Harvard referencing

Reference list vs. Bibliography

In the Harvard style, references are listed at the end of your work, and are organised alphabetically by the surname of the author.

A reference list includes all works that have been referred to in the assignment.

A bibliography includes all the material consulted in writing your assignment even if you have not cited them within it.

Many people use these terms interchangeably so, if you are unsure about whether you need to include a bibliography as well as a reference list, ask your tutor.


Suggest an additional reference format

Give feedback on this tutorial

This guide details the Harvard style of referencing based upon the advice given in the book "British Standard BS ISO 690:2010 Information and documentation. Guidelines for bibliographic references and citations to information resources." This is the style of Harvard that The University Of Sheffield supports.

Referencing in the Harvard style is a two–part process:

Creating a citation and reference list

Harvard style referencing is an author/date method. Sources are cited within the body of your assignment by giving the name of the author(s) followed by the date of publication. All other details about the publication are given in the list of references or bibliography at the end.

If a citation refers to a complete information source, or an idea/theme which runs through the entire work, or a substantial part of an information source, then you would simply include author and date, e.g. (Smith 2017) or Smith (2017).

Citations which are used with direct quotations, or are referring to a particular part of a source, should include the page number in your citation e.g. (Smith 2017, p. 42) or Smith (2017, p. 42).

If a citation does not have page numbers, then you would use the number of the paragraph (if available) e.g. Climate change can refer to local, regional, and global changes in weather (Met Office, 2013, para. 2.).

If the paragraph number is not available, then you may direct the reader to a specific section of the item, and then the number of the paragraph e.g. Using the factor command can...(Gaubatz 2015, Generating Factors, para. 2.).

If the name of the section is long, you may use the first few words of the section in quotation marks, e.g. The value of numbers needs to be random...(Gaubatz 2015, "Random Numbers and Generating" section, para.2.).

The abbreviations ibid. and idem. should not be used within the Harvard referencing system.


Tips for citing
  • If the author(s) name appears in the text as part of the body of the assignment, then the year will follow in round brackets, e.g. According to Smith (2017).

  • If the author(s) name does not appear in the body of the text, then the name and date should follow in round brackets, e.g. The terminology has been called into question when it was discovered...(Smith 2017).

  • If more than one of your citations has the same author and year of publication, then you should distinguish between them by using a lower–case letter following the year, e.g. It was discovered that...(Smith 2017a), this was supported by... (Smith 2017b).

  • Some authors have the same surname and works published in the same year, if this is the case use their initial to distinguish between them, e.g. When looking at the average income it was found that...(Williams, A. 2009). However, it was also discovered that...(Williams, J. 2009).

  • In some instances you may need to cite more than one piece of work for an idea. If this occurs, you should separate the references with a semicolon and cite them in chronological order, e.g. This point has been shown by numerous authors...(Jones 2014; Smith 2017).

  • When citing in-text, include the name of up to three authors, if there are more than three authors for the work you are citing then use the name of the first author followed by "et al.", e.g. This was shown to be the case when Taylor et al (2015)...Or, the study shows...(Taylor et al. 2015).

  • For items where the author is a corporation, cite the name of the corporation in full e.g. Birdwatching in the woods...(Woodland Trust 2016), unless their abbreviation is well–known e.g. The governance of the network...(BBC 2017).

  • If a work is designated as Anonymous, use Anon instead of the creator's name, e.g. The literature suggests that...(Anon 1816).

  • If the year of publication is not given, but can be established, it should be supplied. If the exact date is not known or cannot be esablished, an approximate date followed by a question mark (?), or preceded by ca. should be given. e.g.
    • When discussing matters of...(Hill 2005?).
    • When discussing matters of...(Hill ca. 2005)
    • It was found that...(Hill 21st century).

  • If no date, or approximate date can be found, then you would state this, e.g. The ancient text indicated the use of... (Wells no date).

  • If you use the date of copyright you should precede the date with any of the following:
    • e.g. The BBC showed that... (cop. 2017)
    • or © e.g. The BBC website used...(©2017)


Quoting

If you are directly quoting from a source, then you should include the page number in your citation. A short quotation (under two lines), should be within the body of the text and in quotation marks, e.g.

There is still a labelling issue when it comes to flavourings in food, it is noted that, "flavours such as vanillin which occur naturally in food are called ‘nature–identical’. The label does not have to state where it comes from." (Wilson 2009, p. 257).

If the quote is more than two lines, then it should be presented as a new paragraph which is preceded by a colon and indented from the rest of the text. You do not need to use quotation marks, e.g.

Wilson (2009, p. 257) has looked at food flavourings in the UK and makes the following observation about Vanilla:

In Britain, flavours such as vanillin which occur naturally in food are called ‘nature–identical’. The label does not have to state where it comes from. A flavouring only counts as fully ‘artificial’ if it does not occur in nature at all, as is the case with another, stronger vanilla–substitute called ethyl–vanillin (often used in chocolate).

If you are omitting part of a quotation then you can indicate this by using three dots [...]. This does not need to be done at the beginning or end of a quotation.


Reference List

Wilson, C., (2009). Swindled: From poison sweets to counterfeit coffee – the dark history of the food cheats. London: John Murray (Publishers).


Summarising

Summarising is putting someone else's ideas into your own words. It does not mean changing the odd word / sentence or rearranging the sentence. The summary should clearly be a restatement of the meaning of the original text. Be sure to cite and reference when you are summarising someone else's work, e.g.:

Booth et al. (2016, pp.208-209) give the example of acceptable summarising using Gladwell (2008) as their example:

This this the original quote from Gladwell (2008, p.38)

"Achievement is talent plus preparation. The problem with this view is that the closer psychologists look at the careers of the gifted, the smaller the role innate talent seems to play and the bigger the role preparation seems to play."

Below is an unacceptable summary of the above quote because it follows the original too closely:

Success seems to depend on a combination of talent and preparation. However, when psychologists closely example the gifted and their careers, they discover that innate talent plays a much smaller role than preparation (Gladwell 2008, p.38)

The next is an example of an acceptable summary as the meaning of the original has been restated in the author's own words:

As Gladwell (2008, p.38) observes, summarising studies on the highly successful, we tend to overestimate the role of talent and underestimate that of preparation.

Tips on citing where page numbers are not present

If a citation does not have page numbers, then you would use the number of the paragraph (if available) e.g. Climate change can refer to local, regional, and global changes in weather (Met Office 2013, para. 2.).

If the paragraph number is not available, then you may direct the reader to a specific section of the item, and then the number of the paragraph e.g. Using the factor command can...(Gaubatz 2015, Generating Factors, para. 2.).

If the name of the section is long, you may use the first few words of the section in quotation marks, e.g. The value of numbers needs to be random...(Gaubatz 2015, "Random Numbers and Generating" section, para.2.).


Reference List

Booth, W.C., Colomb, G.G., Williams, J.M., Bizup, J. and Fitzgerald, W.T., (2016). The craft of research. 4th ed. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Gladwell, M., (2008). Outliers: The story of success. New York: Back Bay Books.

Secondary referencing

This is when you reference one author who is referring to the work of another and the primary source is not available (refer to the primary source where it is available). Secondary referencing should be avoided where possible - if you have only read the later publication you are accepting someone else's opinion and interpretation of the author's original intention.

You must make it clear to your reader which author you have read whilst giving details of original term by using ‘cited in’, e.g. (Ecott 2002, cited in Wilson 2009) or (Cannon 1989, quoted in Wilson 2009, p. 269).


A reference list is the list of items you have used in your work. Reference lists in Harvard are alphabetical.

General tips for creating a list are:

  • If you have distinguished between authors in your citation, you should use the same letter in your reference list to distinguish e.g. (Smith 2017b) will be Smith, S., (2017b). ...

  • A reference with one author will appear before a reference with two plus authors, if the first author has the same last name e.g. Smith, S., (2017b) would appear before Smith, S. and Jones, A., (2017)

  • Multiple references by the same author or creator are listed in chronological order.

  • Corporations are listed using the first proper noun of the name, e.g. Royal Academy of Arts (The).

  • For references with more than three authors, list all the authors in the reference list in the order they appear in the source. In some cases, there may be a long list of authors (in medical and scientific papers), if this is the case it is permissible to include the first author followed by et al. See Journal article with many authors for an example.

  • Author/Editor names should be given in the following format: Surname, Initials e.g. Smith, F.G.

  • Certain types of material, such as encyclopaedias or dictionaries, may not have one person or persons as the main author or editor. These can be referenced by title first e.g. OED online, ©2017. Oxford: Oxford University Press. [Viewed 26 January 2017]. Available from: http://www.oed.com

  • Each reference should end in a full stop unless it is a link or DOI.

  • Anonymous works should begin with Anon, followed by the date e.g. Anon, (1754). in your reference list.

  • If the year of publication is not given, but can be established, it should be supplied.

  • If the exact date is not known, an approximate date followed by a question mark (?), or preceded by ca. should be given e.g.
    • [2005?].
    • [ca. 2005].
    • [21st century].

  • If you use the date of copyright you should precede the date with any of the following:
    • e.g. (cop. 2015).
    • or © e.g. (©2015).

  • If no date, or approximate date can be found, then you would use [no date].

  • If the item is widely known by, or was originally issued under, a title different from that of the preferred source, the alternative may also be given, in brackets if necessary. E.g.

    Browne, J., (2010). Securing a sustainable future for higher education: an independent review of higher education funding and student finance [The Browne Report].

Frequently referenced items

For a full list of items see Alphabetical list of items

In the text

For an in–text citation in your work, you would cite the reference as follows:

Bryman (2016) recommends...
Quantitative data is more suited to the study due to... (Bryman 2016).

In the bibliography/reference list

Author Surname, Initial(s)., (Year). Title. Edition (if not first edition). Place of publication: Publisher.

Bryman, A., (2016). Social research methods. 5th ed. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

For more information about in–text citation and referencing multiple authors, see Creating a citation and reference list and click on the relevant section.

In the text

For an in–text citation in your work, you would cite the reference as follows:

Wallace and Wolf (2006) found that...
Globalization is a theory that has many concepts... (Wallace & Wolf 2006).

In the bibliography/reference list

Author Surname, Initial(s). and Author Surname, Initial(s)., (Year). Title. Edition (if not first edition). Place of publication: Publisher.

Wallace, R. A. and Wolf, A., (2006). Contemporary sociological theory: expanding the classical tradition. 6th ed. Upper Saddle River, N.J.: Prentice Hall.

For more information about in–text citation and referencing multiple authors, see Creating a citation and reference list and click on the relevant section.

In the text

For an in–text citation in your work, you would cite the reference as follows:

He (1997) found that...
The ethnic relations in China ...(He 1997).

Zheng (1997) looked at the cultural influences...
The culture of western business during the period...(Zheng 1997).

In the bibliography/reference list

Chapter Author Surname, Initials., (Year). Title of chapter. In: Editor(s) Initial. Editor(s) Surname, ed(s). Title of book. Edition (if not first). Place of publication: Publisher. Page numbers.

He, X., (1997). The market economy and ethnic relations in China. In: A. Ikeo, ed. Economic development in twentieth century East Asia: the international context. London: Routledge. pp. 190–205.

Zheng, X., (1997). Chinese business culture from the 1920s to the 1950s. In: A. Ikeo, ed. Economic development in twentieth century East Asia: the international context. London: Routledge. pp. 35–54.

For more information about in–text citation and referencing multiple authors, see Creating a citation and reference list and click on the relevant section.

Online image (e.g. Flickr) with full details

In the text

For an in–text citation in your work, you would cite the reference as follows:

Sunblocker by Schlamann (2015) depicts the lionfish...
The image Sunblocker shows the lionfish...(Schlamann 2015)

The image Ladybower Plughole by Andy_C (2005) shows the overflow...
The overflow of the Ladybower reservoir can be seen in the image Ladybower Plughole (Andy_C 2005)

In the bibliography/reference list

Artist surname, Initial(s)., (Year). Title of image [Type of image]. [Date viewed]. Available from: URL

Andy_C., (2005). Ladybower Plughole [digital image]. [Viewed 6 July 2016]. Available from: https://www.flickr.com/photos/andycpics/3035948922

Schlamann, C., (2015). Sunblocker [digital image]. [Viewed 6 July 2016]. Available from: http://photography.nationalgeographic.com/photography/photo-of-the-day/lionfish-underwater-sunlight/

Online image without a clear title

In the text

For an in–text citation in your work, you would cite the reference as follows:

The beach huts in the image by Ren_7 (2010) depict...
The beach huts shown in the image (Ren_7 2010) are typical of those at British resorts

The image from NASA Johnson Space Center (2015) shows the Earth as observed from...
The image of Earth (NASA Johnson Space Center 2015)

Pluto as seen by the New Horizons Spacecraft (NASA Johnson Space Center 2015) shows the surface...
The surface of the dwarf planet Pluto by NASA Johnson Space Center (2015)...

In the bibliography/reference list

Artist surname, Initials., (Year). [Title of image] [Type of image]. [Date viewed]. Available from: URL.

NASA Johnson Space Center., (2015). [Earth from Deep Space Climate Observatory] [digital image]. [Viewed 11 July 2016]. Available from: https://www.instagram.com/p/5Xs5tgqpIL

NASA Johnson Space Center., (2015). [Pluto from New Horizons Spacecraft] [digital image]. [Viewed 11 July 2016]. Available from: https://www.instagram.com/p/5Htd_cqpLC

Ren_7., (2010). [Beach huts] [digital image]. [Viewed 11 July 2010]. Available from: https://www.flickr.com/photos/ren7/5108123117/

Online image without a clear date

In the text

For an in–text citation in your work, you would cite the reference as follows:

The Spicebush Swallowtail Butterfly as photographed by Marawski (ca. 2008) shows...
The image of the Spicebush Swallowtail Butterfly (Murawski ca. 2008)

In the bibliography/reference list

Artist surname, Initials., (Year). Title of image [Type of image]. [Date viewed]. Available from: URL

Murawski, D. A., [ca. 2008]. Spicebush swallowtail butterfly [digital image]. [Viewed 11 July 2016]. Available from: http://www.nationalgeographic.com/photography/photos/patterns-butterflies/#/1371.ngsversion.1467941567217.jpg

Notes

  • In some cases you may need to use the screen name of the creator if their real name is not available, this can be the case with image sharing websites
  • If there is no clear title to the image, a popular title may be used if one exists. If a popular title to the image does not exist then you will need to supply the image with a title, in square brackets, proving the following where possible
    • The subject matter.
    • The name or place of the object depicted, i.e. the person, the building, the location etc.
  • If the year the image was taken is not available but can be established, then use this as your date.
  • If the exact date is not known, an approximate date followed by a question mark (?), or preceded by "ca." should be used, this should be given in square brackets e.g.
    • [2005?]
    • [ca. 2005].
    • [20th century].
  • If no date, or approximate date can be found then you would use [no date].

For more information about in–text citation and referencing multiple authors, see Creating a citation and reference list and click on the relevant section.

In the text

For an in–text citation in your work, you would cite the reference as follows:

Austin (2009) argues that periodical conflict may be expected...
It can be assumed that pickpocketing...(Austin 2009)

In the bibliography, in the reference list

Author of article Surname, Initial(s)., (Year). Title of article. Journal title. Volume in bold(Issue), page range.

Austin, T., (2012). Takers keepers, losers weepers: theft as customary play in southern Philippines. Journal of Folklore Research. 49(3), 263–284.

For more information about in–text citation and referencing multiple authors, see Creating a citation and reference list and click on the relevant section.

In the text

For an in–text citation in your work, you should cite the reference as follows

Dobson (2006) identified that the depiction...
The stereotypical portrayal of cultures...(Dobson 2006).

In the bibliography/reference list

Author of article Surname, Initial(s)., (Year). Title of article. Title of journal [online]. Volume in bold(Issue), Page range. [Date viewed]. Available from: doi:

Dobson, H., (2006). Mister Sparkle meets the 'Yakuza': depictions of Japan in The Simpsons. Journal of Popular Culture [online]. 39(1), 44–68. [Viewed 5 October 2015]. Available from: doi: 10.1111/j.1540-5931.2006.00203.x

For more information about in–text citation and referencing multiple authors, see Creating a citation and reference list and click on the relevant section.

In the text

For an in-text citation in your work, you would cite the reference as follows:

Johnson and Fitzpatrick (2007) note that street users...
Enforcement areas for the problem...(Johnson & Fitzpatrick 2007)

The Joseph Rowntree Foundation (2015) reported that...
...the supply of new homes would need to be sustainable (Joseph Rowntree Foundation 2015)

J Sainsbury (2016) acknowledged the amount of food waste...
Supermarkets are aware of the waste created due to...(J Sainsbury 2016)

Snowdon (2017) looked at the cost of healthy eating...
It was found that the cost of a healthy diet...(Snowdon 2016)

In the bibliography/reference list

Physical item

Author Surname, Initial(s) or Corporate Author., (Year of publication). Title of report. Paper number [if applicable]. Place of Publication: Publisher

Johnson, S. and Fitzpatrick, S., (2007). The impact of enforcement on street users in England. Bristol: The Policy Press.

Online/Electronic

Author Surname, Initial(s) or Corporate Author., (Year of publication). Title of report Paper number (if applicable) [online]. Place of Publication: Publisher. [Date Viewed]. Available from: URL or DOI

J Sainsbury., (2016). Sainsbury's food surplus and food waste: how we are delivering a positive impact [online]. London: J Sainsbury Plc. [Viewed 4 May 2017]. Available from: http://www.j-sainsbury.co.uk/media/3442510/Sainsbury's%20food%20surplus%20and%20food%20waste%20figures%2015-16%20report.pdf

Joseph Rowntree Foundation., (2015). Building sustainable homes [online]. York: Joseph Rowntree Foundation. [Viewed 4 May 2017]. Available from: https://www.jrf.org.uk/file/46481/download?token=UXZzH3XM&filetype=full-report

Snowdon, C., (2017). Cheap as chips: Is a healthy diet affordable? IEA Discussion Paper No. 82 [online]. London: The Institute of Economic Affairs. [Viewed 30 March 2017]. Available from: https://iea.org.uk/wp-content/uploads/2017/03/Cheap-as-Chips-PDF.pdf 

For more information about in–text citation and referencing multiple authors, see Creating a citation and reference list and click on the relevant section.

In the text

For an in–text citation in your work, you would cite the reference as follows:

The Met Office (2013) explains the climate...
Climate is the...(Met Office 2013)

In the bibliography/reference list

Author of section Surname, Initial(s)/corporate author., (Year). Title of part [online]. Name of website. [Date viewed]. Available from: URL.

Met Office., (2013). What do we mean by climate? [online]. Met Office. [Viewed 14 October 2015]. Available from: http://www.metoffice.gov.uk/climate-guide/climate

NHS Choices., (©2015). Behind the Headlines [online]. NHS Choices. [Viewed 14 October 2015]. Available from: http://www.nhs.uk/news/Pages/NewsIndex.aspx

For more information about in–text citation and referencing multiple authors, see Creating a citation and reference list and click on the relevant section.

Alphabetical list of items

Jump to: A | B | C | D | E | F | G | H | I | J | K | L | M | N | O | P | Q | R | S | T | U | V | W | X | Y | Z

A

For Acts of Parliament see Government Publication – Act of Parliament post 1963 or pre 1963

For Amendments see Government Publication – Parliamentary Bills, Amendments and Explanatory Notes

In the text

For an in-text citation in your work, you would cite the reference as follows:

Southey (1876) provided a culturally...
The Common-place book (Southey 1876)...

Turpin's (c.1290) manuscipt shows...
The Historia Caroli Magni et Rotolandi (Turpin c.1290) records the...

Hobbs (1678) demosntrates an example of...
The demonstration of a social structure can be identified...(Hobbs 1678).

In the bibliography/reference list

Physical item

Surname of creator, Initial(s)., (Date). Title [Medium if not printed book]. Series title and number (if available). Place of publication or place of holding: Publisher or Holding Institution. Other pertinent information.

Southey, R., (1876). Common-place book. London: Reeves and Turner.

Turpin [Archbishop of Rheims]., [c.1290]. [Historia Caroli Magni et Rotolandi. Manuscript]. Special Collections MS.5. Sheffield: The University of Sheffield.

Online/Electronic

Surname of creator, Initial(s)., (Date). Title [Medium]. Series title and number (if available). Place of publication or place of holding: Publisher or Holding Institution. [Date Viewed] Available from: URL. Other pertinent information.

Hobbs, T., (1678). Leviathan [online]. Londini: Typis Joannis Thomsonii. [Viewed 25 May 2017]. Available from: http://gateway.proquest.com/openurl?ctx_ver=Z39.88-2003&res_id=xri:eebo&rft_id=xri:eebo:image:30234 Reproduction of the original in the Harvard University Library.

Notes

If there is no clear title to the item, a popular title may be used if one exists. If a popular title to the image does not exist then you will need to supply the image with a title, in square brackets, proving the following where possible

  • The subject matter.
  • The name or place of the object depicted, i.e. the person, the building, the location etc.

For more information about in–text citation and referencing multiple authors, see Creating a citation and reference list and click on the relevant section.

For texts translated from the original see Translated item.

In the text

For an in–text citation in your work, you would cite the reference as follows:

campusM (2015) created...
The app iSheffield allows the user...(campusM 2015)

In the bibliography/reference list

Creator, (Year). Name of software. Version. [Software type]. Update or revision date [date of access]. Available from: URL

campusM, (2015). iSheffield. Version 5.4.2. [app on android]. 25 November 2015 [accessed 26 November 2015]. Available from: https://play.google.com/store/apps/details?id=com.ombiel.campusm.sheffield&hl=en_GB

For more information about in–text citation and referencing multiple authors, see Creating a citation and reference list and click on the relevant section.

Work of art in an art gallery

In the text

For an in–text citation in your work, you would cite the reference as follows:

The Mona Lisa by DaVinci (ca. 1503) focuses closely on the subject...
The famous smile on the Mona Lisa (DaVinci ca. 1503) has become...

Mr and Mrs Andrews by Thomas Gainsborough (ca. 1750) portrays...
The painting Mr and Mrs. Andrews (Gainsborough ca. 1750) represents...

In the bibliography/reference list

Surname of artist, initial(s)., (Year). Title [Item type]. At: Place: Holding institution, department (if available), identifier or reference number (if available).

DaVinci, L., [ca. 1503]. Mona Lisa [Oil on poplar]. At: Paris: Musée du Louvre, Mona Lisa Room, INV.779.

Gainsborough, T., [ca. 1750]. Mr and Mrs Andrews [Oil on canvas]. At: London: The National Gallery, Room 35. NG6301

Work of art viewed online

In the bibliography/reference list

For an in–text citation in your work, you would cite the reference as follows:

The collage by Moholy–Nagy (1930) uses sandpaper, watercolour, gouache...
La Sarraz (Moholy–Nagy 1930) shows the use of various textures...

Surname, initial(s)., (Year). Title [item type]. At: Place: Holding institution, department (if available), identifier or reference number (if available). [Date viewed]. Available from: URL

DaVinci, L., [ca. 1503]. Mona Lisa [Oil on poplar]. At: Paris: Musée du Louvre, Mona Lisa Room, INV.779. [Viewed 14 July 2016]. Available from: http://www.louvre.fr/en/oeuvre-notices/mona-lisa-portrait-lisa-gherardini-wife-francesco-del-giocondo

Gainsborough, T., [ca. 1750]. Mr and Mrs Andrews [Oil on canvas]. At: London: The National Gallery, Room 35. NG6301. [Viewed 25 April 2017]. Available from: https://www.nationalgallery.org.uk/paintings/thomas-gainsborough-mr-and-mrs-andrews

Moholy–Nagy, L., (1930). La Sarraz [Collage with watercolour, gouache, ink and graphite on paper]. At: New York: Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum, 48.1155. [Viewed 14 July 2015]. Available from: https://www.guggenheim.org/artwork/2985

Notes
  • If there is no clear title to the item, a popular title may be used if one exists. If a popular title to the image does not exist then you will need to supply the item with a title, in square brackets, providing the following where possible
    • The subject matter
    • The name or place of the object depicted, i.e. the person, the building, the location etc.
  • If the year of the image is not available but can be established, then use this as your date.
  • If the exact date is not known, an approximate date followed by a question mark (?), or preceded by "ca.", should be used, this should be given in square brackets, e.g.
    • [2005?]
    • [ca. 2005]
    • [20th Century]
  • If no date, or approximate date can be found then you would use [no date].
  • The original title of a translated information resource, or a translation of the title, may be supplied immediately after the original title, e.g. Kinderhände im washbecken [Children's Hands in Washbasin]
  • If the artwork has a popular or traditional title, then you may use this e.g. Mona Lisa

For more information about in–text citation and referencing multiple authors, see Creating a citation and reference list and click on the relevant section.

[Top of page]

B

For Bills see Government Publication - Parliamentary Bills, Amendments and Explanatory Notes

In the text

For an in–text citation in your work, you would cite the reference as follows:

Steel (2015) looks to promote...
The promotion of new materials is demonstrated...(Steel 2015)

In the bibliography/reference list

Name of creator Surname, Initial(s)., (Year). Title of blog post. Title of blog [online]. Date blog was posted (Day/Month/Year). [Date viewed]. Available from: URL

Steel, B., (2015). New edition of Journal Citation Reports now available. Librarians' Blog for Social Sciences [online]. 22 June 2015. [Viewed 1 December 2015]. Available from: http://unisheffieldlib-socialsciences.blogspot.co.uk/2015/06/new-edition-of-journal-citation-reports.html

For more information about in–text citation and referencing multiple authors, see Creating a citation and reference list and click on the relevant section.

For Blu–Ray see Video - Physical Format

In the text

For an in–text citation in your work, you would cite the reference as follows:

Bryman (2016) recommends...
Quantitative data is more suited to the study due to... (Bryman 2016).

In the bibliography/reference list

Author Surname, Initial(s)., (Year). Title. Edition (if not first edition). Place of publication: Publisher.

Bryman, A., (2016). Social research methods. 5th ed. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

For more information about in–text citation and referencing multiple authors, see Creating a citation and reference list and click on the relevant section.

In the text

For an in–text citation in your work, you would cite the reference as follows:

Wallace and Wolf (2006) found that...
Globalization is a theory that has many concepts... (Wallace & Wolf 2006).

In the bibliography/reference list

Author Surname, Initial(s). and Author Surname, Initial(s)., (Year). Title. Edition (if not first edition). Place of publication: Publisher.

Wallace, R. A. and Wolf, A., (2006). Contemporary sociological theory: expanding the classical tradition. 6th ed. Upper Saddle River, N.J.: Prentice Hall.

For more information about in–text citation and referencing multiple authors, see Creating a citation and reference list and click on the relevant section.

In the text

For an in–text citation in your work, you would cite the reference as follows:

Begg et al. (2014) found that...
The elasticity of demand demonstrates... (Begg et al. 2014).

In the bibliography/reference list

Author Surname, Initial(s)., Author Surname, Initial(s)., Author Surname, Initial(s). and Author Surname, Initial(s)., (Year). Title. Edition (if not first edition). Place of publication: Publisher.

Begg, D.K.H., Vernasca, G., Fischer, S. and Dornbusch, R., (2014). Economics. 11th ed. London: McGraw–Hill.

For more information about in–text citation and referencing multiple authors, see Creating a citation and reference list and click on the relevant section.

In the text

For an in–text citation in your work, you would cite the reference as follows:

He (1997) found that...
The ethnic relations in China ...(He 1997).

Zheng (1997) looked at the cultural influences...
The culture of western business during the period...(Zheng 1997).

In the bibliography/reference list

Chapter Author Surname, Initials., (Year). Title of chapter. In: Editor(s) Initial. Editor(s) Surname, ed(s). Title of book. Edition (if not first). Place of publication: Publisher. Page numbers.

He, X., (1997). The market economy and ethnic relations in China. In: A. Ikeo, ed. Economic development in twentieth century East Asia: the international context. London: Routledge. pp. 190–205.

Zheng, X., (1997). Chinese business culture from the 1920s to the 1950s. In: A. Ikeo, ed. Economic development in twentieth century East Asia: the international context. London: Routledge. pp. 35–54.

For more information about in–text citation and referencing multiple authors, see Creating a citation and reference list and click on the relevant section.

In the text

For an in–text citation in your work, you would cite the reference as follows:

Becker (2012) identifies...
The research methodology for social policy...(Becker 2012)

In the bibliography/reference list

Chapter Author Surname, Initial(s)., (Year). Chapter of title. In: Editor(s) Initials. Editor(s) Surnames. Title of book [online]. Edition (if not first). Place of publication: Publisher. Page numbers. [Date viewed]. Available from: URL or DOI

Becker, S., (2012). Approaches and methods. In: P. Alcock, M. May and S. Wright, eds. The student's companion to social policy [online]. 4th ed. pp.12–18. [Viewed 5 October 2015]. Available from: https://www.dawsonera.com/abstract/9781119960805

For more information about in–text citation and referencing multiple authors, see Creating a citation and reference list and click on the relevant section.

In the bibliography/reference list for one editor

Editor Surname, Initial(s). ed., (Year). Title. Edition (if not the first. Place of publication: Publisher.

Ikeo, A. ed., 1997. Economic development in twentieth century East Asia: the international context. London: Routledge.

In the bibliography/reference list for two editors

Editor Surname, Initial(s). and Editor Surname, Initial(s). eds., (Year). Title. Edition (if not the first). Place of publication: Publisher.

Parker, R. and Aggleton, P. eds., (2007). Culture, society and sexuality: a reader. 2nd ed. London: Routledge.

In the bibliography/reference list for three editors

Editor Surname, Initials., Editor Surname, Initials. and Editor Surname, Initial. eds., (Year). Title. Edition (if not the first). Place of Publication: Publisher.

Alcock, P., May, M. and Wright, S. eds., (2012). The student's companion to social policy. 4th ed. Oxford: Wiley–Blackwell.

For more information about in–text citation and referencing multiple authors, see Creating a citation and reference list and click on the relevant section.

In the text

For an in–text citation in your work, you would cite the reference as follows:

Walliman (2011) looks at identifying the research problem by...
By refining what information...(Walliman 2011).

In the bibliography/reference list

Author Surname, Initial(s)., (Year). Title of item [online]. Edition (if not first). Place of publication: Publication. [Date Viewed]. Available from: DOI or URL.

Walliman, N.S.R., (2011). Research methods: The basics [online]. Abingdon: Routledge. [Viewed 19 November 2015]. Available from: https://www.dawsonera.com/readonline/9780203836071/

For an e-reader (e.g. Kindle)

Author Surname, Initial(s)., (Year). Title of item [Model of e-reader]. Edition (if not first). Place of publication: Publication. [Date Viewed]. Available from: Name of website book purchased from.

Bryman, A. and Bell, E., (2011). Business research methods [Kindle Fire HD 8]. (3rd ed). Oxford: Oxford University Press. [Viewed 7 April 2017]. Available from: Amazon.co.uk

For more information about in–text citation and referencing multiple authors, see Creating a citation and reference list and click on the relevant section.

[Top of page]

C

For Census Data see Data Set

For Chapter in a book see Book Chapter (in an edited book) or Book Chapter/Section (in an Electronic Book).

For Clinical Guidelines see Standards.

For Command Paper see Government Publication – Command Paper

For Compact Disc (CD) see Music - Album (Physical Format) or Music - Album Track (Physical Format)

In the text

For an in–text citation in your work, you would cite the reference as follows:

Galar et al. (2014) identified that the risks of...
SMART risk assessments...(Galar et al. 2014)

Redknap (2004) questioned whether settlements in North Wales...
The geographical location of Anglesey meant that...(Redknap 2004).

Fujikami et al. (2015) identified that in order to improve Fast Device Discovery...
Fast Device Discovery can be aided by...(Fujikami et al. 2015)

In the bibliography/reference list

Physical item

Author(s) of paper Surname, Initial(s)., (Year). Paper title. In: Editor(s) of proceedings initials, Surname. (if known). ed(s) (If editors known). Conference title, full date of conference, place of conference. Place of publication: Publisher, Page numbers.

Galar, D., Sandborn, P., Kumar, U. and Johansson, C–A., (2014). SMART: integrating human safety risk assessment with Asset Integrity. In: G. Dalpiaz, R. Rubini, G. D'elia, M. Cocconcelli, F. Chaari, R. Zimroz, W. Bartelmus and M. Haddar, eds. Advances in condition monitoring of machinery in non–stationary operations, proceedings of the third international conference on condition monitoring of machinery in non–stationary operations, CMMNO, 2013, Ferrara, Italy. Berlin: Springer, pp.37–59.

Redknap, M., (2004). Viking–age settlements in Wales and the evidence from Llanbedrgoch. In: J. Hines, A. Lane and M. Redknap, eds. Land, sea and home, proceedings of a conference on Viking–period settlement, July 2001, Cardiff.Leeds: Manay Publishing, pp.139–175.

Online/Electronic

Author(s) of paper Surname, Initial(s)., (Year). Paper title. In: Editor(s) of proceedings initials, Surname (if known). ed(s) (If editors known). Conference title, full date of conference, place of conference [online]. Place of publication: Publisher, Page numbers. [Date viewed]. Available from: URL or DOI

Fujikami, S., Sumi, T., Yagiu, R. and Nagai, Y., (2015). Fast device discovery for vehicle–to–pedestrian communication using wireless LAN. In: Institute of Electrical Engineers (IEEE). 12th Annual IEEE Consumer Communications and Networking Conference (CCNC 2015), 9–12 January 2015, Las Vegas, Nevada, USA [online]. New York: Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers. pp.35–40. [Viewed 10 December 2015]. Available from: doi: 10.1109/CCNC.2015.7157943

Notes

  • The name of the conference should be used as the author if an indiviual author, or corporate author cannot be identified.

For more information about in–text citation and referencing multiple authors, see Creating a citation and reference list and click on the relevant section.

In the text

For an in-text citation in your work, you would cite the reference as follows:

Bazela, Grant and Tucker (2014) presented the poster...
...the poster shows the use of technology enhanced learning...(Bazela, Grant, & Tucker 2014).

Kleinschmidt, Fuhr and Wietfeld (2016) demonstrated the...
...the conference poster showed...(Kleinscmidt, Fuhr & Wietfeld 2016).

In the bibliography/reference list

Physical item

Author of poster surname, initial(s)., (Year). Title of poster [Poster]. In: Conference title, full date of conference, place of conference.

Bazela, C., Grant, V. and Tucker, A., (2014). History of medicine 2.0: using creative media to enhance information literacy teaching for 1st year medical students [poster]. In: LILAC, 23-25 April 2014, Sheffield, United Kingdom.

If accessed online (published in conference proceedings)

Author of poster surname, initial(s)., (Year). Title of poster [Poster]. In: Editor(s) of proceedings initial(s), Surname ed(s). Conference title, full date of conference, place of conference [Online]. Place of publication: Publisher, Page numbers. [Date viewed]. Available from: URL or DOI

Kleinschmidt, T., Fuhr, O. and Wietfeld, C., (2016). Synchronised charging of electric vehicles with distant renewable energy resources [Poster]. In: O. Altinas, E. Ekici, M. Tsai, M. Speulcre, B. Bloessi, and Y-L. Wei. eds. 2016 IEEE Vehicular Networking Conference (VNC), 8-10 December 2016, Columbus, OH, USA [online]. New York: Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers. Available from: doi: 10.1109/VNC.2016.7835983

If accessed online (via conference website)

Author of poster surname, initial(s)., (Year). Title of poster [poster]. In: Conference title, full date of conference, place of conference [Online]. [Date viewed]. Available from: URL or DOI

Bazela, C., Grant, V. and Tucker, A., (2014). History of medicine 2.0: using creative media to enhance information literacy teaching for 1st year medical students [poster]. In: LILAC, 23-25 April 2014, Sheffield [online]. [Viewed 31 May 2017]. Available from: https://www.slideshare.net/infolit_group/bazela-grant-tucker-poster

For more information about in–text citation and referencing multiple authors, see Creating a citation and reference list and click on the relevant section.

In the bibliography/reference list

Physical item

Editor(s) of proceedings Surname, Initial(s). ed(s)., (Year). Title of conference, full date of conference, place of conference. Place of publication: publisher. Volume (if needed).

Dalpiaz, G., Rubini, R., D'elia, G., Cocconcelli, M., Chaari, F., Zimroz, R., Bartelmus, W. and Haddar, M. eds., (2014). Advances in condition monitoring of machinery in non–stationary operations, proceedings of the third international conference on condition monitoring of machinery in non–stationary operations, CMMNO, 2013, Ferrara, Italy. Berlin: Springer.

Orman, W. and Valleau, M.J. eds., (2014). Proceedings of the 38th annual Boston University Conference on language development, 2013, Boston, Massachusetts . Somerville, MA; Cascadilla Press. Volume 2.

Online/Electronic

Editor(s) of proceedings Surname, Initial(s). ed(s)., (Year). Title of conference, full date of conference, place of conference [online]. Place of publication: publisher. Volume (if needed). [Date viewed]. Available from: URL or DOI

Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE)., (2015). 12th Annual IEEE Consumer Communications and Networking Conference (CCNC 2015), 9–12 January 2015, Las Vegas, Nevada, USA [Online]. New York: Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers. [Viewed 10 December 2015]. Available from: http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/xpl/tocresult.jsp?asf_pun=7151874

Notes

  • The name of the conference should be used as the author if an individual author, or corporate author cannot be identified

For more information about in–text citation and referencing multiple authors, see Creating a citation and reference list and click on the relevant section.

[Top of page]

D

In the text

For an in–text citation in your work, you would cite the reference as follows:

The Office for National Statistics. Social Survey Division (2016) provided the statistics for...
The statistics show that social divisions within the UK... (The Office for National Statistics. Social Survey Division 2016)

NHS Digital (2015) provided the statistics for obesity, these show...
The statistics show that physical activity...(NHS Digital 2015)

In the bibliography/reference list

Author Surname, Initials., OR Organisation, (Year). Title of Data Set [File type]. Edition (if necessary) Place of Publication: Publisher OR Institutional holding body. Number of data set (if necessary). [Date Accessed]. Available from: URL or DOI:

NHS Digital., (2015). Statistics on obesity, physical activity and diet, England [Data set]. Leeds: NHS Digital. [Accessed 23 January 2017]. Available from: https://data.gov.uk/dataset/statistics_on_obesity_physical_activity_and_diet_england

Office for National Statistics. Social Survey Division., (2016). Annual Population Survey, April 2015-2016 [Data set]. 2nd ed. UK Data Service. [Accessed 23 January 2017]. SN8003. Available from: doi:10.5255/UKDA-SN-8003-2

In the text

For an in-text citation in your work, you would cite the reference as follows:

Di Marco et al. (2016)...
...(Di Marco et al. 2016).

In the bibliography/reference list

Author Surname, Initial(s)., (Year). Title of Data Set [Data Set]. Place of Holding Organisation: Holding organisation and Name of repository. Version of Data Set (if necessary). [Date Accessed]. Available from URL or doi:

Di Marco, R., Rossi, S., Racic, V., Cappa, P. & Mazza, C., (2016). Kinematic data for the concurrent repeatability and reproducibility analysis of four gait models for foot-ankle complex [Data Set]. Sheffield: University of Sheffield, Figshare. Version 1. [Accessed 2 October 2017]. doi: 10.15131/shef.data.3502712.v1

Notes

Adapted from Force11 Joint Declaration of Data Citation Principles

For more information about in-text citation and referencing multiple authors, see Creating a citation and reference list and click on the relevant section.

Dictionary Entry – Print

In the text

Research (2009) is defined as...
This is the process of...(Research 2009)

Berges (2012) notes that moral development...
Moral development is associated with...(Berges 2012)

For an in–text citation in your work, you would cite the reference as follows:

In the bibliography/reference list

Author of Section Surname, Initial(s)., (Year). Title of entry. In: Editor(s) Surname, Initial(s)., ed(s). Title. . Edition (if not first). Place of publication: Publisher. Volume (if applicable). Page numbers.

Berges, S., (2012). Moral Development. In: Chadwick, R. ed. Encyclopedia of Applied Ethics. 2nd ed. London: Academic Press. Vol. 3 M–R. pp.141–151.

Research., (2009). In: Concise Oxford English Dictionary. 11th rev. ed. Oxford: Oxford University Press. p.1222.

Dictionary Entry – Online

In the bibliography/reference list

Author of Section Surname, Initial(s)., (Year). Title of entry. In: Editor(s) Surname, Initials. ed(s). Title. Edition (if not first. Place of publication: Publisher. Volume (if applicable). [Date viewed]. Available from: URL or DOI.

Research, n.1. (2010). In: OED Online. Oxford: Oxford University Press. [Viewed 14 December 2015]. Available from: http://www.oed.com/view/Entry/163432?isAdvanced=false&result=1&rskey=P9ZxF&

Full Dictionary – In Print

In the bibliography/reference list

Editor Surname, Initial(s). ed(s)., (Year). Title. Edition (if not first). Place of publication: Publisher. Volume(s) (if applicable).

Chadwick, R. ed., (2012). Encylopedia of applied ethics. 2nd ed. London: Academic Press. 4 Vol.

Saones, C. and Stevenson, A. eds., (2005). Oxford English Dictionary. 2nd rev. ed. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Full Dictionary Online

In the bibliography/reference list

Editor Surname, Initial(s). ed(s)., (Year). Title. Edition (if not first). Place of publication: Publisher. Volumes (if applicable.) [Date viewed]. URL

OED online., (©2015). Oxford: Oxford University Press. [Viewed 17 December 2015). Available from: http://www.oed.com

For more information about in–text citation and referencing multiple authors, see Creating a citation and reference list and click on the relevant section.

In the text

For an in–text citation in your work, you would cite the reference as follows:

Vickers (2008) noted that the impact of technology has changed the way spaces within a library building are provided...
Learning spaces and services provided are changing due to technological advances (Vickers 2008)...

In the bibliography/reference list

Author Surname, Initial(s)., (Year). Title. Type of qualification (Award and type), Awarding body.

Vickers, S., (2008). An oral history examination of how technology has impacted on library space using the University of Sheffield Library as a case study. M.A. Dissertation, University of Sheffield.

For more information about in–text citation and referencing multiple authors, see Creating a citation and reference list and click on the relevant section.

For DVD see Video - Physical Format

[Top of page]

E

For Electronic Book see Book – Electronic

For Electronic Journal see Journal Article with a DOI (Electronic) or Journal Article without a DOI (Electronic)

In the text

For an in-text citation in your work, you would cite your reference as follows:

The new workflow was circulated (Smith 2015) as part of ongoing...
Smith (2015) circulated the information for...

In the bibliography/reference list

Surname of sender, initial(s). (Year). Subject of email [electronic mail to name of recipient]. Day and month email was sent. Available from: [Personal electronic mail communication].

Smith, D., (2015). Updates to workflow [electronic mail to Ben Jones]. 26 November. Available from: [Personal electronic mail conversation]

Notes

You will need permission from anyone involved in the email conversation before using them in your work.

For more information about in–text citation and referencing multiple authors, see Creating a citation and reference list and click on the relevant section.

Full exhibition

In the text

For an in–text citation in your work, you would cite the reference as follows:

The exhibition at the National Portrait Gallery curated by Cooper (2013–2014)...
In the exhibition Elizabeth I & Her People (Cooper 2013‐2014)...

Beatles to Bowie: the 60's explored (2009–2010) showcased the acts of the 1960's...
Images of music personalities and memorabilia from the 1960's formed a major exhibition in the National Portrait Gallery (Beatles to Bowie: the 60's exposed 2009–2010)...

The exhibition The Age of Abstraction: Women Artists (2016) at Graves Gallery exhibited...
Use of colour, pattern and line have been explored in a recent exhibition (The Age of Abstraction: Women Artists 2016) which delves...

In the bibliography/reference list

Surname of Curator, Initial(s)., (Year). Title of exhibition [Item type]. At: Place: Holding institution, department (if available).

Beatles to Bowie: the 60's exposed, (2009–2010). [Exhibition]. At: London: National Portrait Gallery.

Cooper, T., (2013–2014). Elizabeth I & her people [Exhibition]. At: London: National Portrait Gallery.

The age of abstraction: women artists, (2016). [Exhibition]. At: Sheffield, Graves Gallery.

Item type as part of an exhibition

In the text

For an in–citation in your work, you would cite the reference as follows

The portrait of Elizabeth I by Hilliard (1585)...
The Ermine portrait of Elizabeth I (Hilliard 1585) shows the monarch...

Bebbington (1969) captures David Bowie...
The image of David Bowie (Bebbington 1969)...

In the bibliography/reference list

Artist Surname, Initial(s). Date of artwork. Title of Artwork [Item type]. In: Curator initial. Surname, Date of exhibition. Title of exhibition [Item type]. At: Place: Holding institution, department (if available)

Bebbington, D., (1969). David Bowie [Photograph]. In: Beatles to Bowie: the 60's exposed, 2009–2010. [Exhibition]. At: London: National Portrtait Gallery.

Hilliard, N., (1585). Elizabeth I, or Ermine portrait [oil painting]. In: T. Cooper, 2013–2014. Elizabeth I & her people [Exhibition]. At: London: National Portrait Gallery.

Notes

  • If the name of the curator cannot be located, start the reference with the title of the exhibition followed by the date and item type.
  • An exhibition may run over the period of two years, if this is the case, you may enter a date range, e.g. 2013–2014.

For more information about in–text citation and referencing multiple authors, see Creating a citation and reference list and click on the relevant section.

[Top of page]

F

For Facebook see Social Media

For Fact Sheet see Information Sheet

For Film videos see Video

For Forum Post see Message Board

[Top of page]

G

Legislation passed post–1963 are numbered in the year which it received Royal Assent.

In the text

For an in–citation in your work, you would cite the reference as follows:

It is now possible to face up to 7 years imprisonment for supplying psychoactive substances (Great Britain. Psychoactive Substances Act 2016)...
The Psychoactive Substances Act (Great Britain 2016) introduced the ban on...

In the bibliography/reference list

Physical item

Country. Name of act and year. Chapter. Place of publication: Publisher.

Great Britain. Psychoactive Substances Act 2016. c.2. London: The Stationery Office.

Online/Electronic

Country. Name of act and year. Chapter [online]. Place of publication: Publisher. [Date viewed]: Available from. URL

Great Britain. Psychoactive Substances Act 2016. c.2 [online]. London: The Stationery Office. [Viewed 26 September 2016]. Available from: http://www.legislation.gov.uk/ukpga/2016/2/pdfs/ukpga_20160002_en.pdf

For more information about in–text citation and referencing multiple authors, see Creating a citation and reference list and click on the relevant section.

Legislation passed pre–1963 was numbered by regnal year of the monarch (number of years since the monarch's ascension).

In the text

For an in–text citation in your work, you would cite the reference as follows:

Police were given powers to...(Great Britain. Official Secrets Act 1939)
The Official Secrets Act (Great Britain 1939) joined...

In the bibliography/reference list

Physical item

Country. Name of act and year. Regnal year(s), name of monarch, chapter. Place of publication: Publisher.

Great Britain. Official Secrets Act 1939. 2&3 Geo. 6, c.121. London: HMSO.

Online/Electronic

Country. Name of act and year. Regnal year(s) name of monarch, chapter [online]. Place of publication: Publisher. [Date viewed]: Available from. URL

Great Britain. Official Secrets Act 1939. 2&3 Geo. 6, c.121 [online]. London: HMSO. [Viewed 26 September 2016]. Available from: http://www.legislation.gov.uk/ukpga/1939/121/pdfs/ukpga_19390121_en.pdf

For more information about in–text citation and referencing multiple authors, see Creating a citation and reference list and click on the relevant section.

In the text

For an in–text citation in your work, you would cite the reference as follows:

The principles of the Teaching Excellence Framework were introduced as a way for the government to meet their manifesto pledge...(Great Britain. Department of Business, Innovation and Skills 2015)
The Department of Business, Innovation and Skills (Great Britain 2015)...

In a report on the knowledge economy (Great Britain. Department of Business, Innovation and Skills 2016)...
The Department of Business, Innovation and Skills (Great Britain 2016) has stated that...

Challenges facing the NHS...(Great Britain. Department of Health 2016)
The Department of Health (Great Britain 2016) suggests that demand reduction...

In the bibliography/reference list

Physical item

Country. Government Department (at the time of publication)., (Year). Title Paper number. Place of publication: Publisher.

Great Britain. Department for Business, Innovation and Skills., (2015). Fulfilling our potential: teaching excellence, social mobility and student choice Cm 9141. London: HMSO.

Great Britain. Department for Business, Innovation and Skills., (2016). Success as a knowledge economy: teaching excellence, social mobility and student choice Cm 9258. London: HMSO.

Great Britain. Department of Health., (2016). Government response to the House of Commons Health Select Committee report into the impact of the spending review on health and social care Cm 9385. London: HMSO.

Online/Electronic

Country. Government Department (at the time of publication)., (Year). Title Paper number [online]. Place of publication: Publisher. [Date Viewed]. Available from: URL

Great Britain. Department for Business, Innovation and Skills., (2015). Fulfilling our potential: teaching excellence, social mobility and student choice Cm 9141 [online]. London: HMSO. [Viewed 1 December 2015]. Available from: https://www.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/474227/BIS-15-623-fulfilling-our-potential-teaching-excellence-social-mobility-and-student-choice.pdf

Great Britain. Department for Business, Innovation and Skills., (2016). Success as a knowledge economy: teaching excellence, social mobility and student choice Cm 9258 [online]. London: HMSO. [Viewed 17 June 2016]. Available from: https://www.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/523396/bis-16-265-success-as-a-knowledge-economy.pdf

Great Britain. Department of Health., (2016). Government response to the House of Commons Health Select Committee report into the impact of the spending review on health and social care Cm 9385 [online]. London: HMSO. [Viewed 1 February 2017]. Available from: https://www.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/577910/DH_Gov_Response_Accessible.pdf

Notes

The numbering of Command Papers is done by running numbers with a prefix which changes as the number gets close to 10,000. The prefixes are listed below:

  • 1868–1869 – 1–4222
  • 1870–1899 – C 1–C 9550
  • 1900–1918 – Cd 1–Cd 9239
  • 1919–1956 – Cmd 1–Cmd 9889
  • 1956–1986 – Cmnd 1–Cmnd 9927
  • 1986–current – Cm 1–

For more information about in–text citation and referencing multiple authors, see Creating a citation and reference list and click on the relevant section.

In the text

For an in-text citation in your work, you would cite the reference as follows:

The Department of Health (Great Britain 2015) statistics show...
The Deprivation of Liberty Safeguards (Great Britain. Department of Health 2015) show that the trend.

In the bibliography/reference list

Country. Governmental Department., (Year). Title of Data Set [File Type]. Edition (if necessary). Place of publication: Publisher or Institutional holding body. Number of data set (if necessary). [Date Accessed]. Available from: URL or DOI.

Great Britain. Department of Health. (2015). DoLS monthly summary statistics. Quarter 2, 2015 to 2016 raw data [Data Set]. Department of Health. [Accessed 1 February 2017]. Available from: https://www.gov.uk/government/statistics/deprivation-of-liberty-safeguards-dols-july-to-september-2015

For more information about in–text citation and referencing multiple authors, see Creating a citation and reference list and click on the relevant section.

In the text

For an in–text citation in your work, you would reference the in-text citation as follows:

Discussions of a cross-party group who will look at costal regeneration and development ...(Great Britain, House of Commons 2016)
Costal regeneration was debated in the House of Commons (Great Britain 2016)...

The issue of licence fee has been addressed by The Lord Bishop of Sheffield (Great Britain, House of Lords 2015)
The BBC Charter was debated in the House of Lords (Great Britain 2015)

In the bibliography/reference list

Physical item

Country. Name of house., (Year). Name [Hansard], (Series, if applicable), Date, Volume, Number (if available), Column. Place of publication: Publisher.

Great Britain. House of Commons., (2016). Official Report: Parliamentary Debates [Hansard], 18 July, Vol.613 No.27, cc527–28. London: The Stationery Office.

Great Britain. House of Lords., (2016). Official Report: Parliamentary Debates [Hansard], 17 September, Vol.764, No.46, cc1957–59. London: The Stationery Office.

Online/Electronic

Country. Name of house., (Year). Name [Hansard], (Series, if applicable), Date, Volume, Number (if available), Column [online]. Place of publication: Publisher. [Date viewed]. Available from: URL

Great Britain. House of Commons., (1938). The Official Report. Parliamentary Debates [Hansard], (5th Series), 18 July, Vol.338, cc1807–14 [online]. London: The Stationery Office. [Viewed 13 October 2016]. Available at: http://hansard.millbanksystems.com/commons/1938/jul/18/mr-speakers-ruling

Great Britain. House of Commons., (2016). Official Report: Parliamentary Debates [Hansard], 18 July, Vol.613, No.27, cc527–28 [online]. London: The Stationery Office. [Viewed 13 October 2016]. Available at: https://hansard.parliament.uk/Commons/2016-07-18/debates/16071818000004/OralAnswersToQuestions

Great Britain. House of Lords., (2015). Official Report: Parliamentary Debates [Hansard], 17 September, Vol.764, No.46, cc1957–59 [online]. London: The Stationery Office. [Viewed 13 October 2016]. Available at: https://hansard.parliament.uk/lords/2015-09-17/debates/15091736000770/BBCCharter2017

Notes

If you are citing more than one column, use cc as the prefix

If you are referencing older Hansards, you will need to include the series, these are as follow:

  • 1st Series – Cobbett's Parliamentary Debates: Vol.1 (1803) – Vol.22 (March/May 1812) continued by
    The Parliamentary Debates: Vol.23 (May/June 1812) to Vol.41 (February 1820). N.B. Some reissued sets were numbered Vol.1 – Vol.22 as The Parliamentary Debates.
  • 2nd Series – The Parliamentary Debates, New Series: Vol.1 (April 1820) – Vol.25 (July 1830).
  • 3rd Series – Hansard's Parliamentary Debates (3rd Series): Vol.1 (October 1830) – Vol.356 (August 1891).
  • 4th Series – The Parliamentary Debates (4th Series): Vol.1 (February 1892) – Vol.199 (December 1908)
  • 5th Series – The Official Report, House of Commons (5th Series): Vol.1 (January 1909) – Vol.1000 (March 1981). N.B. The name Hansard was officially restored in 1941.
  • 5th Series – The Official Report, House of Lords (5th Series): Vol.1 (January 1909) –
  • 6th Series – The Official Report, House of Commons (6th Series): Vol.1 (March 1981) –

There are 6 different types of numbered columns in Hansard, the letters should appear after the column number as a suffix – these are as follow:

  • No letters – Discussions in the chamber
  • WH – Westminster Hall
  • WS – Written Statements
  • W – Written Answers
  • P – Petitions
  • C – Ministerial Corrections

For more information about in–text citation and referencing multiple authors, see Creating a citation and reference list and click on the relevant section.

In the text

For an in–citation in your work, you would cite the reference as follows:

More than 30 fully funded Marshall Scholarships were awarded during the academic year...(Great Britain. Marshall Aid Commemoration Commission 2016)
The Marshall Aid Commemoration Committee (Great Britain 2016) awarded scholarships...

Affordable housing remains on the agenda for the current government...(Great Britain. Select Committee for Economic Affairs 2016)
The Select Committee for Economic Affairs (Great Britain 2016) looked at the provision of affordable housing...

If the provision of the regulation is broken...(Great Britain. Delegated Powers and Regulatory Reform Committee 2017)
The Delegated Powers and Regulatory Reform Committee (Great Britain 2017) found that maximum penalties could be...

The deficits within the NHS...(Great Britain. Health Committee 2016)
The Health Committee (Great Britain, 2016) found that the deficit within the NHS...

In the bibliography/reference list

Physical item

Country. Government Department or Commission (at the time of publication, if available), (Year). Title Paper number, session. Place of publication: Publisher.

Great Britain. Delegated Powers and Regulatory Reform Committee., (2017). Health Service Medial Supplies (Costs) Bill HL 94, 2016–2017. London: By the authority of the House of Lords.

Great Britain. Health Committee., (2016). Impact of the spending review on health and social care Volume 1, Report HC 139, 2016-2017. London: By the authority of the House of Commons.

Great Britain. Marshall Aid Commemoration Commission., (2016). Marshall Aid Commemoration Commission Account 2015–2016 HC 539, 2016–2017. London: National Audit Office.

Great Britain. Select Committee on Economic Affairs., (2016). Economic Affairs Committee 1st report: Building more homes Volume 1, Report HL 20, 2016–2017. London: By the authority of the House of Lords.

Online/Electronic

Country. Government Department or Commission (at the time of publication, if available)., (Year). Title Paper number, session [online]. Place of publication: Publisher. [Date Viewed]. Available from: URL

Great Britain. Delegated Powers and Regulatory Reform Committee., (2017). Health Service Medial Supplies (Costs) Bill HL 94, 2016–2017 [online]. London: By the authority of the House of Lords. Available from: https://www.publications.parliament.uk/pa/ld201617/ldselect/lddelreg/94/94.pdf

Great Britain. Health Committee., (2016). Impact of the spending review on health and social care Volume 1, Report HC 139, 2016-2017 [online]. London: By the authority of the House of Commons. [Viewed 1 February 2017]. Available from: https://www.publications.parliament.uk/pa/cm201617/cmselect/cmhealth/139/139.pdf

Great Britain. Marshall Aid Commemoration Commission., (2016). Marshall Aid Commemoration Commission Account 2015–2016 HC 539, 2016–2017 [online]. London: National Audit Office. [Viewed 7 August 2016]. Available from: https://www.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/542143/MACC_account_2015_to_2016.pdf

Great Britain. Select Committee on Economic Affairs., (2016). Economic Affairs Committee 1st report: Building more homes Volume 1, Report HL 20, 2016–2017 [online]. London: By the authority of the House of Lords. [Viewed 8 September 2016]. Available from: http://www.publications.parliament.uk/pa/ld201617/ldselect/ldeconaf/20/20.pdf

For more information about in–text citation and referencing multiple authors, see Creating a citation and reference list and click on the relevant section.

In the text

For an in–text citation in your work, you would reference the citation as follows:

The infrastructure for the Sheffield tram system included widening of the main dual carriageway (Great Britain. South Yorkshire Light Rail Transit Act 1993)...
Sheffield Supertram lands acquired The South Yorkshire Light Rail Transit Act (Great Britain 1993) allowed for the acquisition of land to build the Sheffield Supertram system...

The restrictions on pedlars in Leeds (Great Britain, Leeds City Council Act 2013) allows for...
The Leeds City Council Act (Great Britain 2013) introduced fixed penalty notices...

In the bibliography/reference list

Physical item

Country. Name of act and year. Chapter. Place of publication: Publisher.

Great Britain. South Yorkshire Light Rail Transit Act 1993. Chapter ii. London: HMSO.

Great Britain. Leeds City Council Act 2013. Chapter ii. London: The Stationery Office.

Online/Electronic

Country. Name of act and year. Chapter [Online]. Place of publication: Publisher. [Date viewed]. Available from: URL

Great Britain. Leeds City Council Act 2013. Chapter ii [Online]. London: The Stationery Office. [Viewed 10 October 2016]. Available from: http://www.legislation.gov.uk/ukla/2013/2/introduction/enacted

Great Britain. South Yorkshire Light Rail Transit Act 1993. Chapter ii [Online]. London: HMSO. [Viewed 10 October 2016]. Available from: http://www.legislation.gov.uk/ukla/1993/2/introduction/enacted

For more information about in–text citation and referencing multiple authors, see Creating a citation and reference list and click on the relevant section.

In the text

For an in–text citation in your work, you would cite the reference as follows:

The Digital Economy Bill (Great Britain. House of Commons 2016) has attracted controversy...
The House of Commons (Great Britain 2016) proposed that the BBC could face more regulation from Ofcom (Great Britain. House of Commons 2016)

Increased measures for child safety have been included in amendments to the Crime and Policing Bill (Great Britain. House of Lords 2016)...
The House of Lords (Great Britain 2016) have amended...

The Oil and Gas Authority were transferred regulatory powers from the Secretary of State for Energy (Great Britain. House of Lords 2015)
The House of Lords (Great Britain. House of Lords 2015) note that the Oil and Gas Authority...

In the bibliography/reference list

Physical item

Country. Government Department or Commission (at the time of publication, if available), (Year). Title Paper number, session. Place of publication: Publisher.

Great Britain. House of Commons., (2016). Digital Economy Bill HCB 45, 2016–2017. London: The Stationery Office.

Great Britain. House of Lords., (2015). Energy Bill Explanatory Notes HLB 56–EN, 2015–2016. London: The Stationery Office.

Great Britain. House of Lords., (2016). Policing and Crime Bill Amendments HLB 55 c, 2016–2017. London: The Stationery Office.

Online/Electronic

Country. Government Department or Commission (at the time of publication, if available), (Year). Title Paper number, session [online]. Place of publication: Publisher. [Date Viewed]. Available from: URL

Great Britain. House of Commons., (2016). Digital Economy Bill HCB 45, 2016–2017 [online]. London: The Stationery Office. [Viewed 16 August 2016]. Available from: http://www.publications.parliament.uk/pa/bills/cbill/2016-2017/0045/cbill_2016-20170045_en_1.htm

Great Britain. House of Lords., (2015). Energy Bill Explanatory Notes HLB 56–EN, 2015–2016 [online]. London: The Stationery Office. [Viewed 30 August 2016]. Available from: http://www.publications.parliament.uk/pa/bills/lbill/2015-2016/0056/en/16056en.pdf

Great Britain. House of Lords., (2016). Policing and Crime Bill Amendments HLB 55 c, 2016–2017 [online]. London: The Stationery Office. [Viewed 1 September 2016]. Available from: http://www.publications.parliament.uk/pa/bills/lbill/2016-2017/0055/17055(c).pdf

For more information about in–text citation and referencing multiple authors, see Creating a citation and reference list and click on the relevant section.

In the text

For an in–text citation in your work, you would reference the citation as follows:

The Police (Amendment) (No.2) Regulations (Great Britain 2006) introduced changes...
Conflicts of interest for Police Officers should be reported to their senior...(Great Britain. The Police (Amendment)(No.2) Regulations 2006)

In the bibliography/reference list

Physical item

Country. Name of Statutory Instrument Number. Place of publication: Publisher.

Great Britain. The Police (Amendment) (No.2) Regulations 2006 SI 2006/3449. London: The Stationery Office.

Online/Electronic

Country. Name of Statutory Instrument Number [online]. Place of publication: Publisher. [Date viewed]. Available from. URL

Great Britain. The Police (Amendment) (No.2) Regulations 2006 SI 2006/3449 [online]. London: The Stationery Office. [Viewed 28 September 2016]. Available from: http://www.legislation.gov.uk/uksi/2006/3449/pdfs/uksi_20063449_en.pdf

For more information about in–text citation and referencing multiple authors, see Creating a citation and reference list and click on the relevant section.

In the text

For an in–text citation in your work, you would cite the reference as follows:

The ongoing decommissioning of nuclear plants in scheduled...(Great Britain, Office for Nuclear Regulation 2016)
The Office for Nuclear Regulation (Great Britain 2016) have set out their strategic aims...

The funding of care must be provided by either NHS or the local authority...(Great Britain. Department of Health 2016).
The Department of Health (Great Britain 2016) found that funding...

In the bibliography/reference list

Physical item

Country. Government Department or Office (At time of publication, if available), (Year). Title and date. Place of Publication: Publisher.

Great Britain. Department of Health., (2016). National framework for NHS continuing healthcare and NHS funded nursing care. London: Department of Health.

Great Britain. Office for Nuclear Regulation., (2016). Office for Nuclear Regulation Strategic Plan 2016–2020: Presented to Parliament pursuant to Paragraph 25(3) of Schedule 7 to the Energy Act 2013., March 2016. London: Office for Nuclear Regulation.

Online/Electronic

Country. Government Department or Office (At time of publication, if available), (Year). Title and date[online]. Place of Publication: Publisher. [Date viewed]. Available from: URL.

Great Britain. Department of Health., (2016). National framework for NHS continuing healthcare and NHS funded nursing care [online]. London: Department of Health. [Viewed 31 January 2017]. Available from: https://www.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/213137/National-Framework-for-NHS-CHC-NHS-FNC-Nov-2012.pdf

Great Britain. Office for Nuclear Regulation., (2016). Office for Nuclear Regulation Strategic Plan 2016–2020: Presented to Parliament pursuant to Paragraph 25(3) of Schedule 7 to the Energy Act 2013, March 2016 [online]. London: Office for Nuclear Regulation. [Viewed 11 October 2016]. Available from: http://www.onr.org.uk/documents/2016/strategic-plan-2016-2020.pdf

For more information about in–text citation and referencing multiple authors, see Creating a citation and reference list and click on the relevant section.

In the text

For an in–text citation in your work, you would cite the reference as follows:

A negative resolution instrument for immigration was presented (Great Britain, House of Commons 2016)...
Negative resolution papers presented before the House of Commons (Great Britain 2016) included the...

In the bibliography/reference list

Country. House., (Year). Title and full date paper number, session [online]. Place of Publication: Publisher. [Date viewed]. Available from: URL

Great Britain. House of Commons., (2016). Votes and Proceedings Thursday 15 September 2016 no.38, 2016–2017. London: House of Commons. [Viewed 10 October 2016]. Available from: http://www.publications.parliament.uk/pa/cm201617/cmvote/160915v01.pdf

For more information about in–text citation and referencing multiple authors, see Creating a citation and reference list and click on the relevant section.

For Green Paper see Government Publication – Command Paper

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For Hansard see Government Publication – Hansard

For Historical texts see Ancient or Historical Texts.

For House of Lords and House of Commons Papers see Government Publication - House of Lords and House of Commons Papers

For House of Lords or House of Commons Offical Report. Parliamentary Debates see Government Publication – Hansard

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Online image (e.g. Flickr) with full details

In the text

For an in–text citation in your work, you would cite the reference as follows:

Sunblocker by Schlamann (2015) depicts the lionfish...
The image Sunblocker shows the lionfish...(Schlamann 2015)

The image Ladybower Plughole by Andy_C (2005) shows the overflow...
The overflow of the Ladybower reservoir can be seen in the image Ladybower Plughole (Andy_C 2005)

In the bibliography/reference list

Artist surname, Initial(s)., (Year). Title of image [Type of image]. [Date viewed]. Available from: URL

Andy_C., (2005). Ladybower Plughole [digital image]. [Viewed 6 July 2016]. Available from: https://www.flickr.com/photos/andycpics/3035948922

Schlamann, C., (2015). Sunblocker [digital image]. [Viewed 6 July 2016]. Available from: http://photography.nationalgeographic.com/photography/photo-of-the-day/lionfish-underwater-sunlight/

Online image without a clear title

In the text

For an in–text citation in your work, you would cite the reference as follows:

The beach huts in the image by Ren_7 (2010) depict...
The beach huts shown in the image (Ren_7 2010) are typical of those at British resorts

The image from NASA Johnson Space Center (2015) shows the Earth as observed from...
The image of Earth (NASA Johnson Space Center 2015)

Pluto as seen by the New Horizons Spacecraft (NASA Johnson Space Center 2015) shows the surface...
The surface of the dwarf planet Pluto by NASA Johnson Space Center (2015)...

In the bibliography/reference list

Artist surname, Initials., (Year). [Title of image] [Type of image]. [Date viewed]. Available from: URL.

NASA Johnson Space Center., (2015). [Earth from Deep Space Climate Observatory] [digital image]. [Viewed 11 July 2016]. Available from: https://www.instagram.com/p/5Xs5tgqpIL

NASA Johnson Space Center., (2015). [Pluto from New Horizons Spacecraft] [digital image]. [Viewed 11 July 2016]. Available from: https://www.instagram.com/p/5Htd_cqpLC

Ren_7., (2010). [Beach huts] [digital image]. [Viewed 11 July 2010]. Available from: https://www.flickr.com/photos/ren7/5108123117/

Online image without a clear date

In the text

For an in–text citation in your work, you would cite the reference as follows:

The Spicebush Swallowtail Butterfly as photographed by Marawski (ca. 2008) shows...
The image of the Spicebush Swallowtail Butterfly (Murawski ca. 2008)

In the bibliography/reference list

Artist surname, Initials., (Year). Title of image [Type of image]. [Date viewed]. Available from: URL

Murawski, D. A., [ca. 2008]. Spicebush swallowtail butterfly [digital image]. [Viewed 11 July 2016]. Available from: http://www.nationalgeographic.com/photography/photos/patterns-butterflies/#/1371.ngsversion.1467941567217.jpg

Notes

  • In some cases you may need to use the screen name of the creator if their real name is not available, this can be the case with image sharing websites
  • If there is no clear title to the image, a popular title may be used if one exists. If a popular title to the image does not exist then you will need to supply the image with a title, in square brackets, proving the following where possible
    • The subject matter.
    • The name or place of the object depicted, i.e. the person, the building, the location etc.
  • If the year the image was taken is not available but can be established, then use this as your date.
  • If the exact date is not known, an approximate date followed by a question mark (?), or preceded by "ca." should be used, this should be given in square brackets e.g.
    • [2005?]
    • [ca. 2005].
    • [20th century].
  • If no date, or approximate date can be found then you would use [no date].

For more information about in–text citation and referencing multiple authors, see Creating a citation and reference list and click on the relevant section.

Original photograph or image on display e.g. in an art gallery

In the text

For an in–text citation in your work, you would cite the reference as follows:

The photograph by Nicholls (1919) captures preparations in London...
The photograph 'Preparations for Peace Day Celebrations' (Nicholls 1919) shows the 18th Battalion...

The photograph by Prince (1986) captures...
The image of a cowboy riding a horse (Prince 1986)...

Dewynters (1999) produced the iconic poster for the production of Cats...
The poster for Cats at the New London Theatre (Dewynters 1999)...

In the bibliography/reference list

Surname of artist, Initial(s)., (Year). Title [Item type]. At: Place: Holding institution, department (if available), identifier or reference number (if available).

Or if viewed online

Surname of artist, Initial(s)., (Year). Title [Item type]. At: Place: Holding institution, department (if available), identifier or reference number (if available). [Date Viewed]. Available from: URL

Dewynters., (1999). [Cats at the New London Theatre] [poster]. At: London: Victoria and Albert Museum, S.231–1999

Dewynters., (1999). [Cats at the New London Theatre] [poster]. At: London: Victoria and Albert Museum, S.231–1999. [Viewed 1 August 2017]. Available from: https://collections.vam.ac.uk/item/O48809/poster-dewynters-ltd/

Nicholls, H., (1919). Preparations for the peace day celebrations, July 1919 [photograph]. At: London: Imperial War Museum, Photograph Archive Collection, Q31324.

Nicholls, H., (1919). Preparations for the peace day celebrations, July 1919 [photograph]. At: London: Imperial War Museum, Photograph Archive Collection, Q31324. [Viewed 2 January, 2016]. Available from: http://www.iwm.org.uk/collections/item/object/205297061

Prince, R., (1986). [Cowboy riding a horse] [photograph]. At: London: Victoria and Albert Museum, E.2755–1990

Prince, R., (1986). [Cowboy riding a horse] [photograph]. At: London: Victoria and Albert Museum, E.2755–1990. [Viewed 1 August 2017]. Available from: https://collections.vam.ac.uk/item/O82859/untitled-cowboys-photograph-prince-richard/

Tanqueray, P., (1930). Ethel Edith Mannin [photograph]. At: London: National Portrait Gallery, Photographs Collection, Room 29. NPG x14264.

Tanqueray, P., (1930). Ethel Edith Mannin [photograph]. At: London: National Portrait Gallery, Photographs Collection, Room 29. NPG x14264.[Viewed 1 July 2017]. Available from: http://www.npg.org.uk/collections/search/portrait/mw14080/Ethel-Edith-Mannin?LinkID=mp13233&role=sit&rNo=0

Original photograph or image on display without a clear date e.g. in an art gallery

In the text

For an in–text citation in your work, you would cite the reference as follows:

Kinderhände im Washbeken by Dörner (ca. 1930) shows the willingness of photographers of the time to try new angles...
New ways of photographing subjects can be seen in the image Kinderhände im Washbeken (Dörner ca. 1930)

The image of Red Forte at Lahore Gate, New Dheli by Bourne (19th Century) shows...
The photogrpah of Red Fort (Bourne 19th Century) shows the documentation of India...

La Torre di Palazzo Vecchio vista attraverso i finestroni del Campanile di Giotto by Allinari (19th Century) documents...
The image shows the Cathedral of Santa Maria del Firoe in Florence (Allinari 19th Century)...

In the bibliography/reference list

Surname of artist, Initial(s)., (Year). Title [Item type]. At: Place: Holding institution, department (if available), identifier or reference number (if available).

Or if viewed online

Surname of artist, Initial(s)., (Year). Title [Item type]. At: Place: Holding institution, department (if available), identifier or reference number (if available). [Date viewed]. Available from: URL

Alinari, F., [19th century]. La Torre di Palazzo Vecchio vista attraverso i finestroni del Campanile di Giotto [photograph]. At: Sheffield: Graves Gallery, CGSG03475.

Alinari, F., [19th century]. La Torre di Palazzo Vecchio vista attraverso i finestroni del Campanile di Giotto [photograph]. At: Sheffield: Graves Gallery, CGSG03475. [Viewed 2 June 2017]. Available from: http://collections.museums-sheffield.org.uk/view/objects/asitem/People@773/0?t:state:flow=129b7140-8b37-4dfc-b856-a63bf70e78fb

Bourne, E., [19th century]. Red Fort at Lahore Gate, New Delhi [photograph]. At: London: Victoria and Albert Museum, 53195.

Bourne, E., [19th century]. Red Fort at Lahore Gate, New Delhi [photograph]. At: London: Victoria and Albert Museum, 53195. [Viewed 2 June 2017]. Available from: http://collections.vam.ac.uk/item/O81545/red-fort-at-lahore-gate-photograph/

Dörner, E., [ca. 1930]. Kinderhände im washbecken [Children's Hands in Washbasin] [photograph]. At: London: Victoria and Albert Museum, E.799–1997.

Dörner, E., [ca. 1930]. Kinderhände im washbecken [Children's Hands in Washbasin] [photograph]. At: London: Victoria and Albert Museum, E.799–1997. [Viewed 2 June 2017]. Available from: https://collections.vam.ac.uk/item/O83191/childrens-hands-in-a-washbasin-photograph-dorner-erhard/

Original photograph or image from a personal collection

You should not cite photographs taken by yourself that were taken for use in your research/project. Everything in your work is assumed to be your own work for that specific piece of research/project, unless you state otherwise i.e. citing someone else's work.

Notes
  • If there is no clear title to the item, a popular title may be used if one exists. If a popular title to the image does not exist then you will need to supply the item with a title, in square brackets, proving the following where possible
    • The subject matter
    • The name or place of the object depicted, i.e. the person, the building, the location etc.
  • If the year of the image is not available but can be established, then use this as your date.
  • If the exact date is not known, an approximate date followed by a question mark (?), or preceded by "ca.", should be used, this should be given in square brackets, e.g.
    • [2005?]
    • [ca. 2005]
    • [20th Century]
  • If no date, or approximate date can be found then you would use [no date].
  • The original title of a translated information resource, or a translation of the title, may be supplied immediately after the original title, e.g. Kinderhände im washbecken [Children's Hands in Washbasin]

For more information about in–text citation and referencing multiple authors, see Creating a citation and reference list and click on the relevant section.

In the text

For an in–text citation in your work, you would cite the reference as follows:

The photograph of a broken window by Lynch (no date) shows the reflection...
The shard of glass in the photograph (Lynch no date) shows the reflection...

The rabbit paintings in the photograph in the photograph by McNulty (2010)...
The photograph shows paintings and imagery of rabbits in an apartment (McNulty 2010).

The painting by Kashiki (2008) shows a person who is in the middle of a creative process...
The creative process of creating art is visualised in the painting (Kashiki 2008) which shows...

In the bibliography/reference list

Artist surname, Initials., (Year). Title of image [Type of image]. In: Author initial(s), Author Surname, Year (if different from image). Title.. Edition (if not first). Place of publication: Publisher. Page number.

Kashiki, T., (2008). Drawing person [acrylic and ink paining]. In: D. Elliott. 2011. Bye bye kitty!!! Bewtween heaven and hell in contemporary Japanses art. New York: Japan Society Inc. p.43.

Lynch, D., [no date]. [Broken window] [photograph]. In: D. Lynch, 2007. The air is on fire. 2nd ed. Paris: Fondation Cartier pour l’art contemporain. p.327.

McNulty, A., (2010). Shirley Davisdon's fourth–floor front studio, with rabbit paintings [photograph]. In: R. Bernstein and S. Shapiro. Illegal living: 80 Wooster Street and the evolution of SoHo. Vilnius: Joseph Meko Foundation. p.226.

Notes

  • If there is no clear title to the image, a popular title may be used if one exists. If a popular title to the image does not exist then you will need to supply the image with a title, in square brackets, proving the following where possible
    • The subject matter.
    • The name or place of the object depicted, i.e. the person, the building, the location etc.
  • If the year the image was taken is not available but can be established, then use this as your date.
  • If the exact date is not known, an approximate date followed by a question mark (?), or preceded by "ca." should be used, this should be given in square brackets e.g.
    • [2005?]
    • [ca. 2005].
    • [20th century].
  • If no date, or approximate date can be found then you would use [no date].

For more information about in–text citation and referencing multiple authors, see Creating a citation and reference list and click on the relevant section.

For a work of art see Art e.g. in an art gallery, museum or online

In the text

For an in-text citation in your work, you would cite your reference as follows:

The Solid System allows...(Applied Biosystems ©2008)
Applied Biosystems (©2008) manufacture...

The Boots decongestant tablet...(Boots Pharmaceuticals 2014).
Boots Pharmaceuticals (2014) recommend that thier decongestant...

The patient information leaflet for Doxycycline recommends (Kent Pharmaceuticals Ltd. 2013)...
Kent Pharmecueticals Ltd (2013) indicate that Doxycycline...

In the bibliography/reference list

Physical item

Corporate Author or Author Surname, Initial(s)., (Year). Title of Fact Sheet. Place of publication: Publisher. Publication Number.

Applied Biosystems., (©2008). Application Fact Sheet SOLiD System Accuracy. Foster City, C.A.: Applied Biosystems. 139AP04-04.

Boots Pharmaceuticals., (2014). Decongestant tablet (Pseudoephedrine hydrochloride). Nottingham: The Boots Company PLC. 00014/0375.

Kent Pharmaceuticals Ltd., (2013). Patient information leaflet: Doxycycline 50mg capsules. Ashford: Kent Pharmaceuticals Ltd. PL 30464/0060.

Online/Electronic

Corporate Author or Author Surname, Initial(s)., (Year). Title of Fact Sheet [online]. Place of publication: Publisher. Publication Number. [Date Viewed]. Available from: URL.

Applied Biosystems., (©2008). Application Fact Sheet SOLiD System Accuracy [online]. Foster City, C.A.: Applied Biosystems. 139AP04-04. [Viewed 23 November 2016]. Available from: https://www3.appliedbiosystems.com/cms/groups/mcb_marketing/documents/generaldocuments/cms_057511.pdf

Boots Pharmaceuticals., (2014). Decongestant tablet (Pseudoephedrine hydrochloride) [online]. Nottingham: The Boots Company PLC. 00014/0375. [Viewed 23 November 2016]. Available from: https://www.medicines.org.uk/emc/PIL.21466.latest.pdf

Kent Pharmaceuticals Ltd., (2013). Patient information leaflet: Doxycycline 50mg capusles [online]. Ashford: Kent Pharmaceuticals Ltd. PL 30464/0060. [Viewed 23 November 2016]. Available from: https://www.medicines.org.uk/emc/PIL.26285.latest.pdf

For more information about in–text citation and referencing multiple authors, see Creating a citation and reference list and click on the relevant section.

Adapt the guidance for Government Publications to suit international legislation.

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In the text

For an in–text citation in your work, you would cite the reference as follows:

Austin (2009) argues that periodical conflict may be expected...
It can be assumed that pickpocketing...(Austin 2009)

In the bibliography, in the reference list

Author of article Surname, Initial(s)., (Year). Title of article. Journal title. Volume in bold(Issue), page range.

Austin, T., (2012). Takers keepers, losers weepers: theft as customary play in southern Philippines. Journal of Folklore Research. 49(3), 263–284.

For more information about in–text citation and referencing multiple authors, see Creating a citation and reference list and click on the relevant section.

In the text

For an in–text citation in your work, you should cite the reference as follows

Dobson (2006) identified that the depiction...
The stereotypical portrayal of cultures...(Dobson 2006).

In the bibliography/reference list

Author of article Surname, Initial(s)., (Year). Title of article. Title of journal [online]. Volume in bold(Issue), Page range. [Date viewed]. Available from: doi:

Dobson, H., (2006). Mister Sparkle meets the 'Yakuza': depictions of Japan in The Simpsons. Journal of Popular Culture [online]. 39(1), 44–68. [Viewed 5 October 2015]. Available from: doi: 10.1111/j.1540-5931.2006.00203.x

For more information about in–text citation and referencing multiple authors, see Creating a citation and reference list and click on the relevant section.

In the text

For an in–text citation in your work, you would cite the reference as follows:

Ashby (1999) identified Zappa's style...
The melodies in Zappa's work...(Ashby 1999).

In the bibliography/reference list

Author of article Surname, Initial(s)., (Year). Title of article. Title of journal [online]. Volume in bold(Issue), Page range. [Date Viewed]. Available from: URL

Ashby, A., (1999). Frank Zappa and the anti–fetishist orchestra. The Musical Quarterly [online]. 83(4), 557–606. [Viewed 5 October 2015]. Available from: http://www.jstor.org/stable/742617

For more information about in–text citation and referencing multiple authors, see Creating a citation and reference list and click on the relevant section.

In the text

For an in–text citation in your work, you would cite the reference as follows:

Lichtenthaler (2016) demonstrated an innovation–based view...
Complex relationships that appear in companies...(Lichtenthaler 2016)

In the bibliography/reference list

Author Surname, Initial(s)., (Year). [Forthcoming]. Title of Article. Title of journal [online]. Volume in bold(Issue), Page range (if available). [Date viewed]. Available from: URL or DOI

Lichtenthaler, U., (2016). [Forthcoming]. Towards an innovation–based perspective on company performance. Management Decision [online]. 54(1). [Viewed 7 January 2016]. Available from: http://www.emeraldinsight.com/doi/abs/10.1108/MD-05-2015-0161

For more information about in–text citation and referencing multiple authors, see Creating a citation and reference list and click on the relevant section.

In some fields, such as medicine and physics, an article may have hundreds of authors, in such cases it may be impractical to list each one. You would reference as follows:

In the text

For an in–text citation in your work, you would cite the reference as follows:

Abbott et al. (2016) observed gravitational waves...
The first observation of a binary black hole merger included...(Abbott et al. 2016)

In the bibliography/reference list

Physical item

First or lead author of article Surname, Initial(s)., et al., (Year). Title of article. Journal title. Volume in bold(Issue), page range.

Abbott, B.P. et al., (2016). Observation of gravitational waves from a binary black hole merger. Physical Review Letters. 116(6), 061102.

Online/Electronic

First or lead author of article Surname, Initial(s)., et al., (Year). Title of article. Title of journal [online]. Volume in bold(Issue), Page range. [Date viewed]. Available from: doi:

Aubert, B. et al., (2002). The BABAR detector. Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated Equipment [online]. 479(1), 1-116. [Viewed 12 December 2016]. Available from: doi: 10.1016/S0168-9002(01)02012-5

Notes

For references with more than three authors, list all the authors in the reference list in the order they appear in the source. In some cases, there may be a long list of authors (in medical and scientific papers), if this is the case it is permissible to include the first author followed by et al.

For more information about in–text citation and referencing multiple authors, see Creating a citation and reference list and click on the relevant section.

In the text

For an in–text citation in your work, you should cite the reference as follows

Nagle, Reiner, and Wolf (2015) found that adapting difficulty...
...the enjoyability of games can depend on the design elements (Nagle, Reiner & Wolf 2015)

In the bibliography/reference list

Author of article Surname, Initial(s)., (Year). Title of article. Title of journal [online]. Volume in bold(Issue), Page range. [Date viewed]. Available from: doi:

Nagel, A., Reiner, R. and Wolf, P., (2015). High end user control in game design elements increases compliance and in-game performance in a memory training game. Frontiers in Psychology [online]. 6(1774). [Viewed 15 February 2017]. Available from: doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2015.01774

For more information about in–text citation and referencing multiple authors, see Creating a citation and reference list and click on the relevant section.

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For Kindle or other e-reader see Book - Electronic

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For Local Acts of Parliament see Government Publication – Local Act of Parliament

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In the bibliography/reference list

Physical item

Name of creator or creator Surname, Initial(s)., (Year). Title of map. [Map designation. Map scale]. Edition (if needed). Place of publication: Publisher. Date (Day and Month) if needed. Additional information if needed

Ordnance Survey., (1996). Inverness and Strathglass. [Landranger Series, Sheet 26. 1:50000 Second Series]. 7-GSGS edition. Southampton: Ordnance Survey.

Ordnance Survey., (2014).SK3486 SW. [1:1250]. Southampton: Ordnance Survey.

Online/Electronic

Name of creator or creator Surname, Initial(s)., (Year). Title of map [Map designation. Map scale.] Place of publication: Publisher. Date (Day and Month) if needed. [Date viewed]. Available from: URL

Google Maps., (2017). [Information Commons, Sheffield]. Google. [Viewed 2 June 2017]. Available from: https://www.google.co.uk/maps/@53.381501,-1.4849867,19.75z?hl=en

Google Maps., (2017). [Information Commons, Sheffield. Satellite view]. Google. [Viewed 2 June 2017]. Available from: https://www.google.co.uk/maps/@53.381501,-1.4849867,167m/data=!3m1!1e3?hl=en

Google Maps., (2015). [Information Commons, Sheffield. Street view]. Google. [Viewed 2 June 2017]. Available from: https://www.google.co.uk/maps/@53.3811141,-1.484649,3a,75y,90t/data=!3m6!1e1!3m4!1scIigK3ySgICJnI9EBfdyuQ!2e0!7i13312!8i6656?hl=en

Ordnance Survey., (2017). [Castleton, Derbyshire. 1:20000]. Southampton: Ordnance Survey. [Viewed 23 May 2017]. Available from: http://digimap.edina.ac.uk/roam/os

For more information about in–text citation and referencing multiple authors, see Creating a citation and reference list and click on the relevant section.

For Masters Dissertation see Dissertation

In the text

For an in-text citation in your work, you would cite your reference as follows:

TownByTheSea (2016) discusses network connectivity issues on Xubuntu...
Network connectivity issues in the software...(TownByTheSea 2016)

In the bibliography/reference list

Username or Surname of creator, initial(s)., (Year). Title of message. In: Title of host message system (required if applicable) [medium designation]. Date message was sent [Date message viewed]. Available from: URL Path: (if needed).

TownByTheSea., (2016). USB Wireless Adaptor in Xubuntu. In: Linux Forums [online]. 7 October [Viewed 24 November 2016]. Available from: http://www.linuxforums.org/forum/ubuntu-linux/208396-usb-wireless-adapter-xubuntu.html Path: Forum; Your Distro; Ubuntu Linux; USB Wireless Adapter in Xubuntu.

For more information about in–text citation and referencing multiple authors, see Creating a citation and reference list and click on the relevant section.

In the text

For an in-text citation in your work, you would cite your reference as follows:

The controversy caused by the album by The Prodigy (1997)...
The track listing on The Fat of the Land (The Prodigy 1997)...

The Beatles (1967) produced the self-titled album...
The album known as the White Album (The Beatles 1967) was the follow up album...

Recorded by Queens of the Stone Age (2002)...
The album Songs for the Deaf (Queens of the Stone Age 2002) featured the guest drummer...

In the bibliography/reference list

Name of Artist., (Year). Title of Album [Format]. Edition (if needed). Place of Publication: Record Label.

The Prodigy., (1997). The Fat of the Land [CD]. London: XL-Recordings

The Beatles., (1967). The Beatles [The White Album] [CD]. Heyes: Parlophone/EMI

Queens of the Stone Age., (2002) Songs for the Deaf [CD]. Limited Edition UK Version. Santa Monica: Interscope Records.

Notes

If the item is widely known by, or was originally issued under, a title different from that of the item, the alternative title may also be provided in brackets if necessary. E.g. The Beatles [The White Album].

For more information about in–text citation and referencing multiple authors, see Creating a citation and reference list and click on the relevant section.

In the text

For an in-text citation in your work, you would cite your reference as follows:

Howlett, Flint, and Maxim Reality (1997) wrote the song...
The song Breathe (Howlett, Flint, and Maxim Reality 1997) demonstrated...

The writing of Lennon and McCartney (1968)...
While My Guitar Gently Weeps (Lennon and McCartney 1968) is a...

Jett and Fowley (1976) song Cherry Bomb...
The song Cherry Bomb (Jett and Fowley 1976) is used within the film...

In the bibliography/reference list

Surname(s), Initial(s) of songwriter or composer., (Year). Title of song. In: Name of Artist., (Year if different to the recording) Title of Album [Format]. Edition (if needed). Place of Publication: Record Label. Reissued in Year as Record label (if applicable).

Howlett, L., Flint, K. and Maxim Reality., (1997). Breathe. In: The Prodigy. The Fat of the Land [CD]. London: XL-Recordings

Jett, J. and Fowley, K., (1976). Cherry Bomb. In: Various Artists., (2014). Guardians of the Galaxy: Awesome Mix Vol.1 (Original Motion Picture Soundtrack) [CD]. Hollywood: Marvel Music.

Lennon, J. and McCartney, P., (1968) While My Guitar Gently Weeps. In: The Beatles. The Beatles [The White Album] [CD]. Heyes: Parlophone/EMI

Notes

If the item is widely known by, or was originally issued under, a title different from that of the item, the alternative title may also be provided in brackets if necessary. E.g. The Beatles [The White Album].

For more information about in–text citation and referencing multiple authors, see Creating a citation and reference list and click on the relevant section.

Full album

In the text

For an in-text citation in your work, you would cite your reference as follows

Pink Floyd's (1977) Animals album...
Animals (Pink Floyd 1977) shows political statements...

Hardwired...to Self-Destruct is the latest album by Metallica (2016)...
Hardwired...to Self-Destruct (Metallica 2016)...

In the bibliography/reference list

Name of Artist., (Year). Title of Album [Format]. Edition (if needed). Place of Publication: Record Label. [Date Accessed]. Available from: Name of platform (if applicable)

Metallica., (2016). Hardwired...to Self-Destruct [MP3]. London: Virgin EMI. [Accessed 31 March 2017].

Pink Floyd., (1977). Animals [Online]. 2011 Remastered Version. London: EMI Records. [Accessed 31 March 2017]. Available from: Amazon Prime.

For an album track

In the text

For an in-text citation in your work, you would cite your reference as follows

Waters' (1977) song Sheep describes the political...
The song Sheep (Waters 1977) is a view on political followers...

Hetfield and Ulrich (2016) wrote the son Moth into Flame...
Moth into Flame (Hetfield and Ulrich 2016) was used as part of...

In the bibliography/reference list

Surname(s), Initial(s) of songwriter or composer., (Year). Title of song. In: Name of Artist., (Year if different to the recording) Title of Album [Format]. Edition (if needed). Place of Publication: Record Label. [Date Accessed]. Available from: Name of platform (if applicable)

Hetfield, J. and Ulrich, L., (2016). Moth into Flame. In: Metallica. Hardwired...to Self-Destruct [MP3]. London: Virgin EMI. [Accessed 31 March 2017].

Waters, R., (1977). Sheep. In: Pink Floyd Animals [Online]. 2011 Remastered Version. London: EMI Records. [Accessed 31 March 2017]. Available from: Amazon Prime.

For more information about in–text citation and referencing multiple authors, see Creating a citation and reference list and click on the relevant section.

In the text

For an in–text citation in your work, you would cite the reference as follows:

Bowie (1998) used the...
The score represents (Bowie 1998)...

Busoni (1992) represented the...
The piano concerto...(Busoni 1992)

Wagner's score (1900) shows...
Tristan and Isolde (Wagner 1900) represents...

In the bibliography/reference list

Composer Surname, Initial (s)., (Date).Title of score [Medium]. Notes on version (including librettists, editors, translators) if applicable. Edition (if applicable). Place of publication: Publisher.

Bowie, D., (1998). The Best of David Bowie 1974/1979 [Score]. London: Wise Publications.

Busoni, F., (1992). Kadenzen zu klavierkonzerten Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart [Cadenzas to piano concertos of Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart] [Score]. Edited by Reiner Weber. Edition Breikopf Nr. 8577. Weisbaden: Breitkoff & Härtel.

Wagner, R., (1900). Tristan and Isolde [Score]. Score by Hans Von Bülow, English Translation by H. and F. Corder. Leipzig: Breitkoff & Härtel.

For more information about in–text citation and referencing multiple authors, see Creating a citation and reference list and click on the relevant section.

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In the text

For an in–text citation in your work, you would cite the reference as follows:

Sample (2014) highlights the research which has taken place...
The research was reported in the national news...(Sample 2014)

In print

In the bibliography/reference list

Author Surname, Initial(s)., (Year). Title of Article. Title of newspaper. Date (Day, Month). Page range.

Sample, I., (2014). Why an octopus never gets itself tied in knots. The Guardian. 16 May. p.17.

Online/Electronic

In the bibliography/reference list

Author Surname, Initial(s)., (Year). Title of article. Title of Newspaper [online]. Date (Day Month). Date updated (Day Month Year, Time). Page number (if available). [Date viewed]. Available from: URL

Sample, I., (2014). Why an octopus's suckers don't stick its arms together. The Guardian [online]. 15 May. Updated 16 May 2014, 00:20. [Viewed 17 January 2015]. Available from: http://www.theguardian.com/science/2014/may/15/octopus-suckers-arms-chemical-skin

Newspaper database e.g. Nexis

In the bibliography/reference list

Author Surname, Initial(s)., (Year). Title of article. Title of newspaper. Name of database [online database]. Date (Day/Month). Date updated (Day, Month, Year, Time if available). Page number (if available). [Date viewed]. Available from: URL.

Sample, I., (2014). Why an octopus never gets itself tied in knots: scientists uncover secrets of its autonomous arms: Israeli research will be of value to robot designers. The Guardian – Final edition. Nexis [online database]. 16 May. p.17. [Viewed 20 October 2015]. Available from: http://www.nexis.com/docview/getDocForCuiReq?lni=5C6N-TM41-JC60-C3BK&csi=138620&oc=00240&perma=true

For more information about in–text citation and referencing multiple authors, see Creating a citation and reference list and click on the relevant section.

For NICE Guidelines see Standards.

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In the text

For an in-text citation, you would cite the reference as follows:

GE Medical Systems Global Technology Company, LLC (2017) patented the...
The helical gradient coil demonstrates...(GE Medical Systems Global Technology Company, LLC 2017)

United States of America as represented by the Administrator of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (2010) show the gimbaled...
The gimbaled-shoulder design...(United States of America as represented by the Administrator of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, 2010).

In the bibliography/reference list

Applicant of patent., (Year patent granted). Title of patent. Name of inventor (if applicable). Date patent granted (if applicable). Date of application. Official patent series Patent Serial Number

GE Medical Systems Global Technology Company, LLC., (2017). Helical gradient coil for magnetic resonance imaging apparatus. Inventors: Timothy James Hollis and Fengshun Tan. 10 January. Appl: 20 August 2012. GB Patent GB2494259.

United States of America as represented by the Administrator of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration., (2010). Gimbaled-shoulder friction stir welding tool. Inventors: Robert W. Carter and Kirby G. Lawless. 30 March. Appl: 29 September 2006. United States Patent 7,686,202.

Notes

If using a patent retrieved from Espacenet you will need to ensure you use the correct patent code as they are not all European Patents. A European patent will have a code that begins with EP.

For more information about in–text citation and referencing multiple authors, see Creating a citation and reference list and click on the relevant section.

For Patient Information Leaflet see Information Sheet

For PhD Thesis see Thesis

For photograph see Image – Original (e.g. in an art gallery, personal photograph)

In the text

Shakespeare (2007) displays the tragedy...
Romeo and Juliet (Shakespeare 2007) uses...

Shakespeare (1631) shows the use of...
The Taming of the Shrew (Shakespeare 1631)...

In the bibliography/reference list

Individual play

Author surname, Initial(s). (Year or Publication). Title of play. Edition (if needed). Edited by full name. Place of publication: Publisher.

Shakespeare, W., (1984). Romeo and Juliet. Edited by G. Blakemore Evans. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press

Shakespeare, W., (2010). The taming of the shrew. Edited by Barbara Hodgson. London: Methuen Drama.

In an anthology/complete works

Author of play surname, Initial(s)., (Year of publication). Title of play In: Editors initial(s), editors surname. Title of book. Edition (if not first edition). Place of publication: Publisher. Page numbers.

Shakespeare, W., (2007a). The taming of the shrew. In: J. Bates, and E. Rasmussen, eds. William Shakespeare Complete Works. Basingstoke: Macmillan. pp. 526-583.

Shakespeare, W., (2007b). The tragedy of Romeo and Juliet. In: J. Bates, and E. Rasmussen, eds. William Shakespeare Complete Works. Basingstoke: Macmillan. pp. 1679-1743.

If accessed online

Author surname, initial(s)., (Year of publication). Title of play [online]. Edition (if not first). Place of publication: Publisher. [Date viewed]. Available from: URL or doi. Other pertinent information (if needed)

Shakespeare, W., (1622). The most excellent and lamentable tragedie, of Romeo and Iuliet As it hath beene sundrie times publikely acted, by the Kings Maiesties Seruants at the Globe [online]. London: Printed for Iohn Smethwicke. [Viewed 31 May 2017]. Available from: http://gateway.proquest.com/openurl?ctx_ver=Z39.88-2003&res_id=xri:eebo&rft_id=xri:eebo:image:11570 Reproduced from the copy in the Henry E. Huntington Library.

Shakespeare, W., (1631). A wittie and pleasant comedie called the taming of the shrew as it was acted by his Maiesties Seruants at the Blacke Friers and the Globe. Written by VVill. Shakespeare [online]. London: W.S. for Iohn Smethwicke. [Viewed 31 May 2017]. Available from: http://gateway.proquest.com/openurl?ctx_ver=Z39.88-2003&res_id=xri:eebo&rft_id=xri:eebo:image:11558 Copy from the British Library.

Notes

When directly quoting from a play, you should use Act.Scene:Line e.g. (Shakespeare 2007, 2.1:176-179)

For more information about in–text citation and referencing multiple authors, see Creating a citation and reference list and click on the relevant section.

For Preprint see Journal Article – Preprint (Ahead of publication)

In the text

Grant (2016) demonstrates the issues...
The artworks expresses the...(Grant 2016).

Sciamanna, Bazela, and Bullingham (2016) presented the work surrounding
The case study within the presentation focused on...(Sciamanna, Bazela, and Bullingham 2016).

For an in-text citation in your work, you would cite the reference as follows:

In the bibliography/reference list

Surname of presenter, Initial(s). (Year of presentation). Title of presentation [medium]. Name of event OR Module Code, Module Title. Date of presentation (Day and month). [Date viewed]. Available from: URL

Grant, V., (2016). Voice, agency and the medical arts [PowerPoint presentation]. December. [Viewed 22 May 2017]. Available from: https://www.slideshare.net/missvagrant/voice-agency-and-the-medical-arts?qid=a182e432-dc5c-4cf0-a7bb-8a1acea1d416&v=&b=&from_search=7

Sciamanna, C., Bazela, C. and Bullingham, L., (2016). Reconceptualising information and digital literacy in a fluid digital world [PowerPoint presentation]. Northern Collaboration Conference. 15 September. [Accessed 18 May 2017]. Available from: https://www.slideshare.net/northerncollaboration/reconceptualising-information-and-digital-literacy-in-a-fluid-digital-world

For more information about in–text citation and referencing multiple authors, see Creating a citation and reference list and click on the relevant section.

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In the text

For an in-text citation in your work, you would reference as follows:

World at One (2017) provided the update on...
The new head judge...(World at One 2017)

The Desert Island Discs (Ed Sheeran 2017) played the song...
The discussion of fame and the impact...(Desert Island Discs, Ed Sheeran 2017)

The Hours (Episode 1 2017) premiered on...
The story has been retold for radio (The Hours, Episode 1 2017).

In the bibliography/reference list

Original Broadcast

Title of programme., (Year of transmission). Transmitting organisation or channel. Date of transmission, time of transmission.

World at One., (2017). BBC Radio 4. 9 May, 13:00.

Original broadcast as part of a series

Title of show, episode number (if available), episode title (if available)., (Year of transmission). Transmitting organisation or channel. Date of transmission, time of transmission.

Desert Island Discs, Ed Sheeran., (2017). BBC Radio 4. 12 May 2017, 09:00.

Broadcast accessed via online/database/streaming service.

Title of programme [online]., (Year of transmission). Transmitting organisation or channel. Date of transmission, time of transmission (if available). [Date Accessed]. Available from: URL or name of streaming service/database

World at One [online]., (2017). BBC Radio 4. 24 April. [Accessed 10 May]. Available from iPlayer Radio

Original broadcast as part of a series accessed via online/database/streaming service

Title of show, episode number (if available), episode title (if available) [online]., (Year of transmission). Transmitting organisation or channel. Date of transmission, time of transmission. [Date Accessed]. Available from: URL or name of streaming service/database

Desert Island Discs, Bruce Springsteen [online]., (2016). BBC Radio 4, 23 December. [Accessed 10 May 2017]. Available from: http://www.bbc.co.uk/programmes/b0855znp

The Hours, Episode 1 [online]., (2017). BBC Radio 4, 16 April. [Accessed 9 May 2017]. Available from: BBC iPlayer Radio.

In the text

For an in-text citation in your work, you would cite the reference as follows:

Johnson and Fitzpatrick (2007) note that street users...
Enforcement areas for the problem...(Johnson & Fitzpatrick 2007)

The Joseph Rowntree Foundation (2015) reported that...
...the supply of new homes would need to be sustainable (Joseph Rowntree Foundation 2015)

J Sainsbury (2016) acknowledged the amount of food waste...
Supermarkets are aware of the waste created due to...(J Sainsbury 2016)

Snowdon (2017) looked at the cost of healthy eating...
It was found that the cost of a healthy diet...(Snowdon 2016)

In the bibliography/reference list

Physical item

Author Surname, Initial(s) or Corporate Author., (Year of publication). Title of report. Paper number [if applicable]. Place of Publication: Publisher

Johnson, S. and Fitzpatrick, S., (2007). The impact of enforcement on street users in England. Bristol: The Policy Press.

Online/Electronic

Author Surname, Initial(s) or Corporate Author., (Year of publication). Title of report Paper number (if applicable) [online]. Place of Publication: Publisher. [Date Viewed]. Available from: URL or DOI

J Sainsbury., (2016). Sainsbury's food surplus and food waste: how we are delivering a positive impact [online]. London: J Sainsbury Plc. [Viewed 4 May 2017]. Available from: http://www.j-sainsbury.co.uk/media/3442510/Sainsbury's%20food%20surplus%20and%20food%20waste%20figures%2015-16%20report.pdf

Joseph Rowntree Foundation., (2015). Building sustainable homes [online]. York: Joseph Rowntree Foundation. [Viewed 4 May 2017]. Available from: https://www.jrf.org.uk/file/46481/download?token=UXZzH3XM&filetype=full-report

Snowdon, C., (2017). Cheap as chips: Is a healthy diet affordable? IEA Discussion Paper No. 82 [online]. London: The Institute of Economic Affairs. [Viewed 30 March 2017]. Available from: https://iea.org.uk/wp-content/uploads/2017/03/Cheap-as-Chips-PDF.pdf 

For more information about in–text citation and referencing multiple authors, see Creating a citation and reference list and click on the relevant section.

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For score see Music - Score

In the text

For an in–text citation in your work, you would cite the reference as follows:

Williams and Williams (2006) created the design for the Interst–Elephant...
The Interst–Elephant sculpture (Williams & Williams 2016) was displayed as part of the Herd of Sheffield Collection...

Giacometti's (1955) sculpture...
The Bust of Diego (Giacommetti 1955) represents...

Keegan's (1991) sculpture shows the use of raku–fired earthenware...
The sculpture Newby the Dog (Keegan 1991)...

The sculpture of Neptune and Triton by Bernini (ca. 1622) shows the use of...
The marble sculpture of Neptune and Trident (Bernini ca. 1622)...

In the bibliography/reference list

Physical item

Surname of artist, initial(s)., (Year). Title [Item type]. At: Place: Holding institution, department (if available), identifier or reference number (if available).

Bernini, G., [ca. 1622]. Neptune and Triton [Sculpture]. At: London: Victoria and Albert Museum, A.18:1–1950.

Keegan, S., (1991). Newby the dog [Sculpture]. At: London: Victoria and Albert Museum, C.196:1, 2–1991.

Online

Surname of artist, initial(s)., (Year). Title [Item type]. At: Place: Holding institution, department (if available), identifier or reference number (if available). [Date viewed]. Available from: URL

Giacometti, A., (1955). Bust of Diego [Sculpture]. At: London: Tate Gallery, T00774. [Viewed 4 August 2017]. Available from: http://www.tate.org.uk/art/artworks/giacometti-bust-of-diego-t00774

Williams, J. and Williams, A., (2016). Interst–Elephant [Sculpture]. At: Sheffield, Barkers Pool, Herd of Sheffield Collection [public display].

Notes
  • If there is no clear title to the item, a popular title may be used if one exists. If a popular title to the image does not exist then you will need to supply the item with a title, in square brackets, proving the following where possible
    • The subject matter
    • The name or place of the object depicted, i.e. the person, the building, the location etc.
  • If the year of the image is not available but can be established, then use this as your date.
  • If the exact date is not known, an approximate date followed by a question mark (?), or preceded by "ca.", should be used, this should be given in square brackets, e.g.
    • [2005?]
    • [ca. 2005]
    • [20th Century]
  • If no date, or approximate date can be found then you would use [no date].
  • The original title of a translated information resource, or a translation of the title, may be supplied immediately after the original title, e.g. Kinderhände im washbecken [Children's Hands in Washbasin]
  • If the artwork has a popular or traditional title, then you may use this e.g. Mona Lisa

For more information about in–text citation and referencing multiple authors, see Creating a citation and reference list and click on the relevant section.

In the text

For an in-text citation you would cite the reference as follows:

Uni Shef Lib (2017) celebrated the opening of the...
The anniversary of the Western Bank Library was marked on social media (Uni Shef Lib 2017).

University of Sheffield Library (2017) marked the first library opening at the university...
The first library at the University opened in 1909 (University of Sheffield Library 2017).

In the bibliography/reference list:

Name of creator surname, initials [Screen name if applicable]., (Year). [Title of message - up to 40 words] [Medium]. Date of post. [Date accessed]. Available from: URL [Private access if privacy settings are in place].

Uni of Sheffield Lib [UniSheffieldLib]., (2017). [On this day in 1959, our Western Bank Library (then called the 'Main Library') was officially opened by T.S. Eliot http://www.sheffield.ac.uk/library/special/libcoll ...] [Twitter]. 12 May. [Accessed 15 May 2017]. Available from: https://twitter.com/UniSheffieldLib/status/862945694457274368

University of Sheffield Library., (2017). [On this day, in 1909, the first library opened at the University of Sheffield] [Facebook]. 26 April. [Accessed 15 May 2017]. Available from: https://www.facebook.com/UniSheffieldLib/posts/1346273698788324

Notes
  • You will need written permission from anyone involved in the post/conversation, before using them in your work.
  • You may need to provide a title for the social media post if there is not one provided, you will need to supply the item with a title, in square brackets, providing a title using up to the first 40 words of the post.

For more information about in–text citation and referencing multiple authors, see Creating a citation and reference list and click on the relevant section.

In the text

For an in-text citation in your work, you would cite the reference as follows:

The British Standards Institution (2017) have produced updated guidelines...
The use of BS 8888:2017 (British Standards Institution 2017)...

The ASTM (2012) standard...
The standard specification for...(ASTM 2012).

The National Institute for Clinical Excellence [NICE] (2015) guideline...
...the guideline stipulates...(National Institute for Clinical Excellence [NICE] 2015).

In the bibliography/reference list

Physical item

Corporate Author., (Year of publication). Title of Standard Number of Standard. Place of publication: Publisher.

ATSM. (2012). Standard specification for pipe, steel, and hot-dipped, zinc-coated, welded and seamless A53/A53M-12. West Conshohocken, P.A: ASTM International

British Standards Institution., (2017). Technical product documentation and specification BS 8888:2017. London: British Standards Publications.

Online/Electronic

Corporate Author., (Year of publication). Title of Standard Number of standard [online]. Place of publication: Publisher. [Date viewed]. Available from: DOI or URL

ATSM. (2012). Standard specification for pipe, steel, and hot-dipped, zinc-coated, welded and seamlessA53/A53M-12 [online]. West Conshohocken, P.A: ASTM International. [Viewed 4 May 2017]. Available from: https://www.astm.org/cgi-bin/resolver.cgi?A53A53M-12

British Standards Institution., (2017). Technical product documentation and specification BS 8888:2017 [online]. London: British Standards Publications. [Viewed 4 May]. Available from: https://bsol.bsigroup.com/Bibliographic/BibliographicInfoData/000000000030334593

National Institute for Clinical Excellence [NICE]., (2015). Obesity in children and young people: prevention and lifestyle weight management programmes QS94 [Online]. [Viewed 4 August 2017]. Available from: https://www.nice.org.uk/guidance/qs94

For more information about in–text citation and referencing multiple authors, see Creating a citation and reference list and click on the relevant section.

For State Paper see Government Publication – Command Paper

For Statutory Instruments see Government Publication – Statutory Instruments

For study score see Music Score

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In the text

For an in–text citation in your work, you would cite the reference as follows:

Wilson (2014) notes that whilst Rage Against the Machine signed with a major record label, their music still hold the intended meaning to the audience...
Popular music is still relevant to society when it makes a political statement even though the artist may be signed to a major record label... (Wilson 2014).

In the bibliography/reference list

Author Surname, Initial(s)., (Year). Title. Type of qualification (Award and type), Awarding body.

Wilson, B., (2014). It sounds like revolution: the changing role of popular music within political resistance movements. Ph.D. thesis, University of Sheffield.

For more information about in–text citation and referencing multiple authors, see Creating a citation and reference list and click on the relevant section.

In the text

For an in–text citation in your work, you would cite the reference as follows:

Tomlinson (2009) found that differing amounts of grip...
Moisture can affect grip when examining...(Tomlinson 2009)

In the bibliography/reference list

Author Surname, Initial(s)., (Year). Title. Type of qualification (Award and type), Awarding body. [Date viewed]. Available from: URL

Tomlinson, S.E., (2009). Understanding the friction between human fingers and contacting surfaces. Ph.D. thesis, University of Sheffield. [Viewed 14 October 2015]. Available from: http://etheses.whiterose.ac.uk/150

For more information about in–text citation and referencing multiple authors, see Creating a citation and reference list and click on the relevant section.

For Television Programme see Video

In the text

For an in–text citation in your work, you would cite the reference as follows:

Tolstoy (2008) explores the story of...
Anna Karenina (Tolstoy 2008) tells the story of...

Homer (1997) presents the tale...
The Odyssey (1997) demonstrates...

Dostoyevsky (2006) shows the dilemmas...
The character of Raskolnikov...(Dostoyevsky, 2006).

In the bibliography/reference list

Physical item

Author Surname, Initials., (Date of publication). Title of item. Edition (if needed). Translated from the (language) by (Translators full name). Place of Publication: Publisher.

Homer., (1997). The odyssey. Translated by Robert Fagles. New York: Penguin.

Tolstoy, L., (2008). Anna Karenina. Translated from the Russian by Louise Maude and Aylmer Maude. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Online/Electronic

Author Surname, Initials., (Date of publication). Title of item [online]. Edition (if needed). Translated from the (language) by (Translators full name). Place of Publication: Publisher. Date updated [Date viewed]. Available from:

Dostoyevsky, F., (2006). Crime and punishment [online]. Translated from the Russian by Constance Garnett. Salt Lake City: Project Gutenberg Literary Foundation. Updated 27 October 2016 [Viewed 5 May 2017]. Available from: http://www.gutenberg.org/files/2554/2554-h/2554-h.htm

Tolstoy, L., (1998). Anna Karenina [online]. Translated from the Russian by Constance Garnett. Salt Lake City: Project Gutenberg Literary Foundation. [Viewed 5 May 2017]. Available from: http://www.gutenberg.org/cache/epub/1399/pg1399-images.pdf

Notes

The year of publication is for that specific item, this is due to different translations of the same item available.

You may not need to add the language the item is translated from, include the language if appropriate.

For more information about in–text citation and referencing multiple authors, see Creating a citation and reference list and click on the relevant section.

For Twitter see Social Media

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U

For UK Public General Act see Government Publication – Act of Parliament post 1963 or pre 1963

For Undergraduate dissertation see Dissertation

In the bibliography/reference list

For an in-text citation in your work, you would cite the reference as follows:

Hall (2011) noted that the changes...
...the changes that occured meant...(Hall 2011).

In the bibliography/reference list

Author Surname, initial(s) or Corporate author., (Date). Title of item. Place of holding organisation: Holding organisation. [Unpublished item].

Hall, D., (2011). Making sense of changes. Sheffield: University of Sheffield. [Unpublished item].

For more information about in–text citation and referencing multiple authors, see Creating a citation and reference list and click on the relevant section.

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Current Affairs Programme/Documentary

In the text

For an in-text citation in your work, you would cite the reference as follows:

Al Murray's Great British War Movies (2014) focuses on the genre...
The programme looks at... (Al Murray's Great British War Movies 2014)

Newsnight (2017) focused on...
The issue was analysed and found...(Newsnight 2017).

In the bibliography/reference list

Title of TV show Series, Episode number (if applicable)., (Year of original broadcast). Name of transmitting organisation/channel. [Medium]. Date of transmission. Time of transmission. [Date Viewed]. Available from: Name of database

Al Murray's Great British War Movies., (2014). BBC Four. [Online database]. 22 March 2017, 01:00. [Viewed 2 April 2017]. Available from: Box of Broadcasts.

Newsnight., (2017). BBC Two. [Online Database]. 24 March, 22:40. [Viewed 5 April 2017]. Available from: Box of Broadcasts.

Film

In the text

For an in-text citation in your work, you would cite the reference as follows:

Pirates of the Carribbean: On Stranger Tides (2011) saw a departure...
The portrayal of...(Pirates of the Carribbean: On Stranger Tides 2011).

In the bibliography/reference list

Title of film., (Year of release in country of production). [Medium]. Director of film (Full name). Place of production: Production Company. Date of transmission, time of transmission. [Date viewed]. Available from: Name of database

Pirates of the Carribbean: On Stranger Tides. (2011). [Online database]. Directed by Rob Marshall. Burbank: Walt Disney Pictures; Jerry Bruckheimer Films. 31 March 2017, 22:40. [Viewed 1 April 2017]. Available from: Box of Broadcasts.

TV Episode from a series

In the text

For an in-text citation in your work, you would cite the reference as follows:

In the episode 'The Agreement Dissection' (The Big Bang Theory 2016)...
Sheldon and Leonard disagree about the conditions of the roommate agreement (The Big Bang Theory, The Agreement Dissection 2016)

In the bibliography/reference list

Title of TV show Series, Episode number (if applicable), Name of Episode (if applicable)., (Year of original broadcast). [Medium]. Name of transmitting organisation/channel. [Medium]. Date of transmission. Time of transmission. [Date Viewed]. Available from: Name of database

The Big Bang Theory, Series 4, Eposide 21, The Agreement Dissection., (2011). [Online database]. Channel 4. 17 August 2016, 09:00. [Viewed 6 April 2017]. Available from: Box of Broadcasts.

For more information about in–text citation and referencing multiple authors, see Creating a citation and reference list and click on the relevant section.

Film/One off documentary

In the text

For an in-text citation in your work, you would cite the reference as follows:

Black Swan (2010) used imagery to represent...
The hidden images contained in the film...(Black Swan 2010)

The premise of Captain America: The Winter Soldier (2014)...
The use of green screen in the film (Captain America: The Winter Soldier 2014)...

In the bibliography/reference list

Title of Film/Documentary., (Year of release in the country of production). [Medium]. Director of film (Full name). Place of production: Production Company

Black Swan., (2010). [Blu-Ray]. Directed by Darren Aronofsky. Los Angeles: Fox Searchlight Pictures

Captain America: The Winter Soldier., (2014). Directed by Anthony Russo and Joe Russo. New York: Marvel Entertainment.

TV Episode from a series

In the text

For an in-text citation in your work, you would cite the reference as follows:

The detectives Bulk and McNulty revisit and old crime scene...(The Wire, Old Cases 2002)
...in the episode Old Cases (The Wire 2005)

The episode uses visions to reveal the events...(Game of Thrones, The Door 2016)
..In The Door (Game of Thrones 2016) we see the visualisation of...

In the bibliography/reference list

Title of TV show Series, Episode number (if applicable), Name of Episode (if applicable)., (Year of release in country of production). [Medium]. Director of Episode (full name). Place of production: Production Company.

The Wire, Series 1, Old Cases., (2002). [DVD]. Directed by Clement Virgo. New York: HBO

Game of Thrones, Series 6, Episode 5, The Door., (2016). [Blu-Ray]. Directed by Jack Bender. New York: HBO

For more information about in–text citation and referencing multiple authors, see Creating a citation and reference list and click on the relevant section.

Current Affairs Programme

In the text

For an in-text citation in your work, you would cite the reference as follows:

Panorama: Trump's first 100 days (2017) chronicles...
The first 100 day of Donald Trump's presidency (Panorama: Trump's first 100 days 2017)

In the bibliography/reference list

Title of programme, Series (if applicable), Episode Number (if applicable), Title of episode (if applicable)., (Year of original broadcast). Name of transmitting organisation/channel. [Medium]. Date of transmission, time of transmission. [Date Viewed]. Available from: Name of streaming service.

BBC News at Six., (2017). BBC One. [Online]. 17 February, 18:00. [Viewed 18 February 2017]. Available from: iPlayer.

Panorama: Trump's First 100 Days., (2017). [Online]. 24 April, 19:00. [Viewed 25 April 2017]. Available from: iPlayer.

Film

In the text

For an in-text citation in your work, you would cite the reference as follows:

Hunt for the Wilderpeople (2016) chronicles...
The film highlights the relationship...(Hunt for the Wilderpeople 2016).

The film Children of Men (2006)...
The dystopian future protrayed in the film (Children of Men 2006)...

In the bibliography/reference list

Title of film., (Year of release in country of production). [Medium]. Director of Film (Full name). Place of production: Production Company. [Date viewed]. Available from: Name of streaming service.

Hunt for the Wilderpeople., (2016). [Online]. Directed by Taika Waititi. Auckland: Piki Films. [Viewed 1 February 2017]. Available from Netflix.

Children of Men., (2006). [Online]. Directed by Alfonso Cuarón. Universal City: Universal Pictures. [Viewed 23 July 2016]. Available from: Amazon Prime Video.

TV Episode from a series

In the text

For an in-text citation in your work, you would cite the reference as follows:

The Vanishing of Will Byers (Stranger Things 2016) uses aspects of...
The monster makes a first appearance...(Stranger Things, The Vanishing of Will Byers 2016)

In Cooper's Dream (Twin Peaks 1990) the stage is set for...
Agent Cooper visit the Log Lady (Twin Peaks, Cooper's Dream 1990) which represents...

In the bibliography/reference list

Title of TV Programme, Series (if applicable), Episode Number (if applicable), Title of episode (if applicable)., (Year of original broadcast/release). Director of episode (full name). Place of production. Production Company. [Date viewed]. Available from: Streaming Service.

Stranger Things, Series 1, Chapter One, The Vanishing of Will Byers., (2016). [Online]. Directed by The Duffer Brothers. Scotts Valley, C.A.: Netflix. Available from: Netflix

Twin Peaks, Season 1, Episode 6, Cooper's Dream., (1990). [Online]. Directed by Lesli Linka Glatter. Universal City, C.A.: Propaganda Films [Viewed 29 December 2016]. Available from: NowTV.

For more information about in–text citation and referencing multiple authors, see Creating a citation and reference list and click on the relevant section.

Film

In the text

For an in-text citation in your work, you would cite the reference as follows:

MarvelStudiosUK (2016) have...
Doctor Strange (MarvelStudiosUK 2016) shows the...

In the bibliography/reference list

Name of Channel., (Year of release in country of production). Title of Film [Medium]. Director of Film (full name). Place of production: Production Company. [Date Viewed]. Available from: URL

MarvelStudiosUK., (2016). Doctor Strange [online]. Directed by Scott Derrickson. Burbank: Marvel Studios. [Viewed 11 April 2017]. Available from https://youtu.be/bLaKpGUsMmU

TV Episode from a series

In the text

For an in-text citation in your work, you would cite the reference as follows:

NBCUniversalTVUK (2015) Parks and Recreation episode...
Parks and Recreation episode The Johnny Karate Super Awesome Musical Explosion Show (NBCUniversalTVUK 2015)...

In the bibliography/reference list

Name of channel., (Year of original broadcast). Title of TV showSeries, Episode Number, Name of Episode [medium]. Directed by (Full name). Place of production: Production company. [Date viewed]. Place of production: Production Company. [Date viewed]. Available from: URL

NBCUniversalTVUK. (2015). Parks and Recreation, Series 7, Episode 10, The Johnny Karate Super Awesome Musical Explosion Show [online]. Directed by Dean Holland. Universal City, C.A.: Universal Television. [Viewed 11 April 2017]. Available from: https://youtu.be/0LleWSerz8U

User uploaded content

In the text

For an in-text citation in your work, you would cite the reference as follows:

uniSheffieldLib (2016) produced the video which looks at Open Access...
The main benefit of Open Access...(uniSheffieldLib 2016)

GameofThrones (2017) trailer for the new series...
The series 7 promotion Long Walk (GameofThrones 2017)...

In the bibliography/reference list

Name of Channel., (Date of upload). Title of video [online]. Title of website. [Date viewed]. Available from: URL

uniSheffieldLib., (2016). The benefits of Open Access: researchers' perspectives [online]. YouTube. [Viewed 17 August 2016]. Available from: https://youtu.be/Tcc-SwhDlD4

GameofThrones., (2017). Game of Thrones Series 7: Long Walk - Official Promo (HBO) [online]. YouTube. [Viewed 26 April 2017]. Available from: https://youtu.be/JxWfvtnHtS0

For more information about in–text citation and referencing multiple authors, see Creating a citation and reference list and click on the relevant section.

For Vinyl Record see Music - Album (Physical Format) or Music - Album Track (Physical Format)

For Votes and Proceedings see Government Publications – Votes and Proceedings

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In the text

For an in–text citation in your work, you would cite the reference as follows:

The Met Office (2013) explains the climate...
Climate is the...(Met Office 2013)

In the bibliography/reference list

Author of section Surname, Initial(s)/corporate author., (Year). Title of part [online]. Name of website. [Date viewed]. Available from: URL.

Met Office., (2013). What do we mean by climate? [online]. Met Office. [Viewed 14 October 2015]. Available from: http://www.metoffice.gov.uk/climate-guide/climate

NHS Choices., (©2015). Behind the Headlines [online]. NHS Choices. [Viewed 14 October 2015]. Available from: http://www.nhs.uk/news/Pages/NewsIndex.aspx

For more information about in–text citation and referencing multiple authors, see Creating a citation and reference list and click on the relevant section.

In the text

For an in–text citation in your work, you would cite the reference as follows:

Rosen (2005) uses the website...
The website contains poetry...(Rosen 2005)

World Bank Group (©2015)...
The website...(World Bank Group ©2015)

In the bibliography/reference list

Author of website Surname, Initial(s)., (Year). Name of website. [Date viewed]. Available from: URL

Rosen, M., (2005). Michael Rosen – The Website. [Viewed 4 December 2015]. Available from: http://www.michaelrosen.co.uk/

World Bank Group., (©2015). The World Bank. [Viewed 6 October 2015]. Available from: http://www.worldbank.org

For more information about in–text citation and referencing multiple authors, see Creating a citation and reference list and click on the relevant section.

For White Paper see Government Publication – Command Paper

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X

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Y

For YouTube videos see Video - Sharing Website (e.g. YouTube)

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Z