APA referencing

Reference list vs. Bibliography

In the APA style, references are listed at the end of your work, and are organised alphabetically by the surname of the author.

A reference list includes all works that have been referred to in the assignment.

A bibliography includes all the material consulted in writing your assignment even if you have not cited them within it.

Many people use these terms interchangeably so, if you are unsure about whether you need to include a bibliography as well as a reference list, ask your tutor.


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There are many different styles of referencing that are all referred to as 'Harvard'. This tutorial details the Harvard style of referencing based upon the advice given in the book "Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association 6th ed." (American Psychological Association. (2010) Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (6th ed.). Washington DC: American Psychological Association.) This is the style of APA that the University Library supports.

The American Psychological Association maintains the APA style blog with referencing examples for new information when the need arises.

Referencing in the APA style is a two-part process:

Creating a citation and reference list

APA is an author/date method. Sources are cited within the body of the text by giving the name of the author(s) followed by the date of publication. All other details about the publication are given in the list of references or bibliography at the end.

Rules about citing

For multiple authors follow the table:

In text citation for multiple authors
No. of Authors First use of the citation Second and further uses of the citation
One author or creator Author Surname (Year) or (Author Surname, Year) Author Surname (Year) or (Author Surname, Year)
Two authors or creators Author Surname and Author Surname (Year) or (Author Surname & Author Surname, Year) Author Surname and Author Surname (Year) or (Author Surname & Author Surname, Year)
Three to five authors or creators Author Surname, Author Surname, and Author Surname (Year) or (Author Surname, Author Surname & Author Surname, Year). Include all author/creator surnames in the first citation First Author Surname et al. (Year) or (First Author Surname et al., Year)
Six or more authors or creators First Author Surname et al. (Year) or (First Author Surname et al., Year) First Author Surname et al. (Year) or (First Author Surname et al., Year)

  • If the author(s) name appears in the text as part of the body of the assignment, then the year will follow in rounded brackets e.g. According to Smith (2015)...

  • If the author(s) name does not appear in the body of the text then the name and date should appear in rounded brackets separated by a comma, e.g. (Smith, 2015).

  • If more than one of your citations is written by the same author and have the same year of publication, then use a lower case letter after the publication date. The letter should be assigned in the reference list by the order of your references, e.g. (Smith, 2015a) (Smith, 2015b).

  • Some authors have the same surname, if this occurs you should add the initial(s) of the author in all of your citations even if the year of publication is different, e.g. (Williams, A., 2009), (Williams, J., 2010).

  • You may need to cite more than one piece of work for some ideas. If this is the case you would list the author(s) in alphabetical order (by the first author of each piece of work) with a semicolon separating the citations, e.g. (Jones, 2014; Smith, 2015).

  • For items where the author is a corporation, association or government agency:
    • If the name of the corporation/agency/government agency is long, or is well known by an abbreviation, then the first time you cite the resource in your work you would write out the name in full with the abbreviation in square brackets after, and then use the abbreviation for second and further citations of the resource. E.g. (National Institute for Health and Care Excellence [NICE], 2016) or National Institute for Health and Care Excellence [NICE], (2016). The second and further citations would then read (NICE, 2016) or NICE (2016).
    • If the corporation/association/government agency has a short named, or an abbreviation that would not be easily understandable, then you would use the full name in all citations, e.g. (University of Sheffield, 2016) or University of Sheffield (2016).

  • Some works may not have an identifiable author; to cite this in the text you would use the first few words of the title and the year.
    • For chapters in books, web pages and journal articles use quotation marks around the title e.g. ("Title", 1909).
    • For the title of a book, periodical or report you would use italics for the first few words of the title, e.g. (Title, 1909).

  • When a work has been designated Anonymous, you would cite this in the text as Anonymous followed by the date, e.g. (Anonymous, 2008).

  • If no date of publication or copyright can be found, use n.d. for "no date", e.g. (Wilkinson, n.d.).


Direct quotations

If you use someone else's work exactly as it appears in the original source, you must always provide the author, year of publication, and page citation (or paragraph for non-paginated sources such as websites).


Quotation less than 40 words

If the quotation is less than 40 words, then you can include it in the body of the text, enclosed in quotation marks with the source identified immediately after.

If you have not introduced the quotation in the sentence before, then you would follow the quotation with full details of the citation (Author(s), date, and page).

If the author and date have been used to in the sentence introducing the quotation, then you follow the quotation with the page number in rounded brackets.

If the quotation ends your sentence, include the rounded brackets in the sentence with a full stop after the closed bracket.

There is still a labelling issue when it comes to flavourings in food, it is noted that, "flavours such as vanillin which occur naturally in food are called ‘nature-incidental’. The label does not have to state where it comes from" (Wilson, 2009, p. 257).

If the quotation makes up part of a sentence, then end the quotation with double quotation marks (") with the source immediately after, and continue on with the sentence.

Wilson (2009) notes that "flavours such as vanillin which occur naturally in food are called ‘nature-identical’. The label does not have to state where it comes from" (p. 257) meaning that the...


More than 40 words

If the quotation is more than 40 words, then it should be presented in a new paragraph which is indented from the normal margin. The quote should be preceded by a colon.

If the author and date have been used in the sentence introducing the quotation then you would follow the quotation with the page number in rounded brackets e.g.

Wilson has looked at food flavourings in the UK and has made the following observation about vanilla:

In Britain flavours such as vanillin which occur naturally in food are called ‘nature-identical’. The label does not have to state where it comes from. A flavouring only counts as fully ‘artificial’ if it does not occur in nature at all, as is the case with another, stronger vanilla-substitute called ethyl-vanillin (often used in chocolate).
(p. 257)


If you have not introduced the quotation in the sentence before, then you would follow the quotation with full details of the citation (Author(s), Date, Page) e.g.

The use of food flavourings in the UK has been controversial, it has been noted that:

In Britain flavours such as vanillin which occur naturally in food are called ‘nature-identical’. The label does not have to state where it comes from. A flavouring only counts as fully ‘artificial’ if it does not occur in nature at all, as is the case with another, stronger vanilla-substitute called ethyl-vanillin (often used in chocolate).
(Wilson, 2009, p. 257)

Wilson, B. (2009). Swindled: from poison sweets to counterfeit coffee - the dark history of the food cheats. London: John Murray.


Omitting material from quotations

If you are omitting materials from an original source, use three dots [...] to indicate this, e.g.

Canter and Canter (1992) state that students come to the classroom with "their own needs, their own past experiences and ... their preconceptions of who you are, what your limits will be" (p. 49). It is important to manage the expectations of students effectively.

Tips on quoting when page numbers are not present

If the item you are quoting does not have pagination the American Psychological Association [APA] (2010, pp. 171-172) suggest the following information for direct quotations and paraphrases:

  • The number of the paragraph if provided, or you can count the number of paragraphs from the start of the document. This should be abbreviated to para. e.g. (Smith, 2017, para. 17).
  • A section heading and a paragraph number for within that section e.g. (Jones, 2017, Discussions, para. 4)
  • If the section heading is too long, you can shorten the title in quotation marks, with a paragraph number, e.g. (Williams, 2016, "Social Obligations", para. 6). In this example, the full heading would have been "Social Obligations of Those In Power and How They Influence People".

Summarising

Summarising is putting someone else's ideas into your own words. It does not mean changing the odd word / sentence or rearranging the sentence. The summary should clearly be a restatement of the meaning of the original text. Be sure to cite and reference when you are summarising someone else's work, e.g.:

Booth et al. (2016, pp.208-209) give the example of acceptable summarising using Gladwell (2008) as their example:

This this the original quote from Gladwell (2008, p.38)

"Achievement is talent plus preparation. The problem with this view is that the closer psychologists look at the careers of the gifted, the smaller the role innate talent seems to play and the bigger the role preparation seems to play."

Below is an unacceptable summary of the above quote because it follows the original too closely:

Success seems to depend on a combination of talent and preparation. However, when psychologists closely example the gifted and their careers, they discover that innate talent plays a much smaller role than preparation (Gladwell 2008, p.38)

The next is an example of an acceptable summary as the meaning of the original has been restated in the author's own words:

As Gladwell (2008, p.38) observes, summarising studies on the highly successful, we tend to overestimate the role of talent and underestimate that of preparation.

Tips on citing when page numbers are not present

If the item you are citing does not have pagination the American Psychological Association [APA] (2010, pp. 171-172) suggest the following information for direct quotations and paraphrases:

  • The number of the paragraph if provided, or you can count the number of paragraphs from the start of the document. This should be abbreviated to para. e.g. (Smith, 2017, para. 17).
  • A section heading and a paragraph number for within that section e.g. (Jones, 2017, Discussions, para. 4)
  • If the section heading is too long, you can shorten the title in quotation marks, with a paragraph number, e.g. (Williams, 2016, "Social Obligations", para. 6). In this example, the full heading would have been "Social Obligations of Those In Power and How They Influence People".

Reference List

Booth, W.C., Colomb, G.G., Williams, J.M., Bizup, J., and Fitzgerald, W.T., (2016). The craft of research. 4th ed. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Gladwell, M., (2008). Outliers: The story of success. New York: Back Bay Books.

Secondary Referencing

This is when you reference one author who is referring to the work of another, and the primary source is not available. Secondary referencing should be avoided if possible.

If you have only read the latter publication you are accepting someone else's opinion and interpretation of the author's original intention. You cannot have formed your own view or critically appraised whether the secondary author has adequately presented the original material.

You must make it clear to your reader which author you have read whilst giving details of the original.

Use ‘as cited in’ if the author has cited the work of another, e.g. (Ecott, 2002 as cited in Wilson, 2009)

If the author has directly quoted from an original piece of work then you would use ‘as quoted in’ e.g. (Cannon, 1989 as quoted in Wilson, 2009, p. 269)

A reference list should be presented at the end of your work as it will allow readers to follow up your references. Your reference list should be presented in alphabetical order by surname, and then chronological order.


Rules about referencing

For multiple authors follow the table:

In the reference list for multiple authors
 No. of Authors  In the reference list
 One  Author Surname, Initial(s)
 Two to Seven  Author Surname, Initial(s)., & Author Surname, Initial(s). (Include all authors, with the final author listed after an ampersand
 Eight or more  Author Surname, Initial(s)., Author Surname, Initial(s)., Author Surname, Initial(s)., Author Surname, Initial(s)., Author Surname, Initial(s)., Author Surname, Initial(s)., . . . Final Author Surname, Initial(s).

  • Authors names should be given in the following format: Surname, Initial(s), e.g. Smith, G. A.

  • When citing a chapter in a book, the initials of the editor(s) are presented before the surname e.g. G. A. Smith, (see Chapter in a book for more examples).

  • Multiple references by the same author are listed chronologically.

  • References relating to authors with the same last name should be ordered by their initial(s), e.g. Williams, A. (2009), Williams, J. (2010).

  • References with the same first author and different subsequent authors are arranged alphabetically, using the second author to determine the order. If the first and second author are the same, us the third author to determine order, e.g.
    • Smith, A., & Jones, B. (2005).
    • Smith, A., & Wilkinson, C. (2004)
  • or
    • Smith, A., Jones, N., & Adams, B. (2005)
    • Smith, A., Jones, B., & Wilkinson, A. (2005)

  • References by the same author, with the same date should be ordered by title (excluding ‘A’ and ‘The’). Add a lower case letter to the date in order to differentiate. This should match your citation in the text, e.g. Smith, A (2015a), Smith, A. (2015b).

  • If you cannot identify an author, and it has not been designated Anonymous, use the title in the place you would put the author, and add to the list in alphabetical order e.g. Anonymous. (Date).

  • When the author is a corporation, association, or government agency, you will need to put the full name rather than the abbreviation used in the text, e.g. National Institute for Health and Care Excellence. (2015).

  • Capitalise the first word of the title in the reference list (unless otherwise stated), and capitalise the first word after a colon or dash in the title.

Frequently referenced items

For a full list of items see Alphabetical list of items

In the text

For an in-text citation in your work, you would cite the reference as follows:

Bryman (2012) recommends...
Quantitative data is more suited to the study due to...(Bryman, 2012).

In the bibliography/reference list

Author Surname, Initial(s). (Year). Title of work (Edition if not first). Place of Publication: Publisher.

Bryman, A. (2012). Social research methods (4th ed.). Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Notes

For more information about in-text citation and referencing multiple authors, see Creating a citation and reference list and click on the relevant section.

In the text

Two Authors

For an in-text citation in your work for one or two authors, you would use all surnames when you cite the resource:

Crisp and Turner (2014) note that being watched by others in a public event...
Nervousness can be caused by...(Crisp & Turner, 2014).

Three to five authors

For an in-text citation in your work for three to five authors, you would use all author surnames when you cite the resource for the first time in your piece of work:

Crisp, Joughin, Halaek, and Bowyer (1996) note that making a weight biography could assist with the recovery...
...a balanced diet will allow the nutritional balance to re-establish (Crisp, Joughin, Halaek, & Bowyer, 1996).

When you cite the resource for the second time onwards, you would use the surname of the first author followed by "et al.":

Crisp et al. (1996) note that a higher calorie diet may be suitable for tall women and males when looking to gain weight...
When changing behavioural aspects, the person may find that they will need the support of others (Crisp et al., 1996).

Six or more authors

For an in-text citation in your work for six or more authors, you would use the surname of the first author followed by "et al." in all citations:

Armitage et al. (2007) identify the three philosophical thinkers of education as...
...consistency is key in the education of children (Armitage et al., 2007).

In the bibliography/reference list

Author Surname, Initial(s)., & Author Surname, Initial(s). (Year). Title of work (Edition if not first). Place of publication: Publisher.

Crisp, R. J., & Turner, R. N. (2014). Essential social psychology (3rd ed.). Los Angeles: SAGE.

Crisp, A. H., Joughin, N., Halek, C., & Bowyer, C. (1996). Anorexia nervosa: The wish to change (2nd ed.). London: Routledge.

Armitage, A., Bryant, R., Dunhill, R., Hammersley, M., Hayes, D., Hudson, A., & Lawes, S. (1999). Teaching and training in post-compulsory education. Buckingham: Open University Press.

Notes

For more information about in-text citation and referencing multiple authors, see Creating a citation and reference list and click on the relevant section.

In the text

For an in-text citation in your work for one or two authors, you would use all surnames in your citation:

Mak (2016)...
...(Mak, 2016)


For an in-text citation in your work for three to five authors, you would use all author surnames when you cite the resource for the first time in your piece of work:

Gruber, Hansen, Soaper and Kivisto (2014)...
...(Gruber, Hansen, Soaper & Kivisto, 2014)

When you cite the resource for the second time onwards, you would use the surname of the first author followed by "et al.":

Gruber et al. (2014)...
...(Gruber et al., 2014)

In the bibliography/reference list

Author of chapter Surname, Initial(s). (Year). Title of chapter. In: Editor of book Initial(s). Editor of book Surname (Ed(s).), Title of book (Edition if not first., Page numbers). Place of publication: Publisher.

Mak, A. S. (2016). Twists and turns: forging a career as a psychology academic in Australia. In: A. Komisarof & Z. Hua (Eds.), Crossing boundaries and weaving intercultural work, life and scholarship in globalizing universities. (pp. 39-52). New York: Nova Science Publishers.

Gruber, D., Hansen, L., Soaper, K., & Kivisto, A. J. (2014). The role of shame in general, intimate and sexual violence perception. In: K. G. Lockhart (Ed.), Psychology of shame: New research. (pp. 36-62). New York: Nova Science Publishers.

Notes

For more information about in-text citation and referencing multiple authors and editors, see Creating a citation and reference list and click on the relevant section.

Online image (e.g. Flickr) with full details

In the text

For an in-text citation in your work, you would cite the reference as follows:

Andy_C (2015)...
...(Andy_C, 2015).

In the bibliography/reference list

Author surname, Initial(s). or Username. (Date). Title of item [Format Description]. Retrieved from URL

Andy_C. (2015). Ladybower Plughole [Image]. Retrieved from https://www.flickr.com/photos/andycpics/3035948922

Online image without a clear title

In the text

For an in-text citation in your work, you would cite your reference as follows

Ren_7 (2010)...
...(Ren_7, 2010).

The NASA Johnson Space Center (2015)..
...(NASA Johnson Space Center, 2015)

In the bibliography/reference list

Author surname, initial(s). or Username. (Date). [Title] [Format Description]. Retrieved from URL.

Ren_7. (2010). [Beach Huts] [Digital image]. Retrieved from https://www.flickr.com/photos/ren7/5108123117/

NASA Johnson Space Center. (2015). [Earth from Deep Space Climate Observatory] [Digital image]. Retrieved from http://www.nationalgeographic.com/photography/photos/patterns-butterflies/#/1371.ngsversion.1467941567217.jpg https://www.instagram.com/p/5Xs5tgqpIL

Online image without a clear date

In the text

For an in-text citation in your work, you would cite the reference as follows

Murawski (ca. 2008)...
...(Murawski, ca.2008).

In the bibliography/reference list

Author surname, initial(s). or Username. [Estimated date]. Title [Format Description]. Retrieved from URL

Murawski, D.A. [ca. 2008]. Spicebush swallowtail butterfly [Digital image]. Retrieved from http://www.nationalgeographic.com/photography/photos/patterns-butterflies/#/1371.ngsversion.1467941567217.jpg

Notes

If the date is not presented with the image, but you know the date from another source, then you would include this in square brackets.

If the date in not presented with the image, but you can estimate, use ca. in square brackets e.g. [ca. 2008]

If a date cannot be ascertained, you would use n.d. for 'no date' in brackets e.g. (n.d.)

For more information about in–text citation and referencing multiple authors, see Creating a citation and reference list and click on the relevant section.

In the text

For an in-text citation for one or two authors, you would use all author surnames in your citation:

Wang and Kim (2010) looked at the competency of counselling professionals...
...Multicultural skills should be considered when...(Wang & Kim, 2010)

For an in-text citation in your work for three to five authors, you would use all surnames when you cite the resource for the first time in your piece of work:

Macizo, Herrera, Romàn and Martin (2011) looked at how bilingualism can influence...
...It was found that being bilingual can improve certain aspects of numerical information processing (Macizo, Herrera, Romàn & Martin, 2011).

When you cite the resource for the second time onwards, you would use the surname of the first author followed by "et al.":

Macizo et al. (2011) identified cognitive patterns...
Linguistic information...(Macizo et al., 2011).

In the bibliography/reference list

Author surname, initial. (Year). Title of article. Title of journal/periodical, Volume(Number), Page range.

Wang, S., & Kim, B. S. K. (2010). Therapist multicultural competence, Asian American particpants' cultural values, and counseling process. Counseling Psychology, 57(4), 915-921.

Macizo, M., Herrera, A., Romàn, P., Martin, M. C. (2011). Proficiency in a second language influences the processing of number words. Journal of Cognitive Psychology, 23(8), 915-921.

Notes

For more information about in-text citation and referencing multiple authors, see Creating a citation and reference list and click on the relevant section.

Some references do not have issue numbers for journal/periodical runs. If this is the case, omit the issue number.

In the text

For an in-text citation in your work for three to five authors, you would use all surnames when you cite the resource for the first time in your piece of work:

Lane, Evans, Brink and Wellman (2016) studied how young children interpret non-verbal communication to a deity...
...Children with a religious upbringing were more likely to...(Lane, Evans, Brink & Wellman, 2016)

When you cite the resource for the second time onwards, you would use the surname of the first author followed by "et al.":

Lane et al. (2016) identified that cultural differences may have some effect...
...Flexibility of communication has been demonstrated in young children (Lane et al., 2016).

For an in-text citation in your work for six or more authors, you would use the surname of the first author followed by "et al." in all citations:

Loernic et al. (2015) identified that the lack of standardisation may have led to...
...the patients who felt that treatment was not beneficial to their condition may decide to terminate before completion (Loernic et al., 2015).

In the bibliography/reference list

Author Surname, Initial(s). (Year). Title of article. Title of journal/periodical, Volume(Issue), Page range. doi

Lane, J. D., Evans, E. M., Brink, K. A., & Wellman, H.M. (2016). Developing concepts of ordinary and extraordinary communication. Developmental Psychology, 52(1), 19-30. https://doi.org/10.1037/dev0000061

Loernic, A. G., Meuret, A. E., Twohig, M. P., Rosenfield, D., Bluett, E. J., & Craske, M. G. (2015). Response rates for CBT for anxiety disorders: Need for standardized criteria. Clinical Psychology Review, 42, 72-82. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cpr.2015.08.004

Notes

For more information about in-text citation and referencing multiple authors, see Creating a citation and reference list and click on the relevant section.

Some references do not have issue numbers for journal/periodical runs. If this is the case, omit the issue number.

In the text

For an in-text citation in your work for one or two authors, you would use all author surnames/corporate authors in your citation:

Financial Accounting Made Easy [FAME] (2017)...
...(Financial Accounting Made Easy [FAME], (2017)

Johnson and Fitzpatrick (2007)...
...(Johnson & Fitzpatrick, 2007).

Joseph Rowntree Foundation (2015)...
...(Joseph Rowntree Foundation, 2015).

Mintel (2017)...
...(Mintel, 2017).

Snowdon (2017)...
...(Snowdon, 2017)

Wohlers Associates Inc. (2013)...
...(Wohlers Associates Inc., 2013).

When you cite the resource for the second time onwards, if the corporation has a recognised abbreviation, you should use the abbreviation of the name:

FAME (2017)...
...(FAME, 2017)

In the bibliography/reference list

In print

Author surname, initial(s). or Corporate author. (Year). Title of report (Paper number if needed). Place of publication: Publisher.

Johnson, S., & Fitzpatrick, S. (2007). The impact of enforcement on street users in England. Bristol: The Policy Press.

Wohlers Associates Inc. (2013). Wohlers Report 2013: Additive manufacturing and 3D printing state of the industry: Annual worldwide progress report. Fort Collins: Wohlers Associates Ltd.

Online/Electronic

Author surname, initial(s). or Corporate author. (Year). Title of report (Paper number if needed). Retrieved from URL

Financial Accounting Made Easy [FAME]. (2017). Forgemasters International Limited. Retrieved 10 October, 2017, from https://fame4.bvdinfo.com/version-2017105/fame/Companies/Report/display/_standard

Joseph Rowntree Foundation. (2015). Building sustainable homes. Retrieved from https://www.jrf.org.uk/file/46481/download?token=UXZzH3XM&filetype=full-report

Mintel. (2017). Fashion Online - UK - June 2017: Executive Summary. Retrieved from http://academic.mintel.com/display/793379/

Snowdon, C. (2017). Cheap as chips: Is a healthy diet affordable? (IEA Discussions Paper No. 82). Retrieved from https://iea.org.uk/wp-content/uploads/2017/03/Cheap-as-Chips-PDF.pdf

Notes

If the name of the corporation/agency/government agency is long, or is well known by an abbreviation, then the first time you cite the resource in your work you would write out the name in full with the abbreviation in square brackets after, and then use the abbreviation for second and further citations of the resource. E.g. (National Institute for Health and Care Excellence [NICE], 2016) or National Institute for Health and Care Excellence [NICE], (2016). The second and further citations would then read (NICE, 2016) or NICE (2016).

For more information about in–text citation and referencing multiple authors, see Creating a citation and reference list and click on the relevant section.

In the text

For an in-text citation, you should cite the author. If the author is an organisation, you should use the name of the organisation the first time you cite the resource with the recognised abbreviation next to it in square brackets:

Higher Education Funding Council for England [HEFCE] (2016)...
...(Higher Education Funding Council for England [HEFCE], 2016)

When you cite the resource for the second time onwards, you should use the abbreviation of the name:

HEFCE (2016)...
(HEFCE, 2016)

In the bibliography/reference list

Author Surname, Initials/Organisation. (Year). Title of webpage. Retrieved date, retrieved from.

Higher Education Funding Council for England [HEFCE]. (2016). Evaluation of the national scholarship programme; year 4. Retrieved 26 January, 2016, from http://www.hefce.ac.uk/pubs/rereports/Year/2016/nspevaly4/Title,107278,en.html

NHS Choices [NHS]. (2015). Stress, anxiety and depression. Retrieved 8 February, 2016, from http://www.nhs.uk/Conditions/stress-anxiety-depression/Pages/low-mood-stress-anxiety.aspx

Notes

Include the retrieval date if the material is likely to change. If you do not include the retrieval date, the website address should read, Retrieved from URL

Locating the date of a website and webpages can be difficult, the page you are looking at may tell you at the beginning or the end of the page or document. Do not use the footer that says ‘Last modified’ as it may not be the update for the page or document. Also be wary of the copyright date as it may be a footer for the whole website. If you cannot locate a date, use ‘n.d.’ for ‘no date’.

If the name of the corporation/agency/government agency is long, or is well known by an abbreviation, then the first time you cite the resource in your work you would write out the name in full with the abbreviation in square brackets after, and then use the abbreviation for second and further citations of the resource. E.g. (National Institute for Health and Care Excellence [NICE], 2016) or National Institute for Health and Care Excellence [NICE], (2016). The second and further citations would then read (NICE, 2016) or NICE (2016).

If the corporation/association/government agency has a short named, or an abbreviation that would not be easily understandable, then you would use the full name in all citations, e.g. (University of Sheffield, 2016) or University of Sheffield (2016)

For more information about in-text citation, referencing multiple authors and abbreviations, see Creating a citation and reference list and click on the relevant section.

Alphabetical list of items

Jump to: A | B | C | D | E | F | G | H | I | J | K | L | M | N | O | P | Q | R | S | T | U | V | W | X | Y | Z

A

For Act of Parliament see Government Publication - Act of Parliament post 1963 or pre 1963.

For Amendments see Government Publication - Parliamentary Bills, Amendments and Explanatory Notes.

In the text

For an in-text citation in your work for one or two authors, you would use all surnames when you cite the resource:

Homer (800 B.C./1996)...
...(Homer, 800 B.C./1996).

Thucydides (430 B.C./1954)...
...(Thucydides, 430 B.C./1954).

In the bibliography/reference list

Author Surname, Initials. (Date of Publication). Title (Initial(s) of translator Surname of translator, Trans.). Place of publication: Publisher

Homer. (1996). The Odyssey (R. Fagles, Trans.). New York: Penguin Putnam Inc. (Original work published ca.800 B.C.)

Thucydides. (1954). History of the Peloponnesian war (M. I. Finley, Trans.). New York: Penguin Books. (Original work published ca. 430 B.C.)

For more information about in-text citation and referencing multiple authors, see Creating a citation and reference list and click on the relevant section.

In the text

For an in-text citation in your work, you would cite the reference as follows:

campusM (2015)...
...(campusM, 2015)

In the bibliography/reference list

Rightsholder Surname, Initial(s). (Year or version). Title of software or program (version number) [Mobile application software]. Retrieved from URL

campusM. (2015). iSheffield (5.4.2) [Mobile application software]. Retrieved from http://play.google.com

Notes

The rightsholder may be a corporation or company

Capitalise the rightsholder and name of app as they are written in the app store.

For more information about in-text citation and referencing multiple authors, see Creating a citation and reference list and click on the relevant section.

Work of art in a gallery

In the text

For an in-text citation in your work, you would cite the reference as follows:

DaVinci (ca. 1503)...
...(DaVinci, 1503)

Gainsborough (ca. 1750)...
...(Gainsborough, ca. 1503).

Solomon (1894)...
...(Solomon, 1894).

In the bibliography/reference list

Viewed in person

Artist surname, Artist initial(s). (Year) Title [Medium]. Place of holding institution: Holding institution.

Vinci, L. [ca. 1503]. Mona Lisa [Painting]. Paris: Musée du Louvre.

Gainsborough, T. [ca. 1750]. Mr and Mrs Andrews [Painting]. London: The National Gallery

Work of art viewed online

Artist surname, Artist initial(s). (Year). Title [Medium]. Retrieved from URL

DaVinci, L. [ca. 1503]. Mona Lisa [Painting]. Retrieved from http://www.louvre.fr/en/oeuvre-notices/mona-lisa-portrait-lisa-gherardini-wife-francesco-del-giocondo

Gainsborough, T. [ca. 1750]. Mr and Mrs Andrews [Painting]. Retrieved from https://www.nationalgallery.org.uk/paintings/thomas-gainsborough-mr-and-mrs-andrews

Solomon, S. (1894). The Moon and Sleep [Painting]. Retrieved from http://www.tate.org.uk/art/artworks/solomon-the-moon-and-sleep-t01719

Notes

For more information about in-text citation and referencing multiple authors, see Creating a citation and reference list and click on the relevant section.

[Top of page]

B

For Bills see Government Publication - Parliamentary Bills, Amendments and Explanatory Notes.

In the text

For an in-text citation in your work, you would cite the reference as follows:

Allchin (2016)...
...(Allchin, 2016)

Lee (2010)...
(Lee, 2010)

In the bibliography/reference list

Author Surname, Initial(s). (Date in full). Title of blog post [Blog post]. Retrieved from URL

Allchin, O. (2016, January 11). White Rose University Press launches [Blog post]. Retrieved from http://unisheffieldlib-scieng.blogspot.co.uk/2016/01/white-rose-university-press-launches.html

Lee, C. (2010, November 18). How to cite something you found on a website in APA style [Blog post]. Retrieved from http://blog.apastyle.org/apastyle/2010/11/how-to-cite-something-you-found-on-a-website-in-apa-style.html

Notes

For more information about in-text citation and referencing multiple authors, see Creating a citation and reference list and click on the relevant section.

Add the full date for a blog post.

The author of the blog may use a screen name, if this is the case then use the screen name in place of the author.

For Blu-Ray see Video – Physical Format.

In the text

For an in-text citation in your work, you would cite the reference as follows:

Bryman (2012) recommends...
Quantitative data is more suited to the study due to...(Bryman, 2012).

In the bibliography/reference list

Author Surname, Initial(s). (Year). Title of work (Edition if not first). Place of Publication: Publisher.

Bryman, A. (2012). Social research methods (4th ed.). Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Notes

For more information about in-text citation and referencing multiple authors, see Creating a citation and reference list and click on the relevant section.

In the text

Two Authors

For an in-text citation in your work for one or two authors, you would use all surnames when you cite the resource:

Crisp and Turner (2014) note that being watched by others in a public event...
Nervousness can be caused by...(Crisp & Turner, 2014).

Three to five authors

For an in-text citation in your work for three to five authors, you would use all author surnames when you cite the resource for the first time in your piece of work:

Crisp, Joughin, Halaek, and Bowyer (1996) note that making a weight biography could assist with the recovery...
...a balanced diet will allow the nutritional balance to re-establish (Crisp, Joughin, Halaek, & Bowyer, 1996).

When you cite the resource for the second time onwards, you would use the surname of the first author followed by "et al.":

Crisp et al. (1996) note that a higher calorie diet may be suitable for tall women and males when looking to gain weight...
When changing behavioural aspects, the person may find that they will need the support of others (Crisp et al., 1996).

Six or more authors

For an in-text citation in your work for six or more authors, you would use the surname of the first author followed by "et al." in all citations:

Armitage et al. (2007) identify the three philosophical thinkers of education as...
...consistency is key in the education of children (Armitage et al., 2007).

In the bibliography/reference list

Author Surname, Initial(s)., & Author Surname, Initial(s). (Year). Title of work (Edition if not first). Place of publication: Publisher.

Crisp, R. J., & Turner, R. N. (2014). Essential social psychology (3rd ed.). Los Angeles: SAGE.

Crisp, A. H., Joughin, N., Halek, C., & Bowyer, C. (1996). Anorexia nervosa: The wish to change (2nd ed.). London: Routledge.

Armitage, A., Bryant, R., Dunhill, R., Hammersley, M., Hayes, D., Hudson, A., & Lawes, S. (1999). Teaching and training in post-compulsory education. Buckingham: Open University Press.

Notes

For more information about in-text citation and referencing multiple authors, see Creating a citation and reference list and click on the relevant section.

In the text

For an in-text citation in your work for six or more authors, you would use the surname of the first author followed by "et al." in all citations:

Churchill et al. (2015) distinguish that the educational theory of ...
...When applying theory to practice it is argued that...(Churchill et al., 2015).

In the bibliography/reference list

Author Surname, Initial(s)., Author Surname, Initial(s)., Author Surname, Initial(s)., Author Surname, Initial(s)., Author Surname, Initial(s)., Author Surname, Initial(s)., ... Last author listed Surname, Initial(s). (Year). Title of work (Edition if not first). Place of publication: Publisher.

Churchill, R., Godinho, S., Johnson, N., Keddie, A., Letts, W., Lowe, K., . . . Vick, M. (2015). Teaching: making a difference (3rd ed.). Milton, QLD: John Wiley & Sons.

Notes

For more information about in-text citation and referencing multiple authors, see Creating a citation and reference list and click on the relevant section.

In the text

For an in-text citation in your work for one or two authors, you would use all surnames in your citation:

Mak (2016)...
...(Mak, 2016)


For an in-text citation in your work for three to five authors, you would use all author surnames when you cite the resource for the first time in your piece of work:

Gruber, Hansen, Soaper and Kivisto (2014)...
...(Gruber, Hansen, Soaper & Kivisto, 2014)

When you cite the resource for the second time onwards, you would use the surname of the first author followed by "et al.":

Gruber et al. (2014)...
...(Gruber et al., 2014)

In the bibliography/reference list

Author of chapter Surname, Initial(s). (Year). Title of chapter. In: Editor of book Initial(s). Editor of book Surname (Ed(s).), Title of book (Edition if not first., Page numbers). Place of publication: Publisher.

Mak, A. S. (2016). Twists and turns: forging a career as a psychology academic in Australia. In: A. Komisarof & Z. Hua (Eds.), Crossing boundaries and weaving intercultural work, life and scholarship in globalizing universities. (pp. 39-52). New York: Nova Science Publishers.

Gruber, D., Hansen, L., Soaper, K., & Kivisto, A. J. (2014). The role of shame in general, intimate and sexual violence perception. In: K. G. Lockhart (Ed.), Psychology of shame: New research. (pp. 36-62). New York: Nova Science Publishers.

Notes

For more information about in-text citation and referencing multiple authors and editors, see Creating a citation and reference list and click on the relevant section.

In the text

For an in-text citation in your work for one or two authors, you would use all author surnames in your citation:

Thompson (2015)...
...(Thompson, 2015)

For an in-text citation in your work for three to five authors, you would use all surnames when you cite the resource for the first time in your piece of work:

Hesse-Biber, Rodriguez and Frost (2015)...
...(Hesse-Biber, Rodriguez & Frost, 2015).

When you cite the resource for the second time onwards, you would use the surname of the first author followed by "et al.":

Hesse-Biber et al. (2015)...
...(Hesse-Biber et al., 2015).

In the bibliography/reference list

Section author(s) Surname(s), Initial(s). (Year). Title of chapter. In: Editor Initial(s). Editor Surname (Ed(s).), Title of book (Edition if not first., page range). Retrieved from URL or doi

Thompson, R. A. (2015). The development of virtue: A perspective from developmental psychology In: N. E. Snow (Ed.), Cultivating virtue: Perspectives from philosophy, theology and psychology. (pp. 279-306). Retrieved from http://www.dawsonera.com

Hesse-Biber, S., Rodriguez, D., & Frost, N. A. (2015). A qualitatively driven approach to multimethod and mixed method research. In: S. Hesser-Biber & R. Burke Johnson (Eds.), The Oxford handbook of multimethod and mixed methods research inquiry (pp. 3-20). Retrieved from http://www.myilibrary.com

Notes

For more information about in-text citation and referencing multiple authors, see Creating a citation and reference list and click the relevant section.

When using an ebook from a platform such as DawsonEra, My iLibrary etc. the URL will be the homepage.

If the ebook does not have pagination the American Psychological Association [APA] (2010, pp. 171-172) suggest the following information for direct quotations and paraphrases:

  • The number of the paragraph if provided, or you can count the number of paragraphs from the start of the document. This should be abbreviated to para. e.g. (Smith, 2017, para. 17).
  • A section heading and a paragraph number for within that section e.g. (Jones, 2017, Discussions, para. 4)
  • If the section heading is too long, you can shorten the title in quotation marks, with a paragraph number, e.g. (Williams, 2016, "Social Obligations", para. 6). In this example, the full heading would have been "Social Obligations of Those In Power and How They Influence People".
In the reference list

Editor Surname, Initial(s). (Ed(s).). (Year). Title of work (Edition if not first). Location: Publisher.

Matheson, S. (Ed.). (2015). An introduction to the study of education (4th ed.). London: Routledge.

Komisarof, A., & Hua, Z. (Eds.). (2016). Crossing boundaries and weaving intercultural work, life, and scholarship in globalizing universities. Abingdon: Routledge.

Notes

For more information about in-text citation and referencing multiple authors, see Creating a citation and reference list and click on the relevant section.

In the text

For an in-text citation in your work for one or two authors, you would use all author surnames in your citation:

Newman and Newman 2016...
...(Newman & Newman, 2016)


Bryman and Bell (2015)...
...(Bryman & Bell, 2015).

For an in-text citation in your work for three to five authors, you would use all surnames when you cite the resource for the first time in your piece of work:

Martin, Carlson and Buskist (2013)...
(Martin, Carlson & Buskist, 2013).

When you cite the resource for the second time onwards, you would use the surname of the first author followed by "et al.":

Martin et al. (2013)...
...(Martin et al., 2013)

In the bibliography/reference list

Author Surname, Initial(s). (Year). Title of work (Edition if not first). Retrieved from URL or doi

Tosh, J. (2015). Perverse psychology: The pathologization of sexual violence and transgenderism. Retrieved from http://www/dawsonera.com

Newman, B. M., & Newman, P. R. (2016). Theories of human development (2nd ed.). Retrieved from http://www.dawesonera.com

Martin, G. N., Carlson, N. R., & Buskist, W. (2013). Psychology (5th ed.). Retrieved from http://www.dawsonera.com

For an e-reader (e.g. Kindle)

Author surname, initial(s). (Year). Title (edition if needed) [Ebook version]. Retrieved from URL, name of website, or doi

Bryman, A., & Bell, E. (2011). Business research methods (3rd ed.) [Kindle Fire HD 8]. Retrieved from http://www.amazon.co.uk

Notes

For more information about in-text citation and referencing multiple authors, see Creating a citation and reference list and click on the relevant section.

When using an ebook from a platform such as DawsonEra, My iLibrary etc. the URL will be the homepage

If the ebook does not have pagination the American Psychological Association [APA] (2010, pp. 171-172) suggest the following information for direct quotations and paraphrases:

  • The number of the paragraph if provided, or you can count the number of paragraphs from the start of the document. This should be abbreviated to para. e.g. (Smith, 2017, para. 17).
  • A section heading and a paragraph number for within that section e.g. (Jones, 2017, Discussions, para. 4)
  • If the section heading is too long, you can shorten the title in quotation marks, with a paragraph number, e.g. (Williams, 2016, "Social Obligations", para. 6). In this example, the full heading would have been "Social Obligations of Those In Power and How They Influence People".
[Top of page]

C

For Census Data see Data Set.

For Chapter in a book see Book – Chapter or Book – Chapter/Section (in an Electronic Book).

For Clinical Guidelines see Standards.

For Command Paper see Government Publication – Command Paper.

For Compact Disc see Music – Album (Physical Format) or Music – Album Track (Physical Format).

In the text

For an in-text citation in your work for one or two authors, you would use all author surnames in your citation:

Armstrong (2014)...
...(Armstrong, 2014).

Ziegler (1997)...
...(Ziegler, 1997)

Dafnis (2015)...
...(Dafnis, 2015)

For an in-text citation in your work for three to five authors, you would use all author surnames when you cite the resource for the first time in your piece of work:

Kwon, Kwon and Hong (2011)...
...(Kwon, Kwon & Hong, 2011)

When you cite the resource for the second time onwards, you would use the surname of the first author followed by "et al.":

Kwon et al. (2011)...
...(Kwon et al., 2011).

In the bibliography/reference list

In print

Author of chapter Surname, Initial(s). (Year). Title of chapter. In: Editor of book Initial(s). Surname (Ed(s).). Title of book (Volume (if needed), page numbers). Place of publication: Publisher.

Armstrong, M. E. (2014). Child comprehension of internationally-encoded disbelief. In: W. Orman, & M. J. Valleau (Eds.). Proceedings of the 38th annual Boston University conference on language development. (Vol. 1, pp. 25-38). Somerville, MA: Cascadilla Press.

Zeigler, S. (1997). Berlin: east meets west - urban musical styles in Georgia. In: D. Stockmann, & J. H. Koudal (Eds.). Historical studies on folk and traditional music: ICTM study group on historical sources of folk music: conference report, Copenhagen 24-28 April 1995 (pp. 155-166). Copenhagen: Danish Folklaw Archive, Museum Tusculanum Press.

Online/Electronic

Author of chapter Surname, Initial(s). (Year). Title of chapter. In: Editor of book Initial(s). Surname (Ed(s).). Title of book (Volume (if needed), Page numbers). Place of publication: Publisher. Retrieved from URL or doi

Dafnis, B. (2015). The innovation diffusion paradox in undergraduate information technology student outcomes. In: A. Settle, & T. Steinbach (Chair). SIGITE'15: Proceedings of the 16th annual ACM conference on Information Technology Education (pp. 15-20). New York: ACM. https://doi.org/10.1145/2808006.2808036

Kwon, H-J., Kwon, H-O. & Hong, K-S. (2011). Personalized emotional prediction method for real-life objects based on collaborative filtering. In: D. Harris (Ed.). Lecture notes in computer science: Vol. 6781. Engineering psychology and cognitive ergonomics: 9th international conference, EPCE 2011, held as part of HCI international 2011 Orlando, FL, USA, July 9-14, 2011 Proceedings (pp. 45-52). Berlin: Springer-Verlag. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-21741-8

For more information about in-text citation and referencing multiple authors, see Creating a citation and reference list and click on the relevant section.

In the text

For an in-text citation in your work for three to five authors, you would use all author surnames when you cite the resource for the first time in your piece of work.

Bazela, Grant and Tucker (2014)...
...(Bazela, Grant & Tucker, 2014)

When you cite the resource for the second time onwards, you would use the surname of the first author followed by "et al.":

Bazela et al. (2014)...
...(Bazela et al., 2014)

In the bibliography/reference list

From a poster session

Author Surname, Initial(s). (Year, Month). Title of poster. Poster session presented at Name of conference, place of conference.

Bazela, C., Grant, V., & Tucker, A. (2014, April). History of medicine 2.0: using creative media to enhance information literacy teaching for 1st year medical students. Poster session presented at LILAC, Sheffield.

From a conference website

Author Surname, Initial(s). (Year, Month). Title of poster. Poster session presented at Name of conference, place of conference. Retrieved from URL

Bazela, C., Grant, V., & Tucker, A. (2014, April). History of medicine 2.0: using creative media to enhance information literacy teaching for 1st year medical students. Poster session presented at LILAC, Sheffield. Retrieved from https://www.slideshare.net/infolit_group/bazela-grant-tucker-poster

For more information about in-text citation and referencing multiple authors, see Creating a citation and reference list and click on the relevant section.

In the bibliography/reference list

In print

Editor of book Surname, Initial(s). (Ed(s).). (Date). Title of book. Place of publication: Publisher.

Orman, W & Valleau, M. J. (Eds.). (2014). Proceedings of the 38th annual Boston University conference on language development. (Vol. 1). Somerville, MA: Cascadilla Press.

Stockmann, D. & Koudal, J. H. (Eds.). (1997). Historical studies on folk and traditional music: ICTM study group on historical sources of folk music: conference report, Copenhagen 24-28 April 1995. Copenhagen: Danish Folklaw Archive, Museum Tusculanum Press.

Online/Electronic

Editor of book Surname, Initial(s). (Ed(s).). (Date) Title of book. Retrieved from URL or doi

Harris, D. (Ed.). (2011). Engineering psychology and cognitive ergonomics: 9th international conference, EPCE 2011, held as part of HCI international 2011, Orlando, FL, USA, July 9-14, 2011, proceedings. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-21741-8

Settle, A. & Steinbach, T. (Chairs). (2015). SIGITE'15: Proceedings of the 16th annual ACM conference on Information technology Education. Retrieved from http://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=2808006

Notes

For more information about in-text citation and referencing multiple authors, see Creating a citation and reference list and click on the relevant section.

[Top of page]

D

In the text

For an in-text citation in your work, you would cite the reference as follows:

The Office of National Statistics Social Survey Division (2016)...
...(Office of National Statistics. Social Survey Division, 2016).

NHS Digital (2015)...
...(NHS Digital, 2015).

In the bibliography/reference list

Author surname, Initials. or Corporate Author. (Year). Title and numeration (edition if needed) [Data Set]. Retrieved from URL or doi

Office for National Statistics. Social Survey Division. (2016). Annual population survey, April 2015-2016 (2nd ed.) [Data Set]. https://doi.org/10.3886/ICPSR30122.v2

NHS Digital. (2015). Statistics on obesity, physical activity and diet, England [Data Set]. Retrieved from: https://data.gov.uk/dataset/statistics_on_obesity_physical_activity_and_diet_england

In the text

For an in-text citation in your work for three to five authors, you would use all surnames when you cite the resource for the first time in your piece of work:

Di Marco, Rossi, Racic, Cappa, and Mazza (2016)...
...(Di Marco, Rossi, Racic, Cappa, & Mazza, 2016).

When you cite the resource for the second time onwards, you would use the surname of the first author followed by "et al.":

Di Marco et al. (2016)...
...(Di Marco et al., 2016).

In the bibliography/reference list

Author Surname, Initial(s). (Year). Title of Data Set [Data Set]. Name of repository. Retrieved from URL or doi

Di Marco, R., Rossi, S., Racic, V., Cappa, P. & Mazza, C. (2016). Kinematic data for the concurrent repeatability and reproducibility analysis of four gait models for foot-ankle complex [Data Set]. Figshare. https://doi.org/10.15131/shef.data.3502712.v1

Notes

Adapted from Force11 Joint Declaration of Data Citation Principles

For more information about in-text citation and referencing multiple authors, see Creating a citation and reference list and click on the relevant section.

Dictionary Entry - Print

In the bibliography/reference list

Author Surname, Initial(s). (Date). Title of entry. In: Editor Initial(s), Surname (Ed(s).). Title of dictionary/reference item (Edition, Volume if needed). Place of publication: Publisher.

If there is not an author of the entry

Title of entry. (Date). In: Editor Initial(s). Surname (Ed.). Title of dictionary/reference item (Edition, Volume if needed). Place of publication: Publisher.

Entwistle, N. (1990). Learning styles. In: M. W. Eysenck (Ed.). The Blackwell dictionary of cognitive psychology. Oxford: Basil Blackwell Ltd.

Nirvana. (2001). In: S. Sadie (Ed.). J. Tyrell (Executive ed.). The new grove dictionary of music and musicians (2nd ed., Vol.17). London: Macmillan Publishers.

Dictionary Entry - Online

Author Surname, Initial(s). (Date). Title of entry. In: Editor Initial(s). Surname (Ed(s).). Title of dictionary/reference item (Edition., Volume if needed). Retrieved from URL or doi

If there is not an author of the entry

Title of entry. (Year). In: Editor Initial(s), Surname. Title of dictionary/reference item (Edition., Volume if needed). Retrieved from URL or doi

McLaughlin, B. P. (1999). Philosophy of the mind. In: R. Audi (General ed.). The Cambridge dictionary of philosophy (2nd ed.). Retrieved from https://www.dawsonera.com

Psychology, n. (2015). In: OED Online. Retrieved from http://www.oed.com/

Full Dictionary - Online

In the bibliography/reference list

Editor Surname, Initial(s). (Ed(s).). (Year). Title of work (Edition if not first). Retrieved from URL

OED Online. (2017). Retrieved from http://www.oed.com/

Full Dictionary - Print

In the bibliography/reference list

Editor Surname, Initial(s). (Ed(s).). (Year). Title of work (Edition if not first). Location: Publisher.

Soanes, C., & Stevenson, A. (Eds.). Concise Oxford English Dictionary (11th rev. ed.). Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Notes

You may find that some dictionaries do not name an editor, if this is the case start with the title of dictionary in place of the editor.

For more information about in-text citation and referencing multiple authors, see Creating a citation and reference list and click on the relevant section.

In the text

For an in-text citation, you should cite as follows:

Bobcomb (2005)...
...(Bobcomb, 2005)

Burbridge (2014)...
...(Burbridge, 2014)

In the bibliography/reference list

Author Surname, Initial(s). (Year). Title of dissertation (Unpublished master's dissertation). Name of institution, location, country

Bobcomb, P. (2005). A historical study of the development of the Adult Education Unit of the Ministry of Education in Trinidad and Tobago for the period 1944-2004 (Unpublished master's dissertation). University of Sheffield, Sheffield, United Kingdom.

Burbridge, A. (2014). Is contemporary government discourse creating a false notion of necessity within early childhood education and formalising early childhood education to the detriment of children's learning and development (Unpublished master's dissertation). University of Sheffield, Sheffield, United Kingdom.

Notes

For more information about in-text citation and referencing, see Creating a citation and reference list and click on the relevant section.

For DVD see Video – Physical Format.

[Top of page]

E

For Electronic Book see Book – Electronic or Book – Chapter/Section (in an electronic book).

For Electronic Journal see Journal Article with a DOI (Electronic) or Journal Article without a DOI (Electronic).

In the text

For an in-text citation in your work, you would cite the reference as follows:

Smith (personal email communication, 11 May, 2015)...
...(Smith, personal email communication, 11 May 2015).

In the bibliography/reference list

Author surname, Initial(s). (Year, Month, Day). Title (Subject of email or up to the first 40 words of the email). [Personal email communication].

Smith, D. (2015, May 11). Updates to workflow. [Email communication].

Notes

You will need permission from anyone in the email conversation before using them in your work

For more information about in-text citation and referencing multiple authors, see Creating a citation and reference list and click on the relevant section.

For Encyclopaedia see Dictionary.

Full Exhibition

In the text

For an in-text citation in your work, you would cite the reference as follows:

Cooper (2013-2014)...
...(Cooper, 2013-2014).

Beatles to Bowie: the 60s exposed (2009-2010)...
...(Beatles to Bowies: the 60s exposed, 2009-2010).

The Age of Abstraction: Women Artists (2016)...
...(The Age of Abstraction: Women Artists, 2016).

In the bibliography/reference list

Viewed in person

Curator Surname, Initial(s) (if available). (Year of exhibition). Title of exhibition [Descriptor e.g. Exhibition]. Location of exhibition: Holding Institution.

Beatles to Bowie: the 60s exposed [Exhibition]. (2009-2010). London: National Portrait Gallery

Cooper, T. (2013-2014). Elizabeth I & her people [Exhibition]. London: National Portrait Gallery

The age of abstraction: Women artists [Exhibition]. (2016). Sheffield: Graves Gallery

Online/Electronic

Curator Surname, Initial(s) (if available). (Date). Title of exhibition [Descriptor e.g. exhibition]. Retrieved from URL

Beatles to Bowie: the 60s exposed [Exhibition]. (2009-2010). Retrieved from http://www.npg.org.uk/beatles/exhib.htm

Cooper, T. (2013-2014).Elizabeth I & her people [Exhibition]. Retrieved from http://www.npg.org.uk/whatson/elizabethi/exhibition.php


Item as part of an exhibition

In the text

For an in-text citation, you would cite the reference as follows:

Hilliard (ca. 1585)...
...(Hilliard, ca. 1585).

Bebbington (1969)...
...(Bebbington, 1969).

In the bibliography/reference list

Viewed in person

Artist surname, Artist initial(s). (Year) Title [Description e.g. photograph]. Place of holding institution: Holding institution.

Bebbington, D. (1969). David Bowie [Photograph]. London: National Portrait Gallery

Hilliard, N. [ca. 1585]. Queen Elizabeth I [Oil painting]. London: National Portrait Gallery

Online/Electronic

Artist Surname, Initial(s). (Year). Title [Description e.g. photograph]. Retrieved from URL

Bebbington, D. (1969). David Bowie [Photograph]. Retrieved from http://www.npg.org.uk/beatles/sixty9.htm

Hilliard, N. [ca. 1585]. Queen Elizabeth I [Oil painting]. Retrieved from http://www.npg.org.uk/collections/search/portrait/mw02074/Queen-Elizabeth-I?LinkID=mp01452&role=sit&rNo=4

For more information about in–text citation and referencing multiple authors, see Creating a citation and reference list and click on the relevant section.

[Top of page]

F

For Facebook see Social Media.

For Fact Sheet see Information Sheet.

For FAME (Finanical Accounting Made Easy) Report see Reports.

For Film see Video sections.

For Forum Post see Message Board.

[Top of page]

G

Legislation passed post 1963 are numbered in the year which it received Royal Assent

In the text

For an in-text citation in your work, you would cite the reference as follows:

The Psychoactive Substances Act (2016)...
...(Psychoactive Substances Act, 2016).

In the bibliography/reference list

Physical item

Name of act and year. Chapter. Place of publication: Publisher.

Psychoactive Substances Act 2016. c 2. London: The Stationary Office.

Online

Name of act and year. Chapter. Retrieved from URL

Psychoactive Substance Act 2016. c 2. Retrieved from http://www.legislation.gov.uk/ukpga/2016/2/pdfs/ukpga_20160002_en.pdf

Notes

APA referencing is an American system of referencing and does not have a set way of referencing Government Publications from the UK. The above is an interpretation of the general referencing rules of APA.

For more information about in–text citation and referencing multiple authors, see Creating a citation and reference list and click on the relevant section.

Legislation passed pre-1963 was numbered by regnal year of the monarch (number of year since the monarch's ascension).

In the text

For an in-text citation you would cite the reference as follows:

The Official Secrets Act (1939)...
...(Official Secrets Act, 1939).

In the bibliography/reference list

Physical item

Name of act and year. Regnal year(s) name of monarch, chapter. Place of publication: Publisher.

Official Secrets Act 1939. 2&3 Geo. 6, c 121. London: HMSO

Online

Name of act and year. Regnal year(s) name of monarch, chapter. Retrieved from URL

Official Secrets Act 1939. 2&3 Geo. 6, c 121. Retrieved from http://www.legislation.gov.uk/ukpga/1939/121/pdfs/ukpga_19390121_en.pdf

Notes

APA referencing is an American system of referencing and does not have a set way of referencing Government Publications from the UK. The above is an interpretation of the general referencing rules of APA.

For more information about in–text citation and referencing multiple authors, see Creating a citation and reference list and click on the relevant section.

In the text

For an in-text citation, you would cite the reference as follows

In the bibliography/reference list

Department of Business, Innovation and Skills (2015)...
...(Department of Business, Innovation and Skills, 2015).

Department of Health (2016)...
...(Department of Health, 2016).

Physical item

Author (Government Department). (Year). Title of command paper Number. Place of Publication: Publisher.

Department for Business, Innovation and Skills. (2015). Fulfilling our potential: Teaching excellence, social mobility and student choice Cm 9141. London: HMSO.

Department of Health. (2016). Government response to the House of Commons Health Select Committee report into the impact of spending review on health and social care Cm 9385. London: HMSO.

Online

Government Department. (Year). Title of command paper Number. Retrieved from URL

Department of Business, Innovation and Skills. (2016). Fulfilling our potential: Teaching excellence, social mobility and student choice Cm 9141. Retrieved from https://www.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/474227/BIS-15-623-fulfilling-our-potential-teaching-excellence-social-mobility-and-student-choice.pdf

Department of Health. (2016). Government response to the House of Commons Health Select Committee report into the impact of spending review on health and social care Cm 9385. Retrieved from https://www.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/577910/DH_Gov_Response_Accessible.pdf

Notes

The numbering of command papers is done by running numbers with a prefix which changes as the number gets close to 10,000. The prefixes are listed below:

  • 1868–1869 – 1–4222
  • 1870–1899 – C 1–C 9550
  • 1900–1918 – Cd 1–Cd 9239
  • 1919–1956 – Cmd 1–Cmd 9889
  • 1956–1986 – Cmnd 1–Cmnd 9927
  • 1986–current – Cm 1–

APA referencing is an American system of referencing and does not have a set way of referencing Government Publications from the UK. The above is an interpretation of the general referencing rules of APA.

For more information about in–text citation and referencing multiple authors, see Creating a citation and reference list and click on the relevant section.

In the text

For an in-text citation, you would cite the reference as follows:

Department of Health (2015)...
...(Department of Health, 2015).

In the bibliography/reference list

Government Department. (Year). Title of data set and numeration (edition if needed) [File type]. Retrieved from URL or doi

Department of Health. (2015). DoLS monthly summary statistics. Quarter 2, 2015-2016 [Data set]. Retrieved from https://www.gov.uk/government/statistics/deprivation-of-liberty-safeguards-dols-july-to-september-2015

Notes

For more information about in–text citation and referencing multiple authors, see Creating a citation and reference list and click on the relevant section.

In the text

For an in-text citation, you would cite the reference as follows:

House of Commons (2016)...
...(House of Commons, 2016).

House of Lords (2016)...
...(House of Lords, 2016).

House of Commons (1938)...
...(House of Commons, 1938)

In the bibliography/reference list

Physical Item

Name of house. (Year, month day). Name [Hansard]. (Series if applicable) Volume Number (if available) Column. Place of publication: Publisher.

House of Commons. (2016, July 18). Official report: Parliamentary debates [Hansard]. Vol.613 No.27 cc.527-28. London: The Stationery Office.

House of Lords. (2016, September 17). Official report: Parliamentary debates [Hansard]. Vol.764 No.46 cc.1957-59. London: The Stationery Office

Online

Name of house. (Year, month day). Name [Hansard]. (Series if applicable) Volume Number (if available) Column. Retrieved from URL

House of Commons. (1938, July 18). The official report: Parliamentary Debates [Hansard]. (5th Series) Vol.338 cc.527-528. Retrieved from http://hansard.millbanksystems.com/commons/1938/jul/18/mr-speakers-ruling

House of Commons. (2016, July 18). Official report: Parliamentary debates [Hansard]. Vol.613 No.37 cc.527-28. Retrieved from https://hansard.parliament.uk/Commons/2016-07-18/debates/16071818000004/OralAnswersToQuestions

House of Lords. (2015, September 17).Official report: Parliamentary Debates [Hansard]. Vol.764 No.46 cc.1957-59. Retrieved from https://hansard.parliament.uk/lords/2015-09-17/debates/15091736000770/BBCCharter2017

Notes

If you are citing more than one column, use cc as the prefix rather than c.

If you are citing older Hansards, you will need to include the series. These are as follows:

  • 1st Series – Cobbett's Parliamentary Debates: Vol.1 (1803) – Vol.22 (March/May 1812) continued by
    The Parliamentary Debates: Vol.23 (May/June 1812) to Vol.41 (February 1820). N.B. Some reissued sets were numbered Vol.1 – Vol.22 as The Parliamentary Debates.
  • 2nd Series – The Parliamentary Debates, New Series: Vol.1 (April 1820) – Vol.25 (July 1830).
  • 3rd Series – Hansard's Parliamentary Debates (3rd Series): Vol.1 (October 1830) – Vol.356 (August 1891).
  • 4th Series – The Parliamentary Debates (4th Series): Vol.1 (February 1892) – Vol.199 (December 1908)
  • 5th Series – The Official Report, House of Commons (5th Series): Vol.1 (January 1909) – Vol.1000 (March 1981). N.B. The name Hansard was officially restored in 1941.
  • 6th Series – The Official Report, House of Commons (6th Series): Vol.1 (March 1981) –

There are 6 different types of numbered columns in Hansard, the letters should appear after the column number as a suffix – these are as follow:

  • No letters – Discussions in the chamber
  • WH – Westminster Hall
  • WS – Written Statements
  • W – Written Answers
  • P – Petitions
  • C – Ministerial Corrections

APA referencing is an American system of referencing and does not have a set way of referencing Government Publications from the UK. The above is an interpretation of the general referencing rules of APA.

For more information about in–text citation and referencing multiple authors, see Creating a citation and reference list and click on the relevant section.

In the text

For an in-text citation, you would cite the reference as follows:

Marshall Aid Commemoration Commission (2016)...
...(Marshall Aid Commemoration Commission, 2016).

Select Committee on Economic Affairs (2016)...
...(Select Committee on Economic Affairs, 2016).

In the bibliography/reference list

Physical item

Government Department or Commission. (Year). Title Paper number, session. Place of publication: Publisher.

Marshall Aid Commemoration Commission. (2016). Marshall Aid Commemoration Commission Account 2015-2016 HC 539, 2016-2017. London: National Audit Office.

Select Committee on Economic Affairs. (2016). Economic Affairs Committee 1st report: Building more houses: Volume 1, Report HL20, 2016-2017. London: By the authority of the House of Lords.

Online

Government Department or Commission. (Year). Title Paper number, session. Retrieved from

Marshall Aid Commemoration Commission. (2016). Marshall Aid Commemoration Commission Account 2015-2016 HC 539, 2016-2017. Retrieved from https://www.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/542143/MACC_account_2015_to_
2016.pdf

Select Committee on Economic Affairs. (2016). Economic Affairs Committee 1st report: Building more houses: Volume 1, Report HL20, 2016-2017. Retrieved from http://www.publications.parliament.uk/pa/ld201617/ldselect/ldeconaf/20/20.pdf

Notes

APA referencing is an American system of referencing and does not have a set way of referencing Government Publications from the UK. The above is an interpretation of the general referencing rules of APA.

For more information about in–text citation and referencing multiple authors, see Creating a citation and reference list and click on the relevant section.

In the text

For an in-text citation, you would cite the reference as follows:

Leeds City Council Act (2013)...
...(Leeds City Council Act, 2013).

South Yorkshire Light Rail Transit Act (1993)...
...(South Yorkshire Light Rail Transit Act, 1993)

In the bibliography/reference list

Physical item

Name of act and year. Chapter. Place of publication: Publisher.

Leeds City Council Act 2013. Chapter ii. London: The Stationery Office

South Yorkshire Light Rail Transit Act 1993. Chapter ii. London: HMSO

Online

Name of act and year. Chapter. Retrieved from URL

Leeds City Council Act 2013 Chapter ii. Retrieved from http://www.legislation.gov.uk/ukla/2013/2/introduction/enacted

South Yorkshire Light Rail Transit Act 1993 Chapter ii. Retrieved from http://www.legislation.gov.uk/ukla/1993/2/introduction/enacted

Notes

APA referencing is an American system of referencing and does not have a set way of referencing Government Publications from the UK. The above is an interpretation of the general referencing rules of APA.

For more information about in–text citation and referencing multiple authors, see Creating a citation and reference list and click on the relevant section.

In the text

For an in-text citation, you would cite the reference as follows:

House of Commons (2016)...
...(House of Commons, 2016).

House of Lords (2015)...
...(House of Lords, 2015).

House of Lords (2016)...
...(House of Lords, 2016).

In the bibliography/reference list

Physical item

Government department. (Year). Title Paper number, session. Place of publication: Publisher.

House of Commons. (2016). Digital Economy Bill HCB45, 2016-2017. London: The Stationery Office.

House of Lords. (2015). Energy Bill Explanatory Notes HLB 56-EN, 2015-2016. London: The Stationery Office.

House of Lords. (2016). Policing and Crime Bill Amendments HLB 55 c, 2016-2017. London: The Stationery Office.

Online

Government department. (Year). Title Paper number, session. Retrieved from URL

House of Commons. (2016). Digital Economy Bill HCB45, 2016-2017. Retrieved from http://www.publications.parliament.uk/pa/bills/cbill/2016-2017/0045/cbill_2016-20170045_en_1.htm

House of Lords. (2015). Energy Bill Explanatory Notes HLB 56-EN, 2015-2016. Retrieved from http://www.publications.parliament.uk/pa/bills/lbill/2015-2016/0056/en/16056en.pdf

House of Lords. (2016). Policing and Crime Bill Amendments HLB 55 c, 2016-2017. Retrieved from http://www.publications.parliament.uk/pa/bills/lbill/2016-2017/0055/17055(c).pdf

Notes

APA referencing is an American system of referencing and does not have a set way of referencing Government Publications from the UK. The above is an interpretation of the general referencing rules of APA.

For more information about in–text citation and referencing multiple authors, see Creating a citation and reference list and click on the relevant section.

In the text

The Police (Amendment) (No.2) Regulations (2006)...
...(The Police (Amendment) (No.2) Regulations, 2006).

In the bibliography/reference list

Physical Item

Name of Statutory Instrument Number. Place of publication: Publisher.

The Police (Amendment) (No.2) Regulations 2006 SI 2006/3449. London: The Stationery Office

Online

Name of Statutory Instrument Number. Retrieved from URL

The Police (Amendment) (No.2) Regulations 2006 SI 2006/3449. Retrieved from http://www.legislation.gov.uk/uksi/2006/3449/pdfs/uksi_20063449_en.pdf

Notes

APA referencing is an American system of referencing and does not have a set way of referencing Government Publications from the UK. The above is an interpretation of the general referencing rules of APA.

For more information about in–text citation and referencing multiple authors, see Creating a citation and reference list and click on the relevant section.

In the text

For an in-text citation, you would cite the reference as follows:

Department of Health (2016)...
...(Department of Health, 2016).

Office for Nuclear Regulation (2016)...
...(Office for Nuclear Regulation, 2016).

In the bibliography/reference list

Physical item

Government Department. (Year, month if available). Title. Place of publication: Publisher

Department of Health. (2016). National framework for NHS continuing healthcare and NHS funded nursing care. London: Department of Health

Office for Nuclear Regulation. (2016, March). Office for Nuclear Regulation Strategic Plan 2016-2020: Presented to Parliament pursuant to paragraph 25(3) of Schedule 7 to the Energy Act 2013. London: Office for Nuclear Regulation

Online

Government Department. (Year, Month if available). Title. Retrieved from URL

Department of Health. (2016). National framework for NHS continuing healthcare and NHS funded nursing care. Retrieved from https://www.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/213137/
National-Framework-for-NHS-CHC-NHS-FNC-Nov-2012.pdf

Office for Nuclear Regulation. (2016, March). Office for Nuclear Regulation Strategic Plan 2016-2020: Presented to Parliament pursuant to paragraph 25(3) of Schedule 7 to the Energy Act 2013. Retrieved from http://www.onr.org.uk/documents/2016/strategic-plan-2016-2020.pdf

Notes

APA referencing is an American system of referencing and does not have a set way of referencing Government Publications from the UK. The above is an interpretation of the general referencing rules of APA.

For more information about in–text citation and referencing multiple authors, see Creating a citation and reference list and click on the relevant section.

In the text

For an in-text citation, you would cite the reference as follows

House of Commons (2016)...
...(House of Commons, 2016).

In the bibliography/reference list

Name of house. (Year, Month Day). Title Number, session. Retrieved from URL

House of Commons. (2016, September 15). Votes and proceedings no.38, 2016-2017. Retrieved from http://www.publications.parliament.uk/pa/cm201617/cmvote/160915v01.pdf

Notes

APA referencing is an American system of referencing and does not have a set way of referencing Government Publications from the UK. The above is an interpretation of the general referencing rules of APA.

For more information about in–text citation and referencing multiple authors, see Creating a citation and reference list and click on the relevant section.

For Green Paper see Government Publication – Command Paper.

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H

For Hansard see Government Publication – Hansard.

For Historical Texts see Ancient or Historical Texts.

For House of Lords or House of Commons Paper see Government Publication – House of Lords and House of Commons Paper.

House of Lords or House of Commons Official Report. Parliamentary Debate see Government Publication - Hansard.

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I

Online image (e.g. Flickr) with full details

In the text

For an in-text citation in your work, you would cite the reference as follows:

Andy_C (2015)...
...(Andy_C, 2015).

In the bibliography/reference list

Author surname, Initial(s). or Username. (Date). Title of item [Format Description]. Retrieved from URL

Andy_C. (2015). Ladybower Plughole [Image]. Retrieved from https://www.flickr.com/photos/andycpics/3035948922

Online image without a clear title

In the text

For an in-text citation in your work, you would cite your reference as follows

Ren_7 (2010)...
...(Ren_7, 2010).

The NASA Johnson Space Center (2015)..
...(NASA Johnson Space Center, 2015)

In the bibliography/reference list

Author surname, initial(s). or Username. (Date). [Title] [Format Description]. Retrieved from URL.

Ren_7. (2010). [Beach Huts] [Digital image]. Retrieved from https://www.flickr.com/photos/ren7/5108123117/

NASA Johnson Space Center. (2015). [Earth from Deep Space Climate Observatory] [Digital image]. Retrieved from https://www.instagram.com/p/5Xs5tgqpIL

Online image without a clear date

In the text

For an in-text citation in your work, you would cite the reference as follows

Murawski (ca. 2008)...
...(Murawski, ca.2008).

In the bibliography/reference list

Author surname, initial(s). or Username. [Estimated date]. Title [Format Description]. Retrieved from URL

Murawski, D.A. [ca. 2008]. Spicebush swallowtail butterfly [Digital image]. Retrieved from http://www.nationalgeographic.com/photography/photos/patterns-butterflies/#/1371.ngsversion.1467941567217.jpg

Notes

If the date is not presented with the image, but you know the date from another source, then you would include this in square brackets.

If the date in not presented with the image, but you can estimate, use ca. in square brackets e.g. [ca. 2008]

If a date cannot be ascertained, you would use n.d. for 'no date' in brackets e.g. (n.d.)

For more information about in–text citation and referencing multiple authors, see Creating a citation and reference list and click on the relevant section.

Original photograph or image on display e.g. in an art gallery

In the text

For an in-text citation in your work, you would cite the reference as follows:

Tanqueray (1930)...
...(Tanqueray, 1930).

In the bibliography/reference list

Artist surname, initial(s). (Year). Title [Format Description]. Location: Holding institution.

Or if viewing online

Artist surname, initial(s). (Year). Title [Format Description]. Retrieved from URL

Tanqueray, P. (1930). Ethel Edith Manin [Photograph]. London: National Portrait Gallery.

Tanqueray, P. (1930). Ethel Edith Manin [Photograph]. Retrieved from http://www.npg.org.uk/collections/search/portraitLarge/mw14080/Ethel-Edith-Mannin

Original photograph or image on display without a clear title e.g. in an art gallery

In the text

For an in-text citation in your work, you would cite the reference as follows:

Dewynters (1999)...
...(Dewynters,1999).

In the bibliography/reference list

Artist surname, initial(s). (Year). [Title] [Format Description]. Location: Holding institution.

Or if viewing online

Artist surname, initial(s). (Year).[Title] [Format Description]. Retrieved from URL

Dewynters. (1999). [Cats at the New London Theatre] [Poster]. London: Victoria and Albert Museum.

Dewynters. (1999). [Cats at the New London Theatre] [Poster]. Retrieved from http://collections.vam.ac.uk/item/O48809/poster-dewynters-ltd/

Original photograph or image on display without a clear date e.g. in an art gallery

In the text

For an in-text citation in your work, you would cite the reference as follows:

Alinari (ca. 19th Century)...
...(Alinari, ca. 19th Century).

Bourne (ca. 19th Century)...
...(Bourne, ca. 19th Century).

Artist surname, initial(s). [Year]. Title [Format Description]. Location: Holding institution.

Or if viewing online

Artist surname, initial(s). [Year]. Title [Format Description]. Retrieved from URL

Alinari, F. [ca. 19th Century]. La Torre di Palazzo Vecchio vista attraverso i finestroni del Campanile di Giotto [Photograph]. Sheffield: Graves Gallery

Alinari, F. [ca. 19th Century]. La Torre di Palazzo Vecchio vista attraverso i finestroni del Campanile di Giotto [Photograph]. Retrieved from http://collections.museums-sheffield.org.uk/media/view/Objects/18688/5530?t:state:flow=92c89c87-5f89-4bcf-aa37-416989e559e5

Bourne, E. [ca. 19th Century]. Red Fort at Lahore Gate, New Delhi [Photograph]. London: Victoria and Albert Museum.

Bourne, E. [ca. 19th Century]. Red Fort at Lahore Gate, New Delhi [Photograph]. Retrieved from http://collections.vam.ac.uk/item/O81545/red-fort-at-lahore-gate-photograph/

Own photograph taken for your research

If you take a photograph for your own research, there will be no need to add an in-text citation or reference for this as everything in your assignment/research is expected to be your own work unless stated otherwise by use of citation and reference.

For more information about in–text citation and referencing multiple authors, see Creating a citation and reference list and click on the relevant section.

For Image – Work of Art see Art e.g. in an art gallery, museum or online.

In the text

For an in-text citation in your work, you would cite the reference as follows:

Applied Biosystems (2008)...
...(Applied Biosystems, 2008).

Kent Pharmaceuticals Ltd. (2013)...
...(Kent Pharmaceuticals Ltd., 2013).

In the bibliography/reference list

In print

Author surname, Initial(s). or Corporate Author. (Date). Title (Edition if not first). Place of publication: Publisher.

Applied Biosystems. (2008). Application fact sheet SOLiD System Accuracy. Foster City: Applied Biosystems

Kent Pharmaceuticals Ltd. (2013). Patient information leaflet. Doxycycline 50mg capsules. Ashford: Kent Pharmaceuticals Ltd.

Online/Electronic

Author surname, Initial(s). or Corporate Author. (Date). Title (Edition if not first). Retrieved from URL

Applied Biosystems. (2008). Application fact sheet SOLiD System Accuracy. Retrieved from https://www3.appliedbiosystems.com/cms/groups/mcb_marketing/documents/generaldocuments/cms_057511.pdf

Kent Pharmaceuticals Ltd. (2013). Patient information leaflet. Doxycycline 50mg capsules. Retrieved from https://www.medicines.org.uk/emc/PIL.26285.latest.pdf

For more information about in–text citation and referencing multiple authors, see Creating a citation and reference list and click on the relevant section.

Adapt guidance for Government Publication to suit international legislation.

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J

In the text

For an in-text citation for one or two authors, you would use all author surnames in your citation:

Wang and Kim (2010) looked at the competency of counselling professionals...
...Multicultural skills should be considered when...(Wang & Kim, 2010)

For an in-text citation in your work for three to five authors, you would use all surnames when you cite the resource for the first time in your piece of work:

Macizo, Herrera, Romàn and Martin (2011) looked at how bilingualism can influence...
...It was found that being bilingual can improve certain aspects of numerical information processing (Macizo, Herrera, Romàn & Martin, 2011).

When you cite the resource for the second time onwards, you would use the surname of the first author followed by "et al.":

Macizo et al. (2011) identified cognitive patterns...
Linguistic information...(Macizo et al., 2011).

In the bibliography/reference list

Author surname, initial. (Year). Title of article. Title of journal/periodical, Volume(Number), Page range.

Wang, S., & Kim, B. S. K. (2010). Therapist multicultural competence, Asian American particpants' cultural values, and counseling process. Counseling Psychology, 57(4), 915-921.

Macizo, M., Herrera, A., Romàn, P., Martin, M. C. (2011). Proficiency in a second language influences the processing of number words. Journal of Cognitive Psychology, 23(8), 915-921.

Notes

For more information about in-text citation and referencing multiple authors, see Creating a citation and reference list and click on the relevant section.

Some references do not have issue numbers for journal/periodical runs. If this is the case, omit the issue number.

In the text

For an in-text citation in your work for three to five authors, you would use all surnames when you cite the resource for the first time in your piece of work:

Lane, Evans, Brink and Wellman (2016) studied how young children interpret non-verbal communication to a deity...
...Children with a religious upbringing were more likely to...(Lane, Evans, Brink & Wellman, 2016)

When you cite the resource for the second time onwards, you would use the surname of the first author followed by "et al.":

Lane et al. (2016) identified that cultural differences may have some effect...
...Flexibility of communication has been demonstrated in young children (Lane et al., 2016).

For an in-text citation in your work for six or more authors, you would use the surname of the first author followed by "et al." in all citations:

Loernic et al. (2015) identified that the lack of standardisation may have led to...
...the patients who felt that treatment was not beneficial to their condition may decide to terminate before completion (Loernic et al., 2015).

In the bibliography/reference list

Author Surname, Initial(s). (Year). Title of article. Title of journal/periodical, Volume(Issue), Page range. doi

Lane, J. D., Evans, E. M., Brink, K. A., & Wellman, H.M. (2016). Developing concepts of ordinary and extraordinary communication. Developmental Psychology, 52(1), 19-30. https://doi.org/10.1037/dev0000061

Loernic, A. G., Meuret, A. E., Twohig, M. P., Rosenfield, D., Bluett, E. J., & Craske, M. G. (2015). Response rates for CBT for anxiety disorders: Need for standardized criteria. Clinical Psychology Review, 42, 72-82. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cpr.2015.08.004

Notes

For more information about in-text citation and referencing multiple authors, see Creating a citation and reference list and click on the relevant section.

Some references do not have issue numbers for journal/periodical runs. If this is the case, omit the issue number.

In the text

For an in-text citation in your work for one or two authors, you would use all author surnames in your citation:

Carr and Steele (2010) note that negative stereotypes associated with women in the workplace can...
...the decisions made about people is heavily influenced by our stereotypical views (Carr & Steele, 2010)


For an in-text citation in your work for three to five authors, you would use all author surnames when you cite the resource for the first time in your piece of work:

Medin, Bennis and Chandler (2010) looked at the home-field disadvantage ...
...awareness of the phenomenon may reduce the impact (Medin, Bennis & Chandler, 2010)

When you cite the resource for the second time onwards, you would use the surname of the first author followed by "et al."

Medin et al. (2010) identified that a problem with experimentation...
...when conducting experiments it is difficult not to see your own cultural norms and expectations represented in the results (Medin et al., 2010).

In the bibliography/reference list

Author Surname, Initial(s). (Year). Title of article. Title of periodical, Volume(Issue), page range. Retrieved from URL

Carr, P. B., & Steele, C. M. (2010). Stereotype threat affects financial decision making. Psychological Science, 21(10), 1411-1416. Retrieved from http://pss.sagepub.com/

Medin, D., Bennis, W., & Chandler, M. (2010). Culture and the home-field disadvantage. Perspectives on Psychological Science, 5(6), 708-713. Retrieved from http://pps.sagepub.com/

Notes

For more information about in-text citation and referencing multiple authors, see Creating a citation and reference list and click on the relevant section.

Some references do not have issue numbers for journal/periodical runs. If this is the case, omit the issue number.

Use the URL of the journal homepage if there is not a DOI available.

In the text

For an in-text citation in your work for one or two authors, you would use all author surnames in your citation:

Mogilner and Norton (2016) state that time and money can influence behaviour...
...managing time and money in a certain way may lead to happiness (Mogilner & Norton, 2016).

Sprott and Liu (2016)...
...(Sprott & Liu, 2016)

In the bibliography/reference list

Author Surname, Initial(s). (Year). Title of article. Title of journal. Advance online publication. Retrieved from URL or doi

Mogilner, C., & Norton, M. I. (2016). Time, money, and happiness. Current Opinion in Psychology. Advance online publication. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.copsyc.2015.10.018

Sprott, D. E., & Liu, R. L. (2016). Research trends on branding in consumer psychology. Current Opinion in Psychology. Advance online publication. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.copsyc.2016.01.002

Notes

For more information about in-text citation and referencing multiple authors, see Creating a citation and reference list and click on the relevant section.

Use the URL of the journal homepage if there is not a DOI available.

In some fields, such as medicine and physics, an article may have hundreds of authors, in such cases it may be impractical to list each one. You would reference as follows:

In the text

For an in-text citation within your work for six or more authors, you would use the surname of the author followed by "et al." in all citations

Aubert et al. (2002)...
...(Aubert et al., 2002)

In the bibliography/reference list

Author Surname, Initial(s)., Author Surname, Initial(s)., Author Surname, Initial(s)., Author Surname, Initial(s)., Author Surname, Initial(s)., Author Surname, Initial(s)., Author Surname, Initial(s)., ... Final Author Surname, Initial(s) (Year). Title of article. Title of periodical, Volume(Issue), page range. Retrieved from URL or doi

Aubert, B., Bazan, A., Boucham, A., Boutigny, D., De Bonis, I., Favier, J., Gaillard, J-M., ... Neal, H. (2002). The BABAR detector. Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated Equipment, 479(1), pp.1-116. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0168-9002(01)02012-5

Notes

Use the details of the first seven authors followed by three dots (...) and the final author surname and initial(s).

For more information about in–text citation and referencing multiple authors, see Creating a citation and reference list and click on the relevant section.

In the text

For an in-text citation in your work for three to five authors, you would use all author surnames when you cite the resource for the first time in your piece of work

Nagel, Reiner and Wolf (2015)...
...(Nagel, Reiner & Wolf, 2015)

When you cite the resource for the second time onwards, you would use the surname of the first author followed by "et al.":

Nagel et al (2015)...
...(Nagel et al, 2015).

In the bibliography/reference list

Author Surname, Initial(s). (Year). Title of Article. Title of periodical, Volume(Issue). Retrieved from URL or doi

Nagel, A., Reiner, R. & Wolf, P. (2015). High end user control in game design elements increases compliance and in-game performance in a memory training game. Frontiers in Psychology. 6(1774). https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2015.01774

For more information about in–text citation and referencing multiple authors, see Creating a citation and reference list and click on the relevant section.

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For Kindle or other e-reader see Book – electronic.

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For Local Acts of Parliament see Government Publication - Local Act of Parliament.

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In the text

For an in-text citation in your work, you would cite the reference as follows:

Ordnance Survey (1996)...
...(Ordnance Survey, 1996).

Ordnance Survey (2014)...
...(Ordnance Survey, 2014)

Google Maps (2015)...
...(Google Maps, 2015)

Google Maps (2017)...
...(Google Maps, 2017)

In the bibliography/reference list

Physical item

Name of cartographer (Surname, initials(s) or corporate author). (Year). Title (Series, and series number) [Map type]. Place of publication: Publisher.

Ordnance Survey. (1996). Inverness and Strathglass (Landranger series sheet 26) [Ordnance Survey Map]. Southampton: Ordnance Survey.

Ordnance Survey. (2014). SK3486 SW [Ordnance Survey Map]. Southampton: Ordnance Survey.

Online item

Name of cartographer (Surname, initial(s) or corporate author). (Year). Title [Map type]. Retrieved (Month Day, Year if using a Google map or similar), from URL.

Ordnance Survey. (2017). [Castleton, Derbyshire 1:20000, Ordnance Survey]. Retrieved from http://digimap.edina.ac.uk/roam/os

Google Maps. (2015). [Google Street View Information Commons Sheffield]. Retrieved June 2, 2017 from https://www.google.co.uk/maps/@53.3811141,-1.484649,3a,75y,90t/data=!3m6!1e1!3m4!1scIigK3ySgICJnI9EBfdyuQ!
2e0!7i13312!8i6656?hl=en

Google Maps. (2017). [Google map of Information Commons, Sheffield]. Retrieved June 2, 2017 from https://www.google.co.uk/maps/@53.381501,-1.4849867,19.75z?hl=en

Notes

If there is not a title present, you would add a description of the item in square brackets e.g. [Google Street View Information Commons Sheffield].

For more information about in–text citation and referencing multiple authors, see Creating a citation and reference list and click on the relevant section.

For a Masters Dissertation see Dissertation.

In the text

For an in-text citation in your work, you would cite the text as follows:

TownByTheSea (2016)...
...(TownByTheSea, 2016)

Author surname, initial(s). (Year, Month Day). Title of post [Description of post]. Retrieved from URL.

TownByTheSea. (2016, July 10). USB Wireless Adapter in Xubuntu [Online forum post]. Retrieved from http://www.linuxforums.org/forum/ubuntu-linux/208396-usb-wireless-adapter-xubuntu.html

Notes

If the person posting in the forum only has a screen name, use this in place of the author.

For more information about in–text citation and referencing multiple authors, see Creating a citation and reference list and click on the relevant section.

For Mintel report see Reports.

In the text

For an in-text citation in your work, you would cite the reference as follows:

The Prodigy (1997)...
...(The Prodigy, 1997)

The Beatles (1967)...
...(The Beatles, 1967)

Queens of the Stone Age (2002)...
...(Queens of the Stone Age, 2002)

In the bibliography/reference list

Recording artist surname, initial(s) or group. (Copyright year). Title of album (edition if needed.) [Medium]. Location: Record Label.

The Prodigy. (1997). The Fat of the Land [MP3]. London: XL-Recordings

The Beatles. (1967). The Beatles [CD]. Heyes: Parlophone EMI

Queens of the Stone Age. (2002). Songs for the Deaf (Limited Edition UK Version.) [CD]. Santa Monica: Interscope Records

For more information about in–text citation and referencing multiple authors, see Creating a citation and reference list and click on the relevant section.

In the text

For an in-text citation work for one or two songwriters, you would use all songwriter surnames in your citation:

Berry (1956/1975, track 4)...
...(Berry, 1956/1975, track 4).

Jett and Folwey (1976/2014, track 9)...
...(Jett & Fowley, 1976/2014, track 9)

Mangan (2009, track 2)...
...(Mangan, 2009, track 2).

For a song written by three to five songwriters, you would use all songwriters surnames when you cite the resource for the first time in your piece of work:

Howlett, Flint, and Maxim Reality (1996, track 2)...
...(Howlett, Flint & Maxim Reality, 1996, track 2).

When you cite the resource for the second time onwards, you would use the surname of the first author followed by "et al.":

Howlett et al. (1996, track 2)...
...(Howlett et al., 1996, track 2).

In the bibliography/reference list

Songwriter surname, initial(s). (Copyright year). Title of song [Recorded by Artist initial(s), Surname or Group]. On Title of album [Medium]. Location: Record Label. (Date of recording if needed e.g. for a compilation).

Berry, C. (1956). You can't catch me [Recorded by J. Lennon]. On Rock n Roll [Vinyl Record]. London: Apple Records. (1975).

Howlett, L., Flint, K., and Maxim Reality. (1996). Breathe [Recorded by The Prodigy]. On The Fat of the Land [CD]. London: X-L Recordings.

Jett, J., & Fowley, K. (1976). Cherry Bomb [Recorded by The Runways]. On Guardians of the Galaxy: Awesome Mix Vol.1 (Original Motion Picture Soundtrack) [CD]. Hollywood: Marvel Music. (2014).

Mangan, D. (2009). Robots. On Nice, Nice, Very Nice [MP3]. Toronto: Arts & Crafts Productions.

Notes

The in-text citation consists of the songwriter, year of copyright, and track number. If referencing an item on vinyl, you will also need to include the side.

If the copyright date and recording date are different, you would include both in the in-text citation

For more information about in–text citation and referencing multiple authors, see Creating a citation and reference list and click on the relevant section.

For Music - Digital Format see Music – Album or Music – Album Track.

In the text

For an in text citation in your work for one or two composers, you would use all composer surnames in your citation:

Bowie (1998)...
...(Bowie, 1998)

Verdi (1978/1874)...
...(Verdi, 1978/1874)

In the bibliography/reference list

Composer surname, initial(s). (Year). Title. (Editors or translator initial(s). Surname) if needed). Place of publication: Publisher. (Original work published year - if applicable)

Bowie, D. (1998). The best of David Bowie 1974/1979. London: Wise Publications.

Verdi, G. (1978). Requiem. New York: Dover. (Original work published 1874).

Notes

If there is a librettist for a score, you would include their surname and initials after the composer e.g. Composer surname, initials. (Composer), & Librettist surname, initials. (Librettist) if applicable. (Year) Title of work Place of publication: Publisher.

If the copyright date and recording date are different, you would include both in the in-text citation

For more information about in–text citation and referencing multiple authors, see Creating a citation and reference list and click on the relevant section.

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In the text

For an in-text citation, you would cite the reference as follows:

Sample (2015)...
...(Sample, 2015)

In the bibliography/reference list

In print

Author Surname, Initial(s). (Full date of publication). Title of Article. Title of newspaper, page numbers.

Sample, I. (2015, December 15). Briton to blast off on mission of a lifetime. The Guardian, pp.1, 24-25

Online/Electronic

Author Surname, Initial(s). (Full date of publication). Title of Article. Title of newspaper. Retrieved from URL

Sample, I. (2015, December 15). Tim Peake, Britain's first ESA astronaut, set for lift off from Kazakhstan.The Guardian. Retrieved from https://www.theguardian.com

Newspaper database e.g. Nexis

Author Surname, Initial(s). (Full date of publication). Title of Article. Title of newspaper. Retrieved from URL of database homepage

Sample, I. (2015, December 15). Tim Peake, Britain's first ISS astronaut, set for lift off from Kazakhstan; Principia mission to International Space Station opens UK to serious involvement in human spaceflight. The Guardian. Retrieved from http://www.nexis.com

Notes

Sometimes a newspaper article is spread over a number of non-continuous pages. If this is the case separate the page numbers with a comma, e.g. pp. 1, 5, 24-25.

For more information about in-text citation and referencing multiple authors, see Creating a citation and reference list and click on the relevant section.

For NICE Guidelines see Standards.

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In the text

For an in-text citation in your work, you would cite the reference as follows:

U.S. Patent No. 7,686,202 (2010)...
...(U.S. Patent No. 7,686,202, 2010).

Great Britain Patent No. GB2494259 (2017)...
...(Great Britain Patent No. GB2494259, 2017).

In the bibliography/reference list

Inventor surname, initial(s). (Year of issue). Patent Identifier Number. Location: Name of publisher.

Carter, R. W., & Lawless, K.G. (2010). U.S. Patent No. 7,686,202. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Patent and Trademark Office.

Hollis, T. J., & Tan, F. (2017). Great Britain Patent No. GB2494259. London: Intellectual Property Office.

For more information about in–text citation and referencing multiple authors, see Creating a citation and reference list and click on the relevant section.

For Patient Information Leaflet see Information Sheet.

For photograph see Image – Original (e.g. poster or photograph in an art gallery).

In the text

For an in-text citation, you would cite the reference as follows:

Shakespeare (1622)...
...(Shakespeare, 1622)

Shakespeare (1632)...
...(Shakespeare, 1632)

Shakespeare (1984)...
...(Shakespeare, 1984)

Shakespeare (1993)...
...(Shakespeare, 1993)

Shakespeare (2007a)...
...(Shakespeare, 2007a)

Shakespeare (2007b)...
...(Shakespeare, 2007b)

In the bibliography/reference list

Indiviual play

Playwright surname, initial(s). (Year of publication). Title of play. Editor initial(s) and Surname (if applicable). Place of publication: Publisher.(Original work published year - if applicable)

If available online

Playwright surname, initial(s). (Year of publication). Title of play. Editor initial(s) and Surname (if applicable). Retrieved from URL

Shakespeare, W. (1622). The most excellent and lamentable tragedie, of Romeo and Iuliet As it hath beene sundrie times publikely acted, by the Kings Maiesties Seruants at the Globe. Retrieved from http://gateway.proquest.com/openurl?ctx_ver=Z39.88-2003&res_id=xri:eebo&rft_id=xri:eebo:image:11570

Shakespeare, W. (1632). A wittie and pleasant comedie called the taming of the shrew as it was acted by his Maiesties Seruants at the Blacke Friers and the Globe. Written by VVill. Shakespeare. Retrieved from http://gateway.proquest.com/openurl?ctx_ver=Z39.88-2003&res_id=xri:eebo&rft_id=xri:eebo:image:11558

Shakespeare, W. (1984). Romeo & Juliet.G. Blakemore Evans (ed.). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Shakespeare, W. (1993). The Taming of the Shrew. Ware: Wordsworth Editions Limited

In an anthology/complete works

Playwright surname, initial(s). (Year of publication). Title. In. Editor(s) initial(s) and surname (Ed). Title of anthology or collected works (Page numbers). Place of publication: Publisher. (Original work published year - if applicable)

Shakespeare, W. (2007a). The Taming of the Shrew. In. J. Bate & E. Rasmussen (Eds). William Shakespeare Complete Works (pp.526-583). Basingstoke: Macmillan.

Shakespeare, W. (2007b). The tragedy of Romeo and Juliet. In. J. Bate & E. Rasmussen (Eds). William Shakespeare Complete Works (pp.526-583). Basingstoke: Macmillan.

For more information about in–text citation and referencing multiple authors, see Creating a citation and reference list and click on the relevant section.

For Preprint see Journal Article – Preprint (Ahead of publication).

In the text

For an in-text citation in your work for one or two authors, you would use all author surnames in your citation:

Grant (2016)...
...(Grant, 2016).

For an in-text citation in your work for three to five authors, you would use all surnames when you cite the resource for the first time in your piece of work:

Sciamanna, Bazela and Bullingham (2016)...
...(Sciamanna, Bazela & Bullingham, 2016).

When you cite the resource for the second time onwards, you would use the surname of the first author followed by "et al.":

Sciamanna et al. (2016)...
...(Sciamanna et al., 2016).

In the bibliography/reference list

Author surname, initial(s). (Year, Month Day). Title of document [Format Description]. Retrieved from URL

Grant, V. (2016, December). Voice, agency and the medical arts [PowerPoint Presentation]. Retrieved from https://www.slideshare.net/missvagrant/voice-agency-and-the-medical-arts?qid=a182e432-dc5c-4cf0-a7bb-8a1acea1d416&v=&b=&from_search=7

Sciamanna, C., Bazela, C. & Bullingham, L. (2016, September 16). Reconceptualising information and digital literacy in a fluid digital world [PowerPoint Presentation]. Retrieved from https://www.slideshare.net/northerncollaboration/reconceptualising-information-and-digital-literacy-in-a-fluid-digital-world

For more information about in–text citation and referencing multiple authors, see Creating a citation and reference list and click on the relevant section.

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In the text

For an in-text citation in your work, you would cite the reference as follows:

Carter (2017)...
...(Carter, 2017).

Kampfner (2017)...
...(Kampfner, 2017)

Simpson (2017)...
...(Simpson, 2017)

Taylor (2017)...
...(Taylor, 2017)

In the bibliography/reference list

Producer surname, initial(s). (Year, Month Day of transmission). Title (Relevant information such as episode) [Radio Broadcast]. Retrieved from URL homepage to site

Carter, D. P. (Host). (2017, June 25). Rock Show with Daniel P Carter [Radio Broadcast] Retrieved from http://www.bbc.co.uk/radio1

Kampfner, J. (Producer). (2017, April 22). The Hours (Episode 1) [Radio Broadcast]. Retrieved from http://www.bbc.co.uk/radio4

Simpson, J. (Host). (2017, June 18). Hong Kong: Twenty Years On [Radio Broadcast]. Retrieved from https://learningonscreen.ac.uk/

Taylor, S. (Producer). (2017, May 7). Desert Island Discs Ed Sheeran [Radio Broadcast]. Retrieved from http://www.bbc.co.uk/radio4

Notes

If you are unable to locate the producer of the programme, you may use the name of the host in place of producer e.g. Carter, D. P. (Host)

Use the URL of the homepage where you retrieved this programme from. This provides a more stable link to the programme

For more information about in–text citation and referencing multiple authors, see Creating a citation and reference list and click on the relevant section.

In the text

For an in-text citation in your work for one or two authors, you would use all author surnames/corporate authors in your citation:

Financial Accounting Made Easy [FAME] (2017)...
...(Financial Accounting Made Easy [FAME], (2017)

Johnson and Fitzpatrick (2007)...
...(Johnson & Fitzpatrick, 2007).

Joseph Rowntree Foundation (2015)...
...(Joseph Rowntree Foundation, 2015).

Mintel (2017)...
...(Mintel, 2017).

Snowdon (2017)...
...(Snowdon, 2017)

Wohlers Associates Inc. (2013)...
...(Wohlers Associates Inc., 2013).

When you cite the resource for the second time onwards, if the corporation has a recognised abbreviation, you should use the abbreviation of the name:

FAME (2017)...
...(FAME, 2017)

In the bibliography/reference list

In print

Author surname, initial(s). or Corporate author. (Year). Title of report (Paper number if needed). Place of publication: Publisher.

Johnson, S., & Fitzpatrick, S. (2007). The impact of enforcement on street users in England. Bristol: The Policy Press.

Wohlers Associates Inc. (2013). Wohlers Report 2013: Additive manufacturing and 3D printing state of the industry: Annual worldwide progress report. Fort Collins: Wohlers Associates Ltd.

Online/Electronic

Author surname, initial(s). or Corporate author. (Year). Title of report (Paper number if needed). Retrieved from URL

Financial Accounting Made Easy [FAME]. (2017). ForgeMasters International Limited. Retrieved 10 October, 2017, from https://fame4.bvdinfo.com/version-2017105/fame/Companies/Report/display/_standard

Joseph Rowntree Foundation. (2015). Building sustainable homes. Retrieved from https://www.jrf.org.uk/file/46481/download?token=UXZzH3XM&filetype=full-report

Mintel. (2017). Fashion Online - UK - June 2017: Executive Summary. Retrieved from http://academic.mintel.com/display/793379/

Snowdon, C. (2017). Cheap as chips: Is a healthy diet affordable? (IEA Discussions Paper No. 82). Retrieved from https://iea.org.uk/wp-content/uploads/2017/03/Cheap-as-Chips-PDF.pdf

Notes

If the name of the corporation/agency/government agency is long, or is well known by an abbreviation, then the first time you cite the resource in your work you would write out the name in full with the abbreviation in square brackets after, and then use the abbreviation for second and further citations of the resource. E.g. (National Institute for Health and Care Excellence [NICE], 2016) or National Institute for Health and Care Excellence [NICE], (2016). The second and further citations would then read (NICE, 2016) or NICE (2016).

For more information about in–text citation and referencing multiple authors, see Creating a citation and reference list and click on the relevant section.

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For score see Music – Score.

In the text

For an in-text citation in your work, you would cite the reference as follows:

Bernini (ca. 1622)...
...(Bernini, ca. 1622)

Giacometti (1955)...
...(Giacometti, 1955)

Keegan (1991)...
...(Keegan, 1991)

Lipchitz (1924)...
...(Lipchitz, 1924)

Merz (1969)...
...(Merz, 1969)

In the bibliography/reference list

On display e.g. in a gallery/museum

Sculptor Surname, Initial(s). (Year). Name of sculpture [Sculpture]. Location of holding institution: Holding institution.

Bernini, G. [ca. 1622]. Neptune and Triton [Sculpture]. London: Victoria and Albert Museum

Keegan, S. (1991). Newby the dog [Sculpture]. London: Victoria and Albert Museum

Online e.g. on a gallery/museum website

Sculptor Surname, Initial(s). (Year). Name of sculpture [Sculpture]. Retrieved from URL

Giacometti, A. (1955). Bust of Diego [Sculpture]. Retrieved from http://www.tate.org.uk/art/artworks/giacometti-bust-of-diego-t00774

Lipchitz, J. (1924). Musical intruments, standing relief [Sculpture]. Retrieved from http://www.tate.org.uk/art/artworks/lipchitz-musical-instruments-standing-relief-t03526

Merz, M. (1969). [Steel and Nylon] [Sculpture]. Retrieved from http://www.tate.org.uk/art/artworks/merz-untitled-t13031

For more information about in–text citation and referencing multiple authors, see Creating a citation and reference list and click on the relevant section.

In the text

For an in-text citation in your work, you would cite the reference as follows

University of Sheffield Library (2017)...
...(University of Sheffield Library, 2017).

University of Sheffield Lib (2017)...
...(University of Sheffield Lib, 2017).

In the bibliography/reference list

Author surname, initial(s). [Screen name]. (Year, month, day). Title of item [item type]. Retrieved from URL

University of Sheffield Lib [UniSheffieldLib]. (2017, May 12). On this day in 1959, our Western Bank Library (then called the 'Main Library') was officially opened by T.S. Eliot http://www.sheffield.ac.uk/library/special/libcoll...[Twitter post]. Retrieved from https://twitter.com/UniSheffieldLib/status/862945694457274368

University of Sheffield Library. (2017, April 16). On this day, in 1909, the first library opened at the University of Sheffield Library [Facebook post]. Retrieved from https://www.facebook.com/UniSheffieldLib/posts/1346273698788324

Notes

  • If you can only find the screen name of the author, then you would provide it as the author without using brackets
  • Use the name of the page, caption, or the content of the page as title, up to 40 words
  • If the item does not have any words, such as a picture, you can provide a description of the item in square brackets
  • Add a retrieval date if you are referencing a whole feed or page, as the content may change e.g. Retrieved 12 May 2017 from URL.

For more information about in–text citation and referencing multiple authors, see Creating a citation and reference list and click on the relevant section.

In the text

For an in-text citation in your work for you would use the full corporation name in your citation with the abbreviation in square brackets next to it:

American Association for the International Association for Testing Materials [ATSM] (2012)...
...(American Association for the International Association for Testing Materials [ATSM], 2012).

British Standards Institution [BSI] (2017)...
...(British Standard Institution [BSI], 2017).

National Institute for Health and Care Excellence [NICE], (2015)...
...(National Institute for Health and Care Excellence [NICE], 2015)

When you cite the resource for the second time onwards, you should use the abbreviation of the name:

ATSM (2012)...
...(ATSM, 2012).

BSI (2017)...
...(BSI, 2017).

NICE (2015)...
...(NICE, 2015).

In the bibliography/reference list

Organisation that made the standard. (Year). Title of the standard (Standard No.). Retrieved from URL

American Association for the International Association for Testing Materials. (2012). Standard specification for pipe, steel, and hot-dipped, zinc-coated, welded and seamless (Standard No. A53/A53M-12). Retrieved from: https://www.astm.org/cgi-bin/resolver.cgi?A53A53M-12

British Standards Institution. (2017). Technical product documentation and specification (Standard No. BS 8888). Retrieved from https://bsol.bsigroup.com//Bibliographic/BibliographicInfoData/000000000030334593

National Institute for Health and Care Excellence. (2015). Obesity in children and young people: prevention and lifestyle weight management programmes (Nice Quality Standard QS94). Retrieved from https://www.nice.org.uk/guidance/qs94

For more information about in–text citation and referencing multiple authors, see Creating a citation and reference list and click on the relevant section.

For State Paper see Government Publication – Command Paper.

For Statutory Instruments see Government Publication – Statutory Instruments.

For study score see Music Score.

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For Television see Video sections.

In the text

For an in-text citation, you would cite as follows:

Campbell Reid (2007)...
(Campbell Reid, 2007)

Vella (2005)...
(Vella, 2005)

In the bibliography/reference list

Author Surname, Initial(s). (Year). Title of thesis. (Unpublished doctoral thesis). Name of institution, location, country.

Campbell Reid, J. (2007). The social psychology of rural travel mode choice (Unpublished doctoral thesis). University of Sheffield, Sheffield, United Kingdom.

Vella, A. (2005). Educate or punish: the case for prison education (Unpublished doctoral thesis). University of Sheffield, Sheffield, United Kingdom.

Notes

For more information about in-text citation and creating your reference list, see Creating a citation and reference list and click on the relevant section.

In the text

For an in-text citation, you would cite as follows:

Gee (2010)...
(Gee, 2010)

Reid (2013)...
...(Reid, 2013)

In the bibliography/reference list

Author Surname, Initial(s). (Year). Title of thesis (Doctoral thesis, name of instution, country). Retrieved from URL

Gee, K. A. (2010). Lives and careers in music: social identity perspectives on brass music-making (Doctoral thesis, University of Sheffield, United Kingdom). Retrieved from http://etheses.whiterose.ac.uk/id/eprint/896

Reid, A. M. (2013). The influence of prior knowledge in memory consolidation. (Doctoral thesis, University of York, United Kingdom). Retrieved from http://etheses.whiterose.ac.uk/id/eprint/5667

Notes

For more information about in-text citation and creating your reference list, see Creating a citation and reference list and click on the relevant section.

In the text

For an in-text citation within your work, you would cite the reference as follows:

Dostoyevsky (1998)...
...(Dostoyevsky, 1998).

Homer (1997)...
...(Homer, 1997).

Tolstoy (1998)...
...(Tolstoy, 1998)

Tolstoy (2008)...
...(Tolstoy, 2008)

In the bibliography/reference list

In print

Author surname, initial(s). (Year). Title of item (Translator initial(s). Translator surname, trans.). Place of publication: Publisher.

Homer. (1997). The odyssey (R. Fagels, trans.). New York: Penguin.

Tolstoy, L. (2008). Anna Karenina (L. Maude & A. Maude, trans.). Oxford: Oxford University Press

Online/Electronic

Author surname, initial(s). (Year). Title of item (Translator initial(s). Translator surname, trans.). Retrieved from URL.

Dostoyevsky, F. (2006). Crime and punishment (C. Garnett, trans.). Retrieved from http://www.gutenberg.org/files/2554/2554-h/2554-h.htm

Tolstoy, L. (1998). Anna Karenina (C. Garnett, trans.). Retrieved from http://www.gutenberg.org/cache/epub/1399/pg1399-images.pdf

For more information about in–text citation and referencing multiple authors, see Creating a citation and reference list and click on the relevant section.

For Twitter see Social Media.

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For UK Public General Act see Government Publciation – Act of Parliament post 1963 or pre 1963.

For Undergraduate Dissertation see Dissertation.

In the bibliography/reference list

Author surname, initial(s). (Year of the draft). Title of manuscript. Unpublished manuscript [or "Manuscript submitted for publication" or "Manuscript in preparation"] Retrieved from URL (if retrieved online).

If using a unpublished manuscript from a university

Author surname, initial(s). (Year of the draft). Title of manuscript. Unpublished manuscript [or "Manuscript submitted for publication" or "Manuscript in preparation"], University Department: Name of institution, City, Country

Notes

"Unpublished work includes work that is in progress, has been submitted for publication, or has been completed but not submitted for publication. This category also includes work that has not been formally published but is available on a personal or institutional website, an electronic archive[...], or a preprint archive."
(APA, 2010 p.211)

  • If the work is available electronically, add where you retrieved the information
  • Do not provide the name of the journal or publisher that the manuscript has been submitted
  • A manuscript for a journal which has been accepted for publication should be referenced as Journal – Preprint (Ahead of publication).
  • Use this format for work that is in draft or still in progress, and use the appropriate ending e.g. Manuscript in progress
  • You may use other endings for the reference which are appropriate for your work e.g. Unpublished data

For more information about in–text citation and referencing multiple authors, see Creating a citation and reference list and click on the relevant section.

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Documentary (One off documentary)

In the text

For an in-text citation in your work for one or two creators, you would use all creator surnames in your citation:

McGrady and Barrie (2015)...
...(McGrady & Barrie, 2015).

Executive producer surname, initial(s). (Executive Producer), & Director surname, initial(s). (Director). (Year). Title of documentary [Documentary]. Retrieved from name of database

McGrady, P. (Executive Producer). & Barrie, D. (Director). (2015). Andrew Marr on Churchill: Blood, sweat and oil paint [Documentary]. Retrieved from Box of Broadcasts.

Film

In the text

For an in-text citation in your work for three to five creators, you would use all the surnames when you cite the resource for the first time in your piece of work:

Netter, Womark and Lee (2012)...
...(Netter, Womark & Lee, 2012).

When you cite the resource for the second time onwards, you would use the surname of the first creator followed by "et al.":

Netter et al. (2012)...
...(Netter et al., 2012).

In the bibliography/reference list

Producer surname, initial(s). (Producer), & Director surname, initial(s). (Director). (Year). Title of film [Motion Picture]. Retrieved from name of database

Netter, G. (Producer), Womark, D. (Producer). & Lee, A. (Producer & Director). (2012). Life of Pi [Motion Picture]. Retrieved from Box of Broadcasts.

TV episode from a series

In the text

For an in-text citation in your work for one or two creators, you would use all creator surnames in your citation:

De Laurentiis and Walsh (2017)...
...(De Laurentiis & Walsh, 2017).

In the bibliography/reference list

Writer Surname, Initial(s). (Writer). & Director Surname, Initial(s). (Director). (Year of original broadcast). Name of episode [Television Series Episode]. In: Executive Producer initial(s), Surname (Executive Producer(s)). Name of TV show. Retrieved from name of database

De Laurentiis, R. (Writer) & Walsh, D. (Director). (2017). The house of special purpose [Television series episode]. In: W. Littlefield (Executive Producer), Fargo. Retrieved from Box of Broadcasts.

Documentary (one off documentary)

In the text

For an in-text citation in your work for one or two creators, you would use all creator surnames in your citation:

Tichy and Moore (2002)...
...(Tichy & Moore, 2002).

In the bibliography/reference list

Executive producer surname, initial(s). (Executive Producer), & Director surname, initial(s). (Director). (Year). Title of documentary [Documentary]. Place of production (City): Production Studio.

Tichy, W. (Executive Producer), & Moore, M. (Director). (2002). Bowling for Columbine [Documentary]. Los Angeles: United Artists.

Film

In the text

For an in-text citation in your work for three to five creators, you would use all the surnames when you cite the resource for the first time in your piece of work:

Franklin, Medavoy, Messer, Oliver and Aronofsky (2010)...
...(Franklin, Medavoy, Messer, Oliver & Aronofsky, 2010).

When you cite the resource for the second time onwards, you would use the surname of the first creator followed by "et al.":

Franklin et al. (2010)...
...(Franklin et al., 2010).

In the bibliography/reference list

Producer surname, initial(s). (Producer), & Director surname, initial(s). (Director). (Year). Title of film [Motion Picture]. Country of origin: Studio

Franklin, S. (Producer), Medavoy, M. (Producer), Messer, A. (Producer), Oliver, B. (Producer), & Aronofsky, D. (Director). (2010). Black Swan [Motion Picture]. United States: Fox Searchlight Productions.

TV episode in a series

In the text

For an in-text citation in your work for three to five creators, you would use all the surnames when you cite the resource for the first time in your piece of work:

Virgo, Simon, and Burns (2002)...
...(Virgo, Simon & Burns, 2002).

When you cite the resource for the second time onwards, you would use the surname of the first creator followed by "et al.":

Virgo et al. (2002)...
...(Virgo et al., 2002).

In the bibliography/reference list

Writer surname, initial(s). (Writer), & Director Surname, Initial(s). (Director). (Year). Name of episode [Television Series Episode]. In: Executive Producer Initial(s), Surname (Executive Producer), Title of TV series. Place of Production (City): Production Studio

Virgo, C. (Director), & Simon, D. (Writer), & Burns, E. (Writer). (2002). Old Cases [Television Series Episode]. In N. Kostroff-Noble, D. Simon, & R.F. Colesberry (Executive Producers), The Wire. New York: HBO.

For more information about in–text citation and referencing multiple authors, see Creating a citation and reference list and click on the relevant section.

Documentary (one off documentary)

In the text

For an in-text citation in your work for one or two creators, you would use all creator surnames in your citation:

Dale and Wood (2017)...
...(Dale & Wood, 2017).

In the bibliography/reference list

Executive producer surname, initial(s). (Executive Producer), & Director surname, initial(s). (Director). (Year). Title of documentary [Documentary]. Retrieved from name of streaming service

Dale, P. (Executive Producer), & Wood, P. (Director). (2017). Rehab: Lives Addicted [Documentary]. Retrieved from BBC iPlayer.

Film

In the text

For an in-text citation in your work for three to five authors, you would use all surnames when you cite the resource for the first time in your piece of work:

Neal, Noonan, Saunders, and Waititi (2016)...
...(Neal, Noonan, Saunders, & Waititi, 2016)

When you cite the resource for the second time onwards, you would use the surname of the first creator followed by "et al.":

Neal et al. (2016)...
...(Neal et al., 2016)

In the bibliography/reference list

Producer surname, initial(s). (Producer), & Director Surname, Initial(s). (Director). (Year). Title of motion picture [Motion Picture]. Retrieved from name of streaming service

Neal, C. (Producer), Noonan, M. (Producer), Saunders, L. (Producer), & Waititi, T. (Producer & Director). (2016). Hunt for the Wilderpeople [Motion Picture]. Retrieved from Netflix

TV episode in a series

In the text

For an in-text citation in your work for one or two creators, you would use all creator surnames in your citation:

Esmail (2016)...
...(Esmail, 2016).

In the bibliography/reference list

Writer surname, initial(s). (Writer), & Director Surname, Initial(s). (Director). (Year). Name of episode [Television series episode]. In Executive Producer initial(s), Surname (Executive producer(s)), Title of TV Show. Retrieved from name of streaming service.

Esmail, S. (Writer & Director). (2016). eps2.9_pyth0n-pt2.p7z [Television series episode]. In S. Esmail, S. Golin, C. Hamilton (Executive Producers), Mr. Robot. Retrieved from Amazon Prime Video.

For more information about in–text citation and referencing multiple authors, see Creating a citation and reference list and click on the relevant section.

User uploaded video

In the text

UniSheffieldLib (2016)...
...(UniSheffieldLib, 2016).

In the bibliography/reference list

Author surname, initial(s) [Screen name]. (Year, month day). Title of video [Video file]. Retrieved from URL

uniSheffieldLib. (2016, December 2). Information Literacy [Video file]. Retrieved from https://youtu.be/QDzujzhR0eE

Notes

If the name of the author is not available, then you would use the screen name in the citation and reference list

For more information about in–text citation and referencing multiple authors, see Creating a citation and reference list and click on the relevant section.

For Vinyl see Music – Album or Music – Album Track.

For Votes and Proceedings (Government Publications) see Government Publications – Votes and Proceedings.

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In the text

For an in-text citation, you should cite the author. If the author is an organisation, you should use the name of the organisation the first time you cite the resource with the recognised abbreviation next to it in square brackets:

Higher Education Funding Council for England [HEFCE] (2016)...
...(Higher Education Funding Council for England [HEFCE], 2016)

When you cite the resource for the second time onwards, you should use the abbreviation of the name:

HEFCE (2016)...
(HEFCE, 2016)

In the bibliography/reference list

Author Surname, Initials/Organisation. (Year). Title of webpage. Retrieved date, retrieved from.

Higher Education Funding Council for England [HEFCE]. (2016). Evaluation of the national scholarship programme; year 4. Retrieved 26 January, 2016, from http://www.hefce.ac.uk/pubs/rereports/Year/2016/nspevaly4/Title,107278,en.html

NHS Choices [NHS]. (2015). Stress, anxiety and depression. Retrieved 8 February, 2016, from http://www.nhs.uk/Conditions/stress-anxiety-depression/Pages/low-mood-stress-anxiety.aspx

Notes

Include the retrieval date if the material is likely to change. If you do not include the retrieval date, the website address should read, Retrieved from URL

Locating the date of a website and webpages can be difficult, the page you are looking at may tell you at the beginning or the end of the page or document. Do not use the footer that says ‘Last modified’ as it may not be the update for the page or document. Also be wary of the copyright date as it may be a footer for the whole website. If you cannot locate a date, use ‘n.d.’ for ‘no date’.

If the name of the corporation/agency/government agency is long, or is well known by an abbreviation, then the first time you cite the resource in your work you would write out the name in full with the abbreviation in square brackets after, and then use the abbreviation for second and further citations of the resource. E.g. (National Institute for Health and Care Excellence [NICE], 2016) or National Institute for Health and Care Excellence [NICE], (2016). The second and further citations would then read (NICE, 2016) or NICE (2016).

If the corporation/association/government agency has a short named, or an abbreviation that would not be easily understandable, then you would use the full name in all citations, e.g. (University of Sheffield, 2016) or University of Sheffield (2016)

For more information about in-text citation, referencing multiple authors and abbreviations, see Creating a citation and reference list and click on the relevant section.

Website

In text citation

For an in-text citation in your work for you would use the full corporation name in your citation with the abbreviation in square brackets next to it:

American Psychological Association [APA] (n.d.)...
..(American Psychological Association [APA], n.d.)

Higher Education Funding Council for England [HEFCE] (n.d.)...
...(Higher Education Funding Council for England [HEFCE], n.d.)

When you cite the resource for the second time onwards, you should use the abbreviation of the name:

APA (n.d)...
(APA, n.d)

HEFCE (n.d.)...
(HEFCE, n.d.)

In the bibliography/reference list

Author Surname, Initial/Organisation. (Year). Title. Retrieved date, from URL

American Psychological Association [APA]. (n.d.). American Psychological Association. Retrieved 26 January, 2016, from http://www.apa.org

Higher Education Funding Council for England [HEFCE]. (n.d.). Higher Education Funding Council for England. Retrieved 26 January, 2016, from http://www.hefce.ac.uk

In the bibliography/reference list

Author Surname, Initial/Organisation. (Year). Title. Retrieved date, from URL

American Psychological Association [APA]. (n.d.). American Psychological Association. Retrieved 26 January, 2016, from http://www.apa.org

Higher Education Funding Council for England [HEFCE]. (n.d.). Higher Education Funding Council for England. Retrieved 26 January, 2016, from http://www.hefce.ac.uk

Notes

Include the retrieval date if the material is likely to change. If you do not include the retrieval date, the website address should read, Retrieved from URL

Locating the date of a website and webpages can be difficult, the page you are looking at may tell you at the beginning or the end of the page or document. Do not use the footer that says ‘Last modified’ as it may not be the update for the page or document. Also be wary of the copyright date as it may be a footer for the whole website. If you cannot locate a date, use ‘n.d.’ for ‘no date’.

If the name of the corporation/agency/government agency is long, or is well known by an abbreviation, then the first time you cite the resource in your work you would write out the name in full with the abbreviation in square brackets after, and then use the abbreviation for second and further citations of the resource. E.g. (National Institute for Health and Care Excellence [NICE], 2016) or National Institute for Health and Care Excellence [NICE], (2016). The second and further citations would then read (NICE, 2016) or NICE (2016).

If the corporation/association/government agency has a short named, or an abbreviation that would not be easily understandable, then you would use the full name in all citations, e.g. (University of Sheffield, 2016) or University of Sheffield (2016)

For more information about in-text citation, referencing multiple authors and abbreviations, see Creating a citation and reference list and click on the relevant section.

For White Paper (Government Publication) see Government Publication – Command Paper.

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Y

For YouTube see Video – Sharing Website e.g. YouTube.

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Z

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