital image]. [Viewed 11 July 2016]. Available from: http://www.nationalgeographic.com/photography/photos/patterns-butterflies/#/1371.ngsversion.1467941567217.jpg

Notes

  • In some cases you may need to use the screen name of the creator if their real name is not available, this can be the case with image sharing websites
  • If there is no clear title to the image, a popular title may be used if one exists. If a popular title to the image does not exist then you will need to supply the image with a title, in square brackets, proving the following where possible
    • The subject matter.
    • The name or place of the object depicted, i.e. the person, the building, the location etc.
  • If the year the image was taken is not available but can be esablished, then use this as your date.
  • If the exact date is not known, an approximate date followed by a question mark (?), or preceeded by "ca." should be used, this should be given in square brackets e.g.
    • [2005?]
    • [ca. 2005].
    • [20th century].
  • If no date, or approximate date can be found then you would use [no date].

For more information about in–text citation and referencing multiple authors, see Creating a citation and reference list and click on the relevant section.

In the text

For an in–text citation in your work, you would cite the reference as follows:

The photograph of a broken window by Lynch (no date) shows the reflection...
The shard of glass in the photograph (Lynch no date) shows the reflection...

The rabbit paintings in the photograph in the photograph by McNulty (2010)...
The photograph shows paintings and imagery of rabbits in an apartment (McNulty 2010).

The painting by Kashiki (2008) shows a person who is in the middle of a creative process...
The creative process of creating art is visualised in the painting (Kashiki 2008) which shows...

In the bibliography/reference list

Artist surname, Initials., Year. Title of image [Type of image]. In: Author initial(s), Author Surname, Year (if different from image). Title.. Edition (if not first). Place of publication: Publisher. Page number. ISBN.

Lynch, D., [no date]. [Broken window] [photograph]. In: D. Lynch, 2007. The air is on fire. 2nd ed. Paris: Fondation Cartier pour l’art contemporain. p.327. ISBN 9782742764969.

McNulty, A., 2010. Shirley Davisdon's fourth–floor front studio, with rabbit paintings [photograph]. In: R. Bernstein and S. Shapiro. Illegal living: 80 Wooster Street and the evolution of SoHo. Vilnius: Joseph Meko Foundation. p.226. ISBN 9786099517209.

Kashiki, T., 2008. Drawing person [acrylic and ink paining]. In: D. Elliott. 2011. Bye bye kitty!!! Bewtween heaven and hell in contemporary Japanses art. New York: Japan Society Inc. p.43. ISBN 9780300166903

Notes

  • If there is no clear title to the image, a popular title may be used if one exists. If a popular title to the image does not exist then you will need to supply the image with a title, in square brackets, proving the following where possible
    • The subject matter.
    • The name or place of the object depicted, i.e. the person, the building, the location etc.
  • If the year the image was taken is not available but can be esablished, then use this as your date.
  • If the exact date is not known, an approximate date followed by a question mark (?), or preceeded by "ca." should be used, this should be given in square brackets e.g.
    • [2005?]
    • [ca. 2005].
    • [20th century].
  • If no date, or approximate date can be found then you would use [no date].

For more information about in–text citation and referencing multiple authors, see Creating a citation and reference list and click on the relevant section.

Original photograph or image on display e.g. in a museum

In the text

For an in–text citation in your work, you would cite the reference as follows:

The photograph by Nicholls (1919) captures preparations in London...
The photograph 'Preparations for Peace Day Celebrations' (Nicholls 1919) shows the 18th Battalion...

The photograph by Prince (1986) captures...
The image of a cowboy riding a horse (Prince 1986)...

Dewynters (1999) produced the iconic poster for the production of Cats...
The poster for Cats at the New London Theatre (Dewynters 1999)...

In the bibliography/reference list

Surname of artist, Initial(s)., Year. Title [Item type]. At: Place: Holding institution, department (if available), identifier or reference number (if available).

Nicholls, H., 1919. Preparations for the peace day celebrations, July 1919 [photograph]. At: London: Imperial War Museum, Photograph Archive Collection, Q31324.

Prince, R., 1986. [Cowboy riding a horse] [photograph]. At: London: Victoria and Albert Museum, E.2755–1990

Dewynters, 1999. [Cats at the New London Theatre] [poster]. At: London: Victoria and Albert Museum, S.231–1999

Original photograph or image on display without a clear date e.g. in a museum

In the text

For an in–text citation in your work, you would cite the reference as follows:

Kinderhände im Washbeken by Dörner (ca. 1930) shows the willingness of photographers of the time to try new angles...
New ways of photographing subjects can be seen in the image Kinderhände im Washbeken (Dörner ca. 1930)

The image of Red Forte at Lahore Gate, New Dheli by Bourne (19th Century) shows...
The photogrpah of Red Fort (Bourne 19th Century) shows the documentation of India...

La Torre di Palazzo Vecchio vista attraverso i finestroni del Campanile di Giotto by Allinari (19th Century) documents...
The image shows the Catherdral of Santa Maria del Firoe in Florence (Allinari 19th Century)...

In the bibliography/reference list

Surname of artist, Initial(s)., Year. Title [Item type]. At: Place: Holding institution, department (if available), identifier or reference number (if available).

Dörner, E., [ca. 1930]. Kinderhände im washbecken [Children's Hands in Washbasin] [photograph]. At: London: Victoria and Albert Museum, E.799–1997.

Bourne, E., [19th century]. Red Fort at Lahore Gate, New Delhi [photograph]. At: London: Victoria and Albert Museum, 53195.

Alinari, F., [19th century]. La Torre di Palazzo Vecchio vista attraverso i finestroni del Campanile di Giotto [photograph]. At: Sheffield: Graves Gallery, CGSG03475.

Original photograph or image from a personal collection

In the bibliography/reference list

In the text

For an in–text citation in your work, you would cite the reference as follows:

Lincoln Castle as photographed by Bazela (2008) shows the renovations...
In the image of Lincoln Castle (Bazela 2008)

Surname of artist, Initial(s)., Year. Title [Item type]. At: Place: Holding institution, department (if available), identifier or reference number (if available).

Bazela, C., 2012. Olympic torch relay at Brookhill Roundabout, Sheffield [Digital photograph]. At: [Personal collection of C. Bazela].

Bazela, C., 2008. Lincoln castle [Digital photograph]. At: [Personal collection of C Bazela].

Notes
  • If there is no clear title to the item, a popular title may be used if one exists. If a popular title to the image does not exist then you will need to supply the item with a title, in square brackets, proving the following where possible
    • The subject matter
    • The name or place of the object depicted, i.e. the person, the buidling, the location etc.
  • If the year of the image is not available but can be established, then use this as your date.
  • If the exact date is not known, an approximate date followed by a question mark (?), or preceded by "ca.", should be used, this should be given in square brackets, e.g.
    • [2005?]
    • [ca. 2005]
    • [20th Century]
  • If no date, or approximate date can be found then you would use [no date].
  • The original title of a translated information resource, or a translation of the title, may be supplied immediately after the original title, e.g. Kinderhände im washbecken [Children's Hands in Washbasin]

For more information about in–text citation and referencing multiple authors, see Creating a citation and reference list and click on the relevant section.

Sculpture

In the text

For an in–text citation in your work, you would cite the reference as follows:

Williams and Williams (2006) created the design for the Interst–Elephant...
The Interst–Elephant sculpture (Williams & Williams 2016) was displayed as part of the Herd of Sheffield Collection...

Keegan's (1991) sculpture shows the use of raku–fired earthenware...
The scuplture Newby the Dog (Keegan 1991)...

The sculture of Neptune and Triton by Bernini (ca. 1622) shows the use of...
The marble sculpture of Neptune and Trident (Bernini ca. 1622)...

In the bibliography/reference list

Surname of artist, initial(s)., Year. Title [Item type]. At: Place: Holding institution, department (if available), identifier or reference number (if available).

Williams, J. and Williams, A., 2016. Interst–Elephant [Sclupture]. At: Sheffield, Barkers Pool, Herd of Sheffield Collection [public display].

Keegan, S., 1991. Newby the dog [Sculpture]. At: London: Victoria and Albert Museum, C.196:1, 2–1991.

Bernini, G., [ca. 1622]. Neptune and Triton [Sculpture]. At: London: Victoria and Albert Museum, A.18:1–1950.

Work of art in a museum

In the text

For an in–text citation in your work, you would cite the reference as follows:

The Mona Lisa by DaVinci (ca. 1503) focuses closely on the subject...
The famous smile on the Mona Lisa (DaVinci ca. 1503) has become...

In the bibliography/reference list

Surname of artist, initial(s)., Year. Title [Item type]. At: Place: Holding institution, department (if available), identifier or reference number (if available).

DaVinci, L., [ca. 1503]. Mona Lisa [Oil on poplar]. At: Paris: Musée du Louvre, Mona Lisa Room, INV.779.

Work of art viewed online

In the bibliography/reference list

For an in–text citation in your work, you would cite the reference as follows:

The collage by Moholy–Nagy (1930) uses sandpaper, watercolour, gouache...
La Sarraz (Moholy–Nagy 1930) shows the use of various textures...

Surname, initial(s)., Year. Title [item type]. At: Place: Holding institution, department (if available), identifier or reference number (if available). [Date viewed]. Available from: URL

DaVinci, L., [ca. 1503]. Mona Lisa [Oil on poplar]. At: Paris: Musée du Louvre, Mona Lisa Room, INV.779. [Viewed 14 July 2016]. Available from: http://www.louvre.fr/en/oeuvre-notices/mona-lisa-portrait-lisa-gherardini-wife-francesco-del-giocondo

Moholy–Nagy, L., 1930. La Sarraz [Collage with watercolour, gouache, ink and graphite on paper]. At: New York: Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum, 48.1155. [Viewed 14 July 2015]. Available from: https://www.guggenheim.org/artwork/2985

Notes
  • If there is no clear title to the item, a popular title may be used if one exists. If a popular title to the image does not exist then you will need to supply the item with a title, in square brackets, proving the following where possible
    • The subject matter
    • The name or place of the object depicted, i.e. the person, the buidling, the location etc.
  • If the year of the image is not available but can be established, then use this as your date.
  • If the exact date is not known, an approximate date followed by a question mark (?), or preceded by "ca.", should be used, this should be given in square brackets, e.g.
    • [2005?]
    • [ca. 2005]
    • [20th Century]
  • If no date, or approximate date can be found then you would use [no date].
  • The original title of a translated information resource, or a translation of the title, may be supplied immediately after the original title, e.g. Kinderhände im washbecken [Children's Hands in Washbasin]
  • If the artwork has a popular or traditional title, then you may use this e.g. Mona Lisa

For more information about in–text citation and referencing multiple authors, see Creating a citation and reference list and click on the relevant section.

Full exhibition

In the text

For an in–text citation in your work, you would cite the reference as follows:

The exhibition at the National Portrait Gallery curated by Cooper (2013–2014)...
In the exhibition Elizabeth I & Her People (Cooper 2013‐2014)...

Beatles to Bowie: the 60's explored (2009–2010) showcased the acts of the 1960's...
Images of music personalities and memorabilia from the 1960's formed a major exhibition in the National Portrait Gallery (Beatles to Bowie: the 60's exposed 2009–2010)...

The exhibition The Age of Abstraction: Women Artists (2016) at Graves Gallery exhibited...
Use of colour, pattern and line have been explored in a recent exhibition (The Age of Abstraction: Women Artists 2016) which delves...

In the bibliography/reference list

Surname of Curator, Initial(s). Year. Title of exhibition [Item type]. At: Place: Holding institution, department (if available).

Cooper, T., 2013–2014. Elizabeth I & her people [Exhibition]. At: London: National Portrait Gallery.

Beatles to Bowie: the 60's exposed, 2009–2010. [Exhibition]. At: London: National Portrait Gallery.

The age of abstraction: women artists, 2016. [Exhibition]. At: Sheffield, Graves Gallery

Item type as part of an exhibition

In the text

For an in–citation in your work, you would cite the reference as follows

The portrait of Elizabeth I by Hilliard (1585)...
The Ermine portrait of Elizabeth I (Bebbington 1585) shows the monarch...

Bebbington (1969) captures David Bowie...
The image of David Bowie (Bebbington 1969)...

In the bibliography/reference list

Artist Surname, Initial(s). Date of artwork. Title of Artwork [Item type]. In: Curator initial. Surname, Date of exhibition. Title of exhibition [Item type]. At: Place: Holding institution, department (if available)

Hilliard, N., 1585. Elizabeth I, or Ermine portrait [oil painting]. In: T. Cooper, 2013–2014. Elizabeth I & her people [Exhibition]. At: London: National Potrait Gallery.

Bebbington, D., 1969. David Bowie [Photograph]. In: Beatles to Bowie: the 60's exposed, 2009–2010. [Exhibition]. At: London: National Potrtait Gallery.

Notes

  • If the name of the curator cannot be located, start the reference with the title of the exhibition followed by the date and item type.
  • An exhibition may run over the period of two years, if this is the case, you may enter a date range, e.g. 2013–2014.

For more information about in–text citation and referencing multiple authors, see Creating a citation and reference list and click on the relevant section.

For photographs see Original Image.

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Government Publications

In the text

For an in–text citation in your work, you would cite the reference as follows:

The principles of the Teaching Excellence Framework were introduced as a way for the government to meet their manifesto pledge...(Great Britain. Department of Business, Innovation and Skills 2015)
The Department of Business, Innovation and Skills (Great Britain 2015)...

In a report on the knowledge economy (Great Britain. Department of Business, Innovation and Skills 2016)...
The Department of Business, Innovation and Skills (Great Britain 2016) has stated that...

In the bibliography/reference list

Country. Government Department (at the time of publication), Year. Title Paper number. Place of publication: Publisher.

Or of available online:

Country. Government Department (at the time of publication), Year. Title Paper number [online]. Place of publication: Publisher. [Date Viewed]. Available from: URL

Great Britain. Department for Business, Innovation and Skills, 2015. Fulfilling our potential: teaching excellence, social mobility and student choice Cm.9141. London: HMSO.

Great Britain. Department for Business, Innovation and Skills, 2015. Fulfilling our potential: teaching excellence, social mobility and student choice Cm.9141 [online]. London: HMSO. [Viewed 1 December 2015]. Available from: https://www.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/474227/BIS-15-623-fulfilling-our-potential-teaching-excellence-social-mobility-and-student-choice.pdf

Great Britain. Department for Business, Innovation and Skills, 2016. Success as a knowledge economy: teaching excellence, social mobility and student choice Cm.9258. London: HMSO.

Great Britain. Department for Business, Innovation and Skills, 2016. Success as a knowledge economy: teaching excellence, social mobility and student choice Cm.9258 [online]. London: HMSO. [Viewed 17 June 2016]. Available from: https://www.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/523396/bis-16-265-success-as-a-knowledge-economy.pdf

Notes

The numbering of Command Papers is done by running numbers with a prefix which changes as the number gets close to 10,000. The prefixes are listed below:

  • 1899–1869 — 1–4222
  • 1870–1899 — C.1–C.9550
  • 1900–1918 — Cd.1–Cd.9239
  • 1919–1956 — Cmd.1–Cmd.9889
  • 1956–1986 — Cmnd.1–Cmnd.9927
  • 1986–current — Cm.1–

For more information about in–text citation and referencing multiple authors, see Creating a citation and reference list and click on the relevant section.

In the text

For an in–citation in your work, you would cite the reference as follows:

More than 30 fully funded Marshall Scholarships were awarded during the academic year...(Great Britain. Marshall Aid Commemoration Commission 2016)
The Marshall Aid Commemoration Committee (Great Britain 2016)...

Affordable housing remains on the agenda for the current government...(Great Britain. Select Committee for Economic Affairs 2016)
The Select Committee for Economic Affairs (Great Britain 2016)

In the bibliography/reference list

Country. Government Department or Commission (at the time of publication, if available), Year. Title Paper number, session. Place of publication: Publisher.

Or if available online:

Country. Government Department or Commission (at the time of publication, if available), Year. Title Paper number, session [online]. Place of publication: Publisher. [Date Viewed]. Available from: URL

Great Britain. Marshall Aid Commemoration Commission, 2016. Marshall Aid Commemoration Commission Account 2015–2016 HC 539, 2016–2017. London: National Audit Office.

Great Britain. Marshall Aid Commemoration Commission, 2016. Marshall Aid Commemoration Commission Account 2015–2016 HC 539, 2016–2017 [online]. London: National Audit Office. [Viewed 7 August 2016]. Available from: https://www.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/542143/MACC_account_2015_to_2016.pdf

Great Britain. Select Committee on Economic Affairs, 2016. Economic Affairs Committee 1st report: Building more homes Volume 1, Report HL 20, 2016–2017. London: By the authority of the House of Lords.

Great Britain. Select Committee on Economic Affairs, 2016. Economic Affairs Committee 1st report: Building more homes Volume 1, Report HL 20, 2016–2017 [online]. London: By the authority of the House of Lords. [Viewed 8 September 2016]. Available from: http://www.publications.parliament.uk/pa/ld201617/ldselect/ldeconaf/20/20.pdf

For more information about in–text citation and referencing multiple authors, see Creating a citation and reference list and click on the relevant section.

In the text

For an in–text citation in your work, you would cite the reference as follows:

The Digital Economy Bill (Great Britain. House of Commons 2016) has attracted controversy...
The House of Commons (Great Britain 2016) propsed that the BBC could face more regulation from Ofcom (Great Britain. House of Commons 2016)

Increased measures for child safety have been included in amendments to the Crime and Policing Bill (Great Britain. House of Lords 2016)...
The House of Lords (Great Britain 2016) have amended...

The Oil and Gas Authority were transferred regulatory powers from the Secretary of State for Energy (Great Britain. House of Lords 2015)
The House of Lords (Great Britain. House of Lords 2015) note that the Oil and Gas Authority...

In the bibliography/reference list

Country. Government Department or Commission (at the time of publication, if available), Year. Title Paper number, session. Place of publication: Publisher.

Or if available online:

Country. Government Department or Commission (at the time of publication, if available), Year. Title Paper number, session [online]. Place of publication: Publisher. [Date Viewed]. Available from: URL

Great Britain. House of Commons, 2016. Digital Economy Bill HCB 45, 2016–2017. London: The Stationery Office.

Great Britain. House of Commons, 2016. Digital Economy Bill HCB 45, 2016–2017 [online]. London: The Stationery Office. [Viewed 16 August 2016]. Available from: http://www.publications.parliament.uk/pa/bills/cbill/2016-2017/0045/cbill_2016-20170045_en_1.htm

Great Britain. House of Lords, 2016. Policing and Crime Bill Amendments HLB 55 c, 2016–2017. London: The Stationery Office.

Great Britain. House of Lords, 2016. Policing and Crime Bill Amendments HLB 55 c, 2016–2017 [online]. London: The Stationery Office. [Viewed 1 September 2016]. Available from: http://www.publications.parliament.uk/pa/bills/lbill/2016-2017/0055/17055(c).pdf

Great Britain. House of Lords, 2015. Energy Bill Explanatory Notes HLB 56–EN, 2015–2016. London: The Stationery Office.

Great Britain. House of Lords, 2015. Energy Bill Explanatory Notes HLB 56–EN, 2015–2016 [online]. London: The Stationery Office. [Viewed 30 August 2016]. Available from: http://www.publications.parliament.uk/pa/bills/lbill/2015-2016/0056/en/16056en.pdf

For more information about in–text citation and referencing multiple authors, see Creating a citation and reference list and click on the relevant section.

Full act of parliament post–1963

Legislation passed post–1963 are numbered in the year which it received Royal Assent.

In the text

For an in–citation in your work, you would cite the reference as follows:

It is now possible to face up to 7 years imprisonment for supplying psychoactive substances (Great Britain. Psychoactive Substances Act 2016)...
The Psychoactive Substances Act (Great Britain 2016) introduced the ban on...

In the bibliography/reference list

Country. Name of act and year. Chapter. Place of publication: Publisher.

Or if available online:

Country. Name of act and year. Chapter [online]. Place of publication: Publisher. [Date viewed]: Available from. URL

Great Britain. Psychoactive Substances Act 2016. c.2. London: The Stationery Office.

Great Britain. Psychoactive Substances Act 2016. c.2 [online]. London: The Stationery Office. [Viewed 26 September 2016]. Available from: http://www.legislation.gov.uk/ukpga/2016/2/pdfs/ukpga_20160002_en.pdf

For more information about in–text citation and referencing multiple authors, see Creating a citation and reference list and click on the relevant section.

Full act of parliament Pre–1963

Legislation passed pre–1963 was numbered by regnal year of the monarch (number of years since the monarch's ascension).

In the text

For an in–text citation in your work, you would cite the reference as follows:

Police were given powers to...(Great Britain. Official Secrets Act 1939)
The Official Secrets Act (Great Britain 1939) joined...

Legislation passed pre–1963 was numbered by regnal year of the monarch (number of years since the monarch's ascension).

In the bibliography/reference list

Country. Name of act and year. Regnal year(s), name of monarch, chapter. Place of publication: Publisher.

Or if available online:

Country. Name of act and year. Regnal year(s) name of monarch, chapter [online]. Place of publication: Publisher. [Date viewed]: Available from. URL

Great Britain. Official Secrets Act 1939. 2&3 Geo. 6, c.121. London: HMSO.

Great Britain. Official Secrets Act 1939. 2&3 Geo. 6, c.121 [online]. London: HMSO. [Viewed 26 September 2016]. Available from: http://www.legislation.gov.uk/ukpga/1939/121/pdfs/ukpga_19390121_en.pdf

For more information about in–text citation and referencing multiple authors, see Creating a citation and reference list and click on the relevant section.

In the text

For an in–text citation in your work, you would reference the citation as follows:

The Police (Amendment) (No.2) Regulations (Great Britain 2006) introduced changes...
Conflicts of interest for Police Officers should be reported to their senior...(Great Britain. The Police (Amendment)(No.2) Regulations 2006)

In the bibliography/reference list

Country. Name of Statutory Instrument Number. Place of publication: Publisher.

Or if available online:

Country. Name of Statutory Instrument Number [online]. Place of publication: Publisher. [Date viewed]. Available from. URL

Great Britain. The Police (Amendment) (No.2) Regulations 2006 SI 2006/3449. London: The Stationery Office.

Great Britain. The Police (Amendment) (No.2) Regulations 2006 SI 2006/3449 [online]. London: The Stationery Office. [Accessed 28 September 2016]. Available from: http://www.legislation.gov.uk/uksi/2006/3449/pdfs/uksi_20063449_en.pdf

For more information about in–text citation and referencing multiple authors, see Creating a citation and reference list and click on the relevant section.

In the text

For an in–text citation in your work, you would reference the citation as follows:

The infrastructure for the Sheffield tram system included widening of the main dual carriageway (Great Britain. South Yorkshire Light Rail Transit Act 1993)...
Sheffield Supertram lands acquired The South Yorkshire Light Rail Transit Act (Great Britain 1993) allowed for the acquisition of land to build the Sheffield Supertram system...

The restrictions on pedlars in Leeds (Great Britain, Leeds City Council Act 2013) allows for...
The Leeds City Council Act (Great Britain 2013) introduced fixed penalty notices...

In the bibliography/reference list

Country. Name of act and year. Chapter. Place of publication: Publisher.

Or if available online:

Country. Name of act and year. Chapter [Online]. Place of publication: Publisher. [Date viewed]. Available from: URL

Great Britain. South Yorkshire Light Rail Transit Act 1993. Chapter ii. London: HMSO.

Great Britain. South Yorkshire Light Rail Transit Act 1993. Chapter ii [Online]. London: HMSO. [Viewed 10 October 2016]. Available from: http://www.legislation.gov.uk/ukla/1993/2/introduction/enacted

Great Britain. Leeds City Council Act 2013. Chapter ii. London: The Stationery Office.

Great Britain. Leeds City Council Act 2013. Chapter ii [Online]. London: The Stationery Office. [Viewed 10 October 2016]. Available from: http://www.legislation.gov.uk/ukla/2013/2/introduction/enacted

For more information about in–text citation and referencing multiple authors, see Creating a citation and reference list and click on the relevant section.

In the text

For an in–text citation in your work, you would reference the in-text citation as follows:

Discussions of a cross-party group who will look at costal regeneration and development ...(Great Britain, House of Commons 2016)
Costal regeneration was debated in the House of Commons (Great Britain 2016)...

The issue of licence fee has been addressed by The Lord Bishop of Sheffield (Great Britain, House of Lords 2015)
The BBC Charter was debated in the House of Lords (Great Britain 2015)

In the bibliography/reference list

Country. Name of house, Year. Name [Hansard], (Series, if applicable), Date, Volume, Number (if available), Column. Place of publication: Publisher.

Or if available online:

Country. Name of house, Year. Name [Hansard], (Series, if applicable), Date, Volume, Number (if available), Column [online]. Place of publication: Publisher. [Date viewed]. Available from: URL

Great Britain. House of Commons, 2016. Official Report: Parliamentary Debates [Hansard], 18 July, Vol.613 No.27, cc527–28. London: The Stationery Office.

Great Britain. House of Commons, 2016. Official Report: Parliamentary Debates [Hansard], 18 July, Vol.613 No.27, cc527–28 [online]. London: The Stationery Office. [Viewed 13 October 2016]. Available at: https://hansard.parliament.uk/Commons/2016-07-18/debates/16071818000004/OralAnswersToQuestions

Great Britain. House of Lords, 2016. Official Report: Parliamentary Debates [Hansard], 17 September, Vol.764, No.46, cc1957–59. London: The Stationery Office.

Great Britain. House of Lords, 2015. Official Report: Parliamentary Debates [Hansard], 17 September, Vol.764, No.46, cc1957–59 [online]. London: The Stationery Office. [Viewed 13 October 2016]. Available at: https://hansard.parliament.uk/lords/2015-09-17/debates/15091736000770/BBCCharter2017

Great Britain. House of Commons, 1938. The Official Report. Parliamentary Debates [Hansard], (5th Series), 18 July, Vol.338, cc1807–14 [online]. London: The Stationery Office. [Accessed 13 October 2016]. Available at: http://hansard.millbanksystems.com/commons/1938/jul/18/mr-speakers-ruling

Notes

If you are citing more than one column, use cc as the prefix

If you are referencing older Hansards, you will need to include the series, these are as follow:

  • 1st Series – Cobbett's Parliamentary Debates: Vol.1 (1803) — Vol.22 (March/May 1812) continued by
    The Parliamentary Debates: Vol.23 (May/June 1812) to Vol.41 (February 1820). N.B. Some reissued sets were numbered Vol.1 — Vol.22 as The Parliamentary Debates.
  • 2nd Series — The Parliamentary Debates, New Series: Vol.1 (April 1820) — Vol.25 (July 1830).
  • 3rd Series — Hansard's Parliamentary Debates (3rd Series): Vol.1 (October 1830) — Vol.356 (August 1891).
  • 4th Series — The Parliamentary Debates (4th Series): Vol.1 (February 1892) — Vol.199 (December 1908)
  • 5th Series — The Official Report, House of Commons (5th Series): Vol.1 (January 1909) — Vol.1000 (March 1981). N.B. The name Hansard was officially restored in 1941.
  • 6th Series — The Official Report, House of Commons (6th Series): Vol.1 (March 1981) —

There are 6 different types of numbered columns in Hansard, the letters should appear after the column number as a suffix – these are as follow:

  • No letters — Discussions in the chamber
  • WH — Westminster Hall
  • WS — Written Statements
  • W — Written Answers
  • P — Petitions
  • C — Ministerial Corrections

For more information about in–text citation and referencing multiple authors, see Creating a citation and reference list and click on the relevant section.

In the bibliography/reference list

For an in–citation in your work, you would cite the reference as follows:

A negative resolution instrument for immigration was presented (Great Britain, House of Commons, 2016)...
Negative resolution papers presented before the House of Commons (Great Britain, 2016) included the...

Country. House, Year. Title and full date, session. Place of Publication: Publisher.

Or if available online:

Country. House, Year. Title and full date paper number, session [online]. Place of Publication: Publisher. [Date viewed]. Available from: URL

Great Britain. House of Commons, 2016. Votes and Proceedings Thursday 15 September 2016 no.38, 2016–2017. London: House of Commons. [Accessed 10 October 2016]. Available from: http://www.publications.parliament.uk/pa/cm201617/cmvote/160915v01.pdf

For more information about in–text citation and referencing multiple authors, see Creating a citation and reference list and click on the relevant section.

In the text

For an in–text citation in your work, you would cite the reference as follows:

The ongoing decomissioning of nuclear plants in scheduled...(Great Britain, Office for Nuclear Regulation 2016)
The Office for Nuclear Regulation (Great Britain 2016) have set out their strategic aims...

In the bibliography/reference list

Country. Government Department or Office (At time of publication, if available), Year. Title and date. Place of Publication: Publisher.

Or if available online:

Country. Government Department or Office (At time of publication, if available), Year. Title and date[online]. Place of Publication: Publisher. [Date viewed]. Available from: URL.

Great Britain. Office for Nuclear Regulation, 2016. Office for Nuclear Regulation Strategic Plan 2016–2020: Presented to Parliament pursuant to Paragraph 25(3) of Schedule 7 to the Energy Act 2013, March 2016. London: Office for Nuclear Regulation.

Great Britain. Office for Nuclear Regulation, 2016. Office for Nuclear Regulation Strategic Plan 2016–2020: Presented to Parliament pursuant to Paragraph 25(3) of Schedule 7 to the Energy Act 2013, March 2016 [online]. London: Office for Nuclear Regulation. [Accessed 11 October 2016]. Available from: http://www.onr.org.uk/documents/2016/strategic-plan-2016-2020.pdf

For more information about in–text citation and referencing multiple authors, see Creating a citation and reference list and click on the relevant section.

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Other

In the text

For an in–text citation in your work, you would cite the reference as follows:

Galar et al. (2014)...
(Galar et al. 2014)

Redknap (2004) questioned whether settlements in North Wales...
The geographical location of Anglesey meant that...(Redknap 2004).

Fujikami et al. (2015) identified that in order to improve Fast Device Discovery...
Fast Device Discovery can be aided by...(Fujikami et al. 2015)

In the bibliography/reference list

Author(s) of paper Surname, Initial(s)., Year. Paper title. In: Editor(s) of proceedings initials, Surname. (if known). ed(s) (If editors known). Conference title, full date of conference, place of conference. Place of publication: Publisher, Page numbers.

Or if available online

Author(s) of paper Surname, Initial(s)., Year. Paper title. In: Editor(s) of proceedings initials, Surname (if known). ed(s) (If editors known). Conference title, full date of conference, place of conference [online]. Place of publication: Publisher, Page numbers. [Date viewed]. Available from: URL or DOI

Galar, D., Sandborn, P., Kumar, U. and Johansson, C–A., 2014. SMART: integrating human saftey risk assessment with Asset Integrity. In: G. Dalpiaz, R. Rubini, G. D'elia, M. Cocconcelli, F. Chaari, R. Zimroz, W. Bartelmus and M. Haddar, eds. Advances in condition monitoring of machinery in non–stationary operations, proceedings of the third international conference on condition monitoring of machinery in non–stationary operations, CMMNO, 2013, Ferrara, Italy. Berlin: Springer, pp.37–59.

Redknap, M., 2004. Viking–age settlements in Wales and the evidence from Llanbedrgoch. In: J. Hines, A. Lane and M. Redknap, eds. Land, sea and home, proceedings of a conference on Viking–period settlement, July 2001, Cardiff.Leeds: Manay Publishing, pp.139–175.

Fujikami, S., Sumi, T., Yagiu, R. and Nagai, Y., 2015. Fast device discovery for vehicle–to–pedestrian communication using wireless LAN. In: Institute of Electrical Engineers (IEEE). 12th Annual IEEE Consumer Communications and Networking Conference (CCNC 2015), 9–12 January 2015, Las Vegas, Nevada, USA [online]. New York: Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers. pp.35–40. [Viewed 10 December 2015]. Available from: doi: 10.1109/CCNC.2015.7157943

Notes

  • The name of the conference should be used as the author if an indiviual author, or corporate author cannot be identified.

For more information about in–text citation and referencing multiple authors, see Creating a citation and reference list and click on the relevant section.

In the bibliography/reference list

Editor(s) of proceedings Surname, Initial(s). ed(s)., Year. Title of conference, full date of conference, place of conference. Place of publication: publisher. Volume (if needed).

Or if available online

Editor(s) of proceedings Surname, Initial(s). ed(s)., Year. Title of conference, full date of conference, place of conference [online]. Place of publication: publisher. Volume (if needed). [Date viewed]. Available from: URL or DOI

Dalpiaz, G., Rubini, R., D'elia, G., Cocconcelli, M., Chaari, F., Zimroz, R., Bartelmus, W. and Haddar, M, eds., 2014. Advances in condition monitoring of machinery in non–stationary operations, proceedings of the third international conference on condition monitoring of machinery in non–stationary operations, CMMNO, 2013, Ferrara, Italy. Berlin: Springer.

Orman, W. and Valleau, M.J. eds., 2014. Proceedings of the 38th annual Boston University Conference on language development, 2013, Boston, Massachusetts . Somerville, MA; Cascadilla Press. Volume 2.

Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE)., 2015. 12th Annual IEEE Consumer Communications and Networking Conference (CCNC 2015), 9–12 January 2015, Las Vegas, Nevada, USA [Online]. New York: Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers. [Viewed 10 December 2015]. Available from: http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/xpl/tocresult.jsp?asf_pun=7151874

Notes

  • The name of the conference should be used as the author if an individual author, or corporate author cannot be identified

For more information about in–text citation and referencing multiple authors, see Creating a citation and reference list and click on the relevant section.

Dictionary Entry – Print

In the text

For an in–text citation in your work, you would cite the reference as follows:

In the bibliography/reference list

Author of Section Surname, Initial(s)., Year. Title of entry. In: Editor(s) Surname, Initial(s). ed(s). Title. . Edition (if not first). Place of publication: Publisher. Volume (if applicable). Page numbers.

Research., 2009. In: Concise Oxford English Dictionary. 11th rev. ed. Oxford: Oxford University Press. p.1222.

Berges, S., 2012. Moral Development. In: Chadwick, R. ed. Encyclopedia of Applied Ethics. 2nd ed. London: Academic Press. Vol. 3 M–R. pp.141–151.

Dictionary Entry — Online

In the bibliography/reference list

Author of Section Surname, Initial(s)., Year. Title of entry. In: Editor(s) Surname, Initials. ed(s). Title. Edition (if not first. Place of publication: Publisher. Volume (if applicable). [Date viewed]. Available from: URL or DOI.

Research, n.1. 2010. In: OED Online. Oxford: Oxford University Press. [Viewed 14 December 2015]. Available from: http://www.oed.com/view/Entry/163432?isAdvanced=false&result=1&rskey=P9ZxF&

Full Dictionary — In Print

In the bibliography/reference list

Editor Surname, Initial(s). ed(s)., Year. Title. Edition (if not first). Place of publication: Publisher. Volume(s) (if applicable).

Saones, C. and Stevenson, A. eds., 2005. Oxford English Dictionary. 2nd rev. ed. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Chadwick, R. ed., 2012. Encylopedia of applied ethics. 2nd ed. London: Academic Press. 4 Vol.

Full Dictionary Online

In the bibliography/reference list

Editor Surname, Initial(s). ed(s)., Year. Title. Edition (if not first). Place of publication: Publisher. Volumes (if applicable.) [Date accessed]. URL

OED online, ©2015. Oxford: Oxford University Press. [Viewed 17 December 2015). Available from: http://www.oed.com

For more information about in–text citation and referencing multiple authors, see Creating a citation and reference list and click on the relevant section.

In the text

For an in–text citation in your work, you would cite the reference as follows:

Sample (2014) highlights the research which has taken place...
The research was reported in the national news...(Sample 2014)

In print

In the bibliography/reference list

Author Surname, Initial(s)., Year. Title of Article. Title of newspaper. Date (Day, Month). Page range.

Sample, I., 2014. Why an octopus never gets itself tied in knots. The Guardian. 16 May. p.17.

Online

In the bibliography/reference list

Author Surname, Initial(s)., Year. Title of article. Title of Newspaper [online]. Date (Day Month). Date updated (Day Month Year, Time). Page number (if available). [Date viewed]. Available from: URL

Sample, I., 2014. Why an octopus's suckers don't stick its arms together. The Guardian [online]. 15 May. Updated 16 May 2014, 00:20. [viewed 17 January 2015]. Available from: http://www.theguardian.com/science/2014/may/15/octopus-suckers-arms-chemical-skin

Newspaper database

In the bibliography/reference list

Author Surname, Initial(s)., Year. Title of article. Title of newspaper. Name of database [online database]. Date (Day/Month). Date updated (Day, Month, Year, Time if available). Page number (if available). [Date viewed]. Available from: URL.

Sample, I., 2014. Why an octopus never gets itself tied in knots: scientists uncover secrets of its autonomous arms: Israeli research will be of value to robot designers. The Guardian — Final edition. Nexis [online database]. 16 May. p.17. [viewed 20 October 2015]. Available from: http://www.nexis.com/docview/getDocForCuiReq?lni=5C6N-TM41-JC60-C3BK&csi=138620&oc=00240&perma=true

For more information about in–text citation and referencing multiple authors, see Creating a citation and reference list and click on the relevant section.

In the text

For an in-text citation in your work, you would cite your reference as follows:

The Solid System allows...(Applied Biosystems ©2008)
Applied Biosystems (©2008) manufacture...

The Boots decongestant tablet...(Boots Pharmeceuticals 2014).
Boots Pharmeceuticals (2014) recommend that thier decongestant...

The patient information leaflet for Doxycyline recommends (Kent Pharmeceuticals Ltd. 2013)...
Kent Pharmecueticals Ltd (2013) indicate that Doxycycline...

In the bibliography/reference list

Corporate Author or Author Surname, Initial(s)., Year. Title of Fact Sheet. Place of publication: Publisher. Publication Number.

Or if available online

Corporate Author or Author Surname, Initial(s)., Year. Title of Fact Sheet [online]. Place of publication: Publisher. Publication Number. [Date Viewed]. Available from: URL.

Applied Biosystems, ©2008. Application Fact Sheet SOLiD System Accuracy. Foster City, C.A.: Applied Biosystems. 139AP04-04.

Applied Biosystems, ©2008. Application Fact Sheet SOLiD System Accuracy [online]. Foster City, C.A.: Applied Biosystems. 139AP04-04. [Viewed 23 November 2016]. Available from: https://www3.appliedbiosystems.com/cms/groups/mcb_marketing/documents/generaldocuments/cms_057511.pdf

Boots Pharmaceuticals, 2014. Decongestant tablet (Pseudoephedrine hydrochloride). Nottingham: The Boots Company PLC. 00014/0375.

Boots Pharmaceuticals, 2014. Decongestant tablet (Pseudoephedrine hydrochloride) [online]. Nottingham: The Boots Company PLC. 00014/0375. [Viewed 23 November 2016]. Available from: https://www.medicines.org.uk/emc/PIL.21466.latest.pdf

Kent Pharmaceuticals Ltd., 2013. Patient information leaflet: Doxycycline 50mg capusles. Ashford: Kent Pharmaceuticals Ltd. PL 30464/0060.

Kent Pharmaceuticals Ltd., 2013. Patient information leaflet: Doxycycline 50mg capusles [online]. Ashford: Kent Pharmaceuticals Ltd. PL 30464/0060. [Viewed 23 November 2016]. Available from: https://www.medicines.org.uk/emc/PIL.26285.latest.pdf

For more information about in–text citation and referencing multiple authors, see Creating a citation and reference list and click on the relevant section.

In the text

For an in-text citation in your work, you would cite your reference as follows:

The new workflow was circulated (Smith 2015) as part of ongoing...
Smith (2015) circulated the information for...

In the bibliography/reference list

Surname of sender, initial(s). Year. Subject of email [electronic mail to name of recipient]. Day and month email was sent. Available from: [Personal electronic mail communication].

Smith, D., 2015. Updates to workflow [electronic mail to Ben Jones]. 26 November. Available from: [Personal electronic mail conversation]

Notes

You will need permission from anyone involved in the email conversation before using them in your work.

For more information about in–text citation and referencing multiple authors, see Creating a citation and reference list and click on the relevant section.

In the text

For an in-text citation in your work, you would cite your reference as follows:

TownByTheSea (2016) discusses network connectivity issues on Xubuntu...
Network connectivity issues in the software...(TownByTheSea 2016)

In the bibliography/reference list

Username or Surname of creator, initial(s)., Year. Title of message. In: Title of host message system (required if applicable) [medium designation]. Date message was sent [Date message viewed]. Available from: URL Path: (if needed).

TownByTheSea, 2016. USB Wireless Adaptor in Xubuntu. In: Linux Forums [online]. 7 October [Viewed 24 November 2016]. Available from: http://www.linuxforums.org/forum/ubuntu-linux/208396-usb-wireless-adapter-xubuntu.html Path: Forum; Your Distro; Ubuntu Linux; USB Wireless Adapter in Xubuntu.

For more information about in–text citation and referencing multiple authors, see Creating a citation and reference list and click on the relevant section.

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