Harvard referencing

Reference list vs. Bibliography

In the Harvard style, references are listed at the end of your work, and are organised alphabetically by the surname of the author.

A reference list includes all works that have been referred to in the assignment.

A bibliography includes all the material consulted in writing your assignment even if you have not cited them within it.

Many people use these terms interchangeably so, if you are unsure about whether you need to include a bibliography as well as a reference list, ask your tutor.


See guides for other referencing styles

This guide details the Harvard style of referencing based upon the advice given in the book "British Standard BS ISO 690:2010 Information and documentation. Guidelines for bibliographic references and citations to information resources." This is the style of Harvard that The University Of Sheffield supports.

Referencing in the Harvard style is a two–part process:

Creating a citation and reference list

Harvard style referencing is an author/date method. Sources are cited within the body of your assignment by giving the name of the author(s) followed by the date of publication. All other details about the publication are given in the list of references or bibliography at the end.

If a citation refers to a complete information source, or an idea/theme which runs through the entire work, or a substantial part of an information source, then you would simply include author and date, e.g. (Smith 2017) or Smith (2017).

Citations which are used with direct quotations, or are referring to a particular part of a source, should include the page number in your citation e.g. (Smith 2017, p. 42) or Smith (2017, p. 42).


Tips for citing
  • If the author(s) name appears in the text as part of the body of the assignment, then the year will follow in round brackets, e.g. According to Smith (2017).

  • If the author(s) name does not appear in the body of the text, then the name and date should follow in round brackets, e.g. The terminology has been called into question when it was discovered...(Smith 2017).


A reference list is the list of items you have used in your work. Reference lists in Harvard are alphabetical.

General tips for creating a list are:

  • Author/Editor names should be given in the following format: Surname, Initials e.g. Smith, F.G.

  • Certain types of material, such as encyclopaedias or dictionaries, may not have one person or persons as the main author or editor. These can be referenced by title first e.g. OED online, ©2017. Oxford: Oxford University Press. [Viewed 26 January 2017]. Available from: http://www.oed.com

  • Each reference should end in a full stop unless it ends with a link.

Quoting

If you are directly quoting from a source, then you should include the page number in your citation. A short quotation (under two lines), should be within the body of the text and in quotation marks, e.g.

There is still a labelling issue when it comes to flavourings in food, it is noted that, "flavours such as vanillin which occur naturally in food are called ‘nature–identical’. The label does not have to state where it comes from." (Wilson 2009, p. 257).


Reference List

Wilson, C., (2009). Swindled: From poison sweets to counterfeit coffee – the dark history of the food cheats. London: John Murray (Publishers).


Alphabetical list of items

In the text

For an in–text citation in your work, you would cite the reference as follows:

Steel (2015) looks to promote...
The promotion of new materials is demonstrated...(Steel 2015)

In the bibliography/reference list

Name of creator Surname, Initial(s)., (Year). Title of blog post. Title of blog [online]. Date blog was posted (Day/Month/Year). [Date viewed]. Available from: URL

Steel, B., (2015). New edition of Journal Citation Reports now available. Librarians' Blog for Social Sciences [online]. 22 June 2015. [Viewed 1 December 2015]. Available from: http://unisheffieldlib-socialsciences.blogspot.co.uk/2015/06/new-edition-of-journal-citation-reports.html

For more information about in–text citation and referencing multiple authors, see Creating a citation and reference list and click on the relevant section.

In the text

For an in–text citation in your work, you would cite the reference as follows:

Bryman (2016) recommends...
Quantitative data is more suited to the study due to... (Bryman 2016).

In the bibliography/reference list

Author Surname, Initial(s)., (Year). Title. Edition (if not first edition). Place of publication: Publisher.

Bryman, A., (2016). Social research methods. 5th ed. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

For more information about in–text citation and referencing multiple authors, see Creating a citation and reference list and click on the relevant section.

In the text: with 2 or 3 authors

For an in–text citation in your work, you would cite the reference as follows:

Wallace and Wolf (2006) found that...
Globalization is a theory that has many concepts... (Wallace & Wolf 2006).

In the text: with 4 or more authors

Begg et al. (2014) found that...
The elasticity of demand demonstrates... (Begg et al. 2014).

In the bibliography/reference list - with any number of multiple authors

Author Surname, Initial(s)., Author Surname, Initial(s)., Author Surname, Initial(s). and Author Surname, Initial(s)., (Year). Title. Edition (if not first edition). Place of publication: Publisher.

Begg, D.K.H., Vernasca, G., Fischer, S. and Dornbusch, R., (2014). Economics. 11th ed. London: McGraw–Hill.

For more information about in–text citation and referencing multiple authors, see Creating a citation and reference list and click on the relevant section.

In print

In the text

For an in–text citation in your work, you would cite the reference as follows:

He (1997) found that...
The ethnic relations in China ...(He 1997).

Zheng (1997) looked at the cultural influences...
The culture of western business during the period...(Zheng 1997).

In the bibliography/reference list

Chapter Author Surname, Initials., (Year). Title of chapter. In: Editor(s) Initial. Editor(s) Surname, ed(s). Title of book. Edition (if not first). Place of publication: Publisher. Page numbers.

He, X., (1997). The market economy and ethnic relations in China. In: A. Ikeo, ed. Economic development in twentieth century East Asia: the international context. London: Routledge. pp. 190–205.

Zheng, X., (1997). Chinese business culture from the 1920s to the 1950s. In: A. Ikeo, ed. Economic development in twentieth century East Asia: the international context. London: Routledge. pp. 35–54.

Chapter/Section in an Electronic Book

In the text

For an in–text citation in your work, you would cite the reference as follows:

Becker (2012) identifies...
The research methodology for social policy...(Becker 2012)

In the bibliography/reference list

Chapter Author Surname, Initial(s)., (Year). Chapter of title. In: Editor(s) Initials. Editor(s) Surnames. Title of book [online]. Edition (if not first). Place of publication: Publisher. Page numbers. [Date viewed]. Available from: URL or DOI

Becker, S., (2012). Approaches and methods. In: P. Alcock, M. May and S. Wright, eds. The student's companion to social policy [online]. 4th ed. pp.12–18. [Viewed 5 October 2015]. Available from: https://www.dawsonera.com/abstract/9781119960805

For more information about in–text citation and referencing multiple authors, see Creating a citation and reference list and click on the relevant section.

In the bibliography/reference list for one editor

Editor Surname, Initial(s). ed., (Year). Title. Edition (if not the first. Place of publication: Publisher.

Ikeo, A. ed., 1997. Economic development in twentieth century East Asia: the international context. London: Routledge.

In the bibliography/reference list for two editors

Editor Surname, Initial(s). and Editor Surname, Initial(s). eds., (Year). Title. Edition (if not the first). Place of publication: Publisher.

Parker, R. and Aggleton, P. eds., (2007). Culture, society and sexuality: a reader. 2nd ed. London: Routledge.

In the bibliography/reference list for three editors

Editor Surname, Initials., Editor Surname, Initials. and Editor Surname, Initial. eds., (Year). Title. Edition (if not the first). Place of Publication: Publisher.

Alcock, P., May, M. and Wright, S. eds., (2012). The student's companion to social policy. 4th ed. Oxford: Wiley–Blackwell.

For more information about in–text citation and referencing multiple authors, see Creating a citation and reference list and click on the relevant section.

In the text

For an in–text citation in your work, you would cite the reference as follows:

Walliman (2011) looks at identifying the research problem by...
By refining what information...(Walliman 2011).

In the bibliography/reference list

Author Surname, Initial(s)., (Year). Title of item [online]. Edition (if not first). Place of publication: Publication. [Date Viewed]. Available from: DOI or URL.

Walliman, N.S.R., (2011). Research methods: The basics [online]. Abingdon: Routledge. [Viewed 19 November 2015]. Available from: https://www.dawsonera.com/readonline/9780203836071/

For an e-reader (e.g. Kindle)

Author Surname, Initial(s)., (Year). Title of item [Model of e-reader]. Edition (if not first). Place of publication: Publication. [Date Viewed]. Available from: Name of website book purchased from.

Bryman, A. and Bell, E., (2011). Business research methods [Kindle Fire HD 8]. (3rd ed). Oxford: Oxford University Press. [Viewed 7 April 2017]. Available from: Amazon.co.uk

For more information about in–text citation and referencing multiple authors, see Creating a citation and reference list and click on the relevant section.

Dictionary Entry – Print

In the text

Research (2009) is defined as...
This is the process of...(Research 2009)

Berges (2012) notes that moral development...
Moral development is associated with...(Berges 2012)

For an in–text citation in your work, you would cite the reference as follows:

In the bibliography/reference list

Author of Section Surname, Initial(s)., (Year). Title of entry. In: Editor(s) Surname, Initial(s)., ed(s). Title. . Edition (if not first). Place of publication: Publisher. Volume (if applicable). Page numbers.

Berges, S., (2012). Moral Development. In: Chadwick, R. ed. Encyclopedia of Applied Ethics. 2nd ed. London: Academic Press. Vol. 3 M–R. pp.141–151.

Research., (2009). In: Concise Oxford English Dictionary. 11th rev. ed. Oxford: Oxford University Press. p.1222.

Dictionary Entry – Online

In the bibliography/reference list

Author of Section Surname, Initial(s)., (Year). Title of entry. In: Editor(s) Surname, Initials. ed(s). Title. Edition (if not first. Place of publication: Publisher. Volume (if applicable). [Date viewed]. Available from: URL or DOI.

Research, n.1. (2010). In: OED Online. Oxford: Oxford University Press. [Viewed 14 December 2015]. Available from: http://www.oed.com/view/Entry/163432?isAdvanced=false&result=1&rskey=P9ZxF&

Full Dictionary – In Print

In the bibliography/reference list

Editor Surname, Initial(s). ed(s)., (Year). Title. Edition (if not first). Place of publication: Publisher. Volume(s) (if applicable).

Chadwick, R. ed., (2012). Encylopedia of applied ethics. 2nd ed. London: Academic Press. 4 Vol.

Saones, C. and Stevenson, A. eds., (2005). Oxford English Dictionary. 2nd rev. ed. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Full Dictionary Online

In the bibliography/reference list

Editor Surname, Initial(s). ed(s)., (Year). Title. Edition (if not first). Place of publication: Publisher. Volumes (if applicable.) [Date viewed]. URL

OED online., (©2015). Oxford: Oxford University Press. [Viewed 17 December 2015). Available from: http://www.oed.com

For more information about in–text citation and referencing multiple authors, see Creating a citation and reference list and click on the relevant section.

For Documetary see the Video section.

For Film videos see Video

Online image (e.g. Flickr) with full details

In the text

For an in–text citation in your work, you would cite the reference as follows:

Sunblocker by Schlamann (2015) depicts the lionfish...
The image Sunblocker shows the lionfish...(Schlamann 2015)

The image Ladybower Plughole by Andy_C (2005) shows the overflow...
The overflow of the Ladybower reservoir can be seen in the image Ladybower Plughole (Andy_C 2005)

In the bibliography/reference list

Artist surname, Initial(s)., (Year). Title of image [Type of image]. [Date viewed]. Available from: URL

Andy_C., (2005). Ladybower Plughole [digital image]. [Viewed 6 July 2016]. Available from: https://www.flickr.com/photos/andycpics/3035948922

Schlamann, C., (2015). Sunblocker [digital image]. [Viewed 6 July 2016]. Available from: http://photography.nationalgeographic.com/photography/photo-of-the-day/lionfish-underwater-sunlight/

Online image without a clear title

In the text

For an in–text citation in your work, you would cite the reference as follows:

The beach huts in the image by Ren_7 (2010) depict...
The beach huts shown in the image (Ren_7 2010) are typical of those at British resorts

The image from NASA Johnson Space Center (2015) shows the Earth as observed from...
The image of Earth (NASA Johnson Space Center 2015)

Pluto as seen by the New Horizons Spacecraft (NASA Johnson Space Center 2015) shows the surface...
The surface of the dwarf planet Pluto by NASA Johnson Space Center (2015)...

In the bibliography/reference list

Artist surname, Initials., (Year). [Title of image] [Type of image]. [Date viewed]. Available from: URL.

NASA Johnson Space Center., (2015). [Earth from Deep Space Climate Observatory] [digital image]. [Viewed 11 July 2016]. Available from: https://www.instagram.com/p/5Xs5tgqpIL

NASA Johnson Space Center., (2015). [Pluto from New Horizons Spacecraft] [digital image]. [Viewed 11 July 2016]. Available from: https://www.instagram.com/p/5Htd_cqpLC

Ren_7., (2010). [Beach huts] [digital image]. [Viewed 11 July 2010]. Available from: https://www.flickr.com/photos/ren7/5108123117/

Online image without a clear date

In the text

For an in–text citation in your work, you would cite the reference as follows:

The Spicebush Swallowtail Butterfly as photographed by Marawski (ca. 2008) shows...
The image of the Spicebush Swallowtail Butterfly (Murawski ca. 2008)

In the bibliography/reference list

Artist surname, Initials., (Year). Title of image [Type of image]. [Date viewed]. Available from: URL

Murawski, D. A., [ca. 2008]. Spicebush swallowtail butterfly [digital image]. [Viewed 11 July 2016]. Available from: http://www.nationalgeographic.com/photography/photos/patterns-butterflies/#/1371.ngsversion.1467941567217.jpg

Notes

  • In some cases you may need to use the screen name of the creator if their real name is not available, this can be the case with image sharing websites
  • If there is no clear title to the image, a popular title may be used if one exists. If a popular title to the image does not exist then you will need to supply the image with a title, in square brackets, proving the following where possible
    • The subject matter.
    • The name or place of the object depicted, i.e. the person, the building, the location etc.
  • If the year the image was taken is not available but can be established, then use this as your date.
  • If the exact date is not known, an approximate date followed by a question mark (?), or preceded by "ca." should be used, this should be given in square brackets e.g.
    • [2005?]
    • [ca. 2005].
    • [20th century].
  • If no date, or approximate date can be found then you would use [no date].

For more information about in–text citation and referencing multiple authors, see Creating a citation and reference list and click on the relevant section.

Original photograph or image on display e.g. in an art gallery

In the text

For an in–text citation in your work, you would cite the reference as follows:

The photograph by Nicholls (1919) captures preparations in London...
The photograph 'Preparations for Peace Day Celebrations' (Nicholls 1919) shows the 18th Battalion...

The photograph by Prince (1986) captures...
The image of a cowboy riding a horse (Prince 1986)...

Dewynters (1999) produced the iconic poster for the production of Cats...
The poster for Cats at the New London Theatre (Dewynters 1999)...

In the bibliography/reference list

Surname of artist, Initial(s)., (Year). Title [Item type]. At: Place: Holding institution, department (if available), identifier or reference number (if available).

Or if viewed online

Surname of artist, Initial(s)., (Year). Title [Item type]. At: Place: Holding institution, department (if available), identifier or reference number (if available). [Date Viewed]. Available from: URL

Dewynters., (1999). [Cats at the New London Theatre] [poster]. At: London: Victoria and Albert Museum, S.231–1999

Dewynters., (1999). [Cats at the New London Theatre] [poster]. At: London: Victoria and Albert Museum, S.231–1999. [Viewed 1 August 2017]. Available from: https://collections.vam.ac.uk/item/O48809/poster-dewynters-ltd/

Nicholls, H., (1919). Preparations for the peace day celebrations, July 1919 [photograph]. At: London: Imperial War Museum, Photograph Archive Collection, Q31324.

Nicholls, H., (1919). Preparations for the peace day celebrations, July 1919 [photograph]. At: London: Imperial War Museum, Photograph Archive Collection, Q31324. [Viewed 2 January, 2016]. Available from: http://www.iwm.org.uk/collections/item/object/205297061

Prince, R., (1986). [Cowboy riding a horse] [photograph]. At: London: Victoria and Albert Museum, E.2755–1990

Prince, R., (1986). [Cowboy riding a horse] [photograph]. At: London: Victoria and Albert Museum, E.2755–1990. [Viewed 1 August 2017]. Available from: https://collections.vam.ac.uk/item/O82859/untitled-cowboys-photograph-prince-richard/

Tanqueray, P., (1930). Ethel Edith Mannin [photograph]. At: London: National Portrait Gallery, Photographs Collection, Room 29. NPG x14264.

Tanqueray, P., (1930). Ethel Edith Mannin [photograph]. At: London: National Portrait Gallery, Photographs Collection, Room 29. NPG x14264.[Viewed 1 July 2017]. Available from: http://www.npg.org.uk/collections/search/portrait/mw14080/Ethel-Edith-Mannin?LinkID=mp13233&role=sit&rNo=0

Original photograph or image on display without a clear date e.g. in an art gallery

In the text

For an in–text citation in your work, you would cite the reference as follows:

Kinderhände im Washbeken by Dörner (ca. 1930) shows the willingness of photographers of the time to try new angles...
New ways of photographing subjects can be seen in the image Kinderhände im Washbeken (Dörner ca. 1930)

The image of Red Forte at Lahore Gate, New Dheli by Bourne (19th Century) shows...
The photogrpah of Red Fort (Bourne 19th Century) shows the documentation of India...

La Torre di Palazzo Vecchio vista attraverso i finestroni del Campanile di Giotto by Allinari (19th Century) documents...
The image shows the Cathedral of Santa Maria del Firoe in Florence (Allinari 19th Century)...

In the bibliography/reference list

Surname of artist, Initial(s)., (Year). Title [Item type]. At: Place: Holding institution, department (if available), identifier or reference number (if available).

Or if viewed online

Surname of artist, Initial(s)., (Year). Title [Item type]. At: Place: Holding institution, department (if available), identifier or reference number (if available). [Date viewed]. Available from: URL

Alinari, F., [19th century]. La Torre di Palazzo Vecchio vista attraverso i finestroni del Campanile di Giotto [photograph]. At: Sheffield: Graves Gallery, CGSG03475.

Alinari, F., [19th century]. La Torre di Palazzo Vecchio vista attraverso i finestroni del Campanile di Giotto [photograph]. At: Sheffield: Graves Gallery, CGSG03475. [Viewed 2 June 2017]. Available from: http://collections.museums-sheffield.org.uk/view/objects/asitem/People@773/0?t:state:flow=129b7140-8b37-4dfc-b856-a63bf70e78fb

Bourne, E., [19th century]. Red Fort at Lahore Gate, New Delhi [photograph]. At: London: Victoria and Albert Museum, 53195.

Bourne, E., [19th century]. Red Fort at Lahore Gate, New Delhi [photograph]. At: London: Victoria and Albert Museum, 53195. [Viewed 2 June 2017]. Available from: http://collections.vam.ac.uk/item/O81545/red-fort-at-lahore-gate-photograph/

Dörner, E., [ca. 1930]. Kinderhände im washbecken [Children's Hands in Washbasin] [photograph]. At: London: Victoria and Albert Museum, E.799–1997.

Dörner, E., [ca. 1930]. Kinderhände im washbecken [Children's Hands in Washbasin] [photograph]. At: London: Victoria and Albert Museum, E.799–1997. [Viewed 2 June 2017]. Available from: https://collections.vam.ac.uk/item/O83191/childrens-hands-in-a-washbasin-photograph-dorner-erhard/

Original photograph or image from a personal collection

You should not cite photographs taken by yourself that were taken for use in your research/project. Everything in your work is assumed to be your own work for that specific piece of research/project, unless you state otherwise i.e. citing someone else's work.

Notes
  • If there is no clear title to the item, a popular title may be used if one exists. If a popular title to the image does not exist then you will need to supply the item with a title, in square brackets, proving the following where possible
    • The subject matter
    • The name or place of the object depicted, i.e. the person, the building, the location etc.
  • If the year of the image is not available but can be established, then use this as your date.
  • If the exact date is not known, an approximate date followed by a question mark (?), or preceded by "ca.", should be used, this should be given in square brackets, e.g.
    • [2005?]
    • [ca. 2005]
    • [20th Century]
  • If no date, or approximate date can be found then you would use [no date].
  • The original title of a translated information resource, or a translation of the title, may be supplied immediately after the original title, e.g. Kinderhände im washbecken [Children's Hands in Washbasin]

For more information about in–text citation and referencing multiple authors, see Creating a citation and reference list and click on the relevant section.

In the text

For an in–text citation in your work, you would cite the reference as follows:

The photograph of a broken window by Lynch (no date) shows the reflection...
The shard of glass in the photograph (Lynch no date) shows the reflection...

The rabbit paintings in the photograph in the photograph by McNulty (2010)...
The photograph shows paintings and imagery of rabbits in an apartment (McNulty 2010).

The painting by Kashiki (2008) shows a person who is in the middle of a creative process...
The creative process of creating art is visualised in the painting (Kashiki 2008) which shows...

In the bibliography/reference list

Artist surname, Initials., (Year). Title of image [Type of image]. In: Author initial(s), Author Surname, Year (if different from image). Title.. Edition (if not first). Place of publication: Publisher. Page number.

Kashiki, T., (2008). Drawing person [acrylic and ink paining]. In: D. Elliott. 2011. Bye bye kitty!!! Bewtween heaven and hell in contemporary Japanses art. New York: Japan Society Inc. p.43.

Lynch, D., [no date]. [Broken window] [photograph]. In: D. Lynch, 2007. The air is on fire. 2nd ed. Paris: Fondation Cartier pour l’art contemporain. p.327.

McNulty, A., (2010). Shirley Davisdon's fourth–floor front studio, with rabbit paintings [photograph]. In: R. Bernstein and S. Shapiro. Illegal living: 80 Wooster Street and the evolution of SoHo. Vilnius: Joseph Meko Foundation. p.226.

Notes

  • If there is no clear title to the image, a popular title may be used if one exists. If a popular title to the image does not exist then you will need to supply the image with a title, in square brackets, proving the following where possible
    • The subject matter.
    • The name or place of the object depicted, i.e. the person, the building, the location etc.
  • If the year the image was taken is not available but can be established, then use this as your date.
  • If the exact date is not known, an approximate date followed by a question mark (?), or preceded by "ca." should be used, this should be given in square brackets e.g.
    • [2005?]
    • [ca. 2005].
    • [20th century].
  • If no date, or approximate date can be found then you would use [no date].

For more information about in–text citation and referencing multiple authors, see Creating a citation and reference list and click on the relevant section.

For a work of art see Art e.g. in an art gallery, museum or online

In the text

For an in–text citation in your work, you would cite the reference as follows:

Austin (2009) argues that periodical conflict may be expected...
It can be assumed that pickpocketing...(Austin 2009)

In the bibliography, in the reference list

Author of article Surname, Initial(s)., (Year). Title of article. Journal title. Volume in bold(Issue), page range.

Austin, T., (2012). Takers keepers, losers weepers: theft as customary play in southern Philippines. Journal of Folklore Research. 49(3), 263–284.

For more information about in–text citation and referencing multiple authors, see Creating a citation and reference list and click on the relevant section.

In the text

For an in–text citation in your work, you would cite the reference as follows:

Ashby (1999) identified Zappa's style...
The melodies in Zappa's work...(Ashby 1999).

In the bibliography/reference list

Author of article Surname, Initial(s)., (Year). Title of article. Title of journal [online]. Volume in bold(Issue), Page range. [Date Viewed]. Available from: URL

Ashby, A., (1999). Frank Zappa and the anti–fetishist orchestra. The Musical Quarterly [online]. 83(4), 557–606. [Viewed 5 October 2015]. Available from: http://www.jstor.org/stable/742617

For more information about in–text citation and referencing multiple authors, see Creating a citation and reference list and click on the relevant section.

Online/Electronic

Name of creator or creator Surname, Initial(s)., (Year). Title of map [Map designation. Map scale.] Place of publication: Publisher. Date (Day and Month) if needed. [Date viewed]. Available from: URL

Google Maps., (2017). [Information Commons, Sheffield]. Google. [Viewed 2 June 2017]. Available from: https://www.google.co.uk/maps/@53.381501,-1.4849867,19.75z?hl=en

Google Maps., (2017). [Information Commons, Sheffield. Satellite view]. Google. [Viewed 2 June 2017]. Available from: https://www.google.co.uk/maps/@53.381501,-1.4849867,167m/data=!3m1!1e3?hl=en

Google Maps., (2015). [Information Commons, Sheffield. Street view]. Google. [Viewed 2 June 2017]. Available from: https://www.google.co.uk/maps/@53.3811141,-1.484649,3a,75y,90t/data=!3m6!1e1!3m4!1scIigK3ySgICJnI9EBfdyuQ!2e0!7i13312!8i6656?hl=en

Ordnance Survey., (2017). [Castleton, Derbyshire. 1:20000]. Southampton: Ordnance Survey. [Viewed 23 May 2017]. Available from: http://digimap.edina.ac.uk/roam/os

For more information about in–text citation and referencing multiple authors, see Creating a citation and reference list and click on the relevant section.

In the text

For an in–text citation in your work, you would cite the reference as follows:

Sample (2014) highlights the research which has taken place...
The research was reported in the national news...(Sample 2014)

In print

In the bibliography/reference list

Author Surname, Initial(s)., (Year). Title of Article. Title of newspaper. Date (Day, Month). Page range.

Sample, I., (2014). Why an octopus never gets itself tied in knots. The Guardian. 16 May. p.17.

Online/Electronic

In the bibliography/reference list

Author Surname, Initial(s)., (Year). Title of article. Title of Newspaper [online]. Date (Day Month). Date updated (Day Month Year, Time). Page number (if available). [Date viewed]. Available from: URL

Sample, I., (2014). Why an octopus's suckers don't stick its arms together. The Guardian [online]. 15 May. Updated 16 May 2014, 00:20. [Viewed 17 January 2015]. Available from: http://www.theguardian.com/science/2014/may/15/octopus-suckers-arms-chemical-skin

Newspaper database e.g. Nexis

For more information about in–text citation and referencing multiple authors, see Creating a citation and reference list and click on the relevant section.

For photograph see Image – Original (e.g. in an art gallery, personal photograph)

In the text

Grant (2016) demonstrates the issues...
The artworks expresses the...(Grant 2016).

Sciamanna, Bazela, and Bullingham (2016) presented the work surrounding
The case study within the presentation focused on...(Sciamanna, Bazela, and Bullingham 2016).

For an in-text citation in your work, you would cite the reference as follows:

In the bibliography/reference list

Surname of presenter, Initial(s). (Year of presentation). Title of presentation [medium]. Name of event OR Module Code, Module Title. Date of presentation (Day and month). [Date viewed]. Available from: URL

Grant, V., (2016). Voice, agency and the medical arts [PowerPoint presentation]. December. [Viewed 22 May 2017]. Available from: https://www.slideshare.net/missvagrant/voice-agency-and-the-medical-arts?qid=a182e432-dc5c-4cf0-a7bb-8a1acea1d416&v=&b=&from_search=7

Sciamanna, C., Bazela, C. and Bullingham, L., (2016). Reconceptualising information and digital literacy in a fluid digital world [PowerPoint presentation]. Northern Collaboration Conference. 15 September. [Accessed 18 May 2017]. Available from: https://www.slideshare.net/northerncollaboration/reconceptualising-information-and-digital-literacy-in-a-fluid-digital-world

For more information about in–text citation and referencing multiple authors, see Creating a citation and reference list and click on the relevant section.

In the text

For an in-text citation you would cite the reference as follows:

Uni Shef Lib (2017) celebrated the opening of the...
The anniversary of the Western Bank Library was marked on social media (Uni Shef Lib 2017).

University of Sheffield Library (2017) marked the first library opening at the university...
The first library at the University opened in 1909 (University of Sheffield Library 2017).

In the bibliography/reference list:

Name of creator surname, initials [Screen name if applicable]., (Year). [Title of message - up to 40 words] [Medium]. Date of post. [Date accessed]. Available from: URL [Private access if privacy settings are in place].

Uni of Sheffield Lib [UniSheffieldLib]., (2017). [On this day in 1959, our Western Bank Library (then called the 'Main Library') was officially opened by T.S. Eliot http://www.sheffield.ac.uk/library/special/libcoll ...] [Twitter]. 12 May. [Accessed 15 May 2017]. Available from: https://twitter.com/UniSheffieldLib/status/862945694457274368

University of Sheffield Library., (2017). [On this day, in 1909, the first library opened at the University of Sheffield] [Facebook]. 26 April. [Accessed 15 May 2017]. Available from: https://www.facebook.com/UniSheffieldLib/posts/1346273698788324

Notes
  • You will need written permission from anyone involved in the post/conversation, before using them in your work.
  • You may need to provide a title for the social media post if there is not one provided, you will need to supply the item with a title, in square brackets, providing a title using up to the first 40 words of the post.

For more information about in–text citation and referencing multiple authors, see Creating a citation and reference list and click on the relevant section.

Film/One off documentary

In the text

For an in-text citation in your work, you would cite the reference as follows:

Black Swan (2010) used imagery to represent...
The hidden images contained in the film...(Black Swan 2010)

The premise of Captain America: The Winter Soldier (2014)...
The use of green screen in the film (Captain America: The Winter Soldier 2014)...

In the bibliography/reference list

Title of Film/Documentary., (Year of release in the country of production). [Medium]. Director of film (Full name). Place of production: Production Company

Black Swan., (2010). [Blu-Ray]. Directed by Darren Aronofsky. Los Angeles: Fox Searchlight Pictures

Captain America: The Winter Soldier., (2014). Directed by Anthony Russo and Joe Russo. New York: Marvel Entertainment.

TV Episode from a series

In the text

For an in-text citation in your work, you would cite the reference as follows:

The detectives Bulk and McNulty revisit and old crime scene...(The Wire, Old Cases 2002)
...in the episode Old Cases (The Wire 2005)

The episode uses visions to reveal the events...(Game of Thrones, The Door 2016)
..In The Door (Game of Thrones 2016) we see the visualisation of...

In the bibliography/reference list

Title of TV show Series, Episode number (if applicable), Name of Episode (if applicable)., (Year of release in country of production). [Medium]. Director of Episode (full name). Place of production: Production Company.

The Wire, Series 1, Old Cases., (2002). [DVD]. Directed by Clement Virgo. New York: HBO

Game of Thrones, Series 6, Episode 5, The Door., (2016). [Blu-Ray]. Directed by Jack Bender. New York: HBO

For more information about in–text citation and referencing multiple authors, see Creating a citation and reference list and click on the relevant section.

Current Affairs Programme

In the text

For an in-text citation in your work, you would cite the reference as follows:

Panorama: Trump's first 100 days (2017) chronicles...
The first 100 day of Donald Trump's presidency (Panorama: Trump's first 100 days 2017)

In the bibliography/reference list

Title of programme, Series (if applicable), Episode Number (if applicable), Title of episode (if applicable)., (Year of original broadcast). Name of transmitting organisation/channel. [Medium]. Date of transmission, time of transmission. [Date Viewed]. Available from: Name of streaming service.

BBC News at Six., (2017). BBC One. [Online]. 17 February, 18:00. [Viewed 18 February 2017]. Available from: iPlayer.

Panorama: Trump's First 100 Days., (2017). [Online]. 24 April, 19:00. [Viewed 25 April 2017]. Available from: iPlayer.

Film

In the text

For an in-text citation in your work, you would cite the reference as follows:

Hunt for the Wilderpeople (2016) chronicles...
The film highlights the relationship...(Hunt for the Wilderpeople 2016).

The film Children of Men (2006)...
The dystopian future protrayed in the film (Children of Men 2006)...

In the bibliography/reference list

Title of film., (Year of release in country of production). [Medium]. Director of Film (Full name). Place of production: Production Company. [Date viewed]. Available from: Name of streaming service.

Hunt for the Wilderpeople., (2016). [Online]. Directed by Taika Waititi. Auckland: Piki Films. [Viewed 1 February 2017]. Available from Netflix.

Children of Men., (2006). [Online]. Directed by Alfonso Cuarón. Universal City: Universal Pictures. [Viewed 23 July 2016]. Available from: Amazon Prime Video.

TV Episode from a series

In the text

For an in-text citation in your work, you would cite the reference as follows:

The Vanishing of Will Byers (Stranger Things 2016) uses aspects of...
The monster makes a first appearance...(Stranger Things, The Vanishing of Will Byers 2016)

In Cooper's Dream (Twin Peaks 1990) the stage is set for...
Agent Cooper visit the Log Lady (Twin Peaks, Cooper's Dream 1990) which represents...

In the bibliography/reference list

Title of TV Programme, Series (if applicable), Episode Number (if applicable), Title of episode (if applicable)., (Year of original broadcast/release). Director of episode (full name). Place of production. Production Company. [Date viewed]. Available from: Streaming Service.

Stranger Things, Series 1, Chapter One, The Vanishing of Will Byers., (2016). [Online]. Directed by The Duffer Brothers. Scotts Valley, C.A.: Netflix. Available from: Netflix

Twin Peaks, Season 1, Episode 6, Cooper's Dream., (1990). [Online]. Directed by Lesli Linka Glatter. Universal City, C.A.: Propaganda Films [Viewed 29 December 2016]. Available from: NowTV.

For more information about in–text citation and referencing multiple authors, see Creating a citation and reference list and click on the relevant section.

Film

In the text

For an in-text citation in your work, you would cite the reference as follows:

MarvelStudiosUK (2016) have...
Doctor Strange (MarvelStudiosUK 2016) shows the...

In the bibliography/reference list

Name of Channel., (Year of release in country of production). Title of Film [Medium]. Director of Film (full name). Place of production: Production Company. [Date Viewed]. Available from: URL

MarvelStudiosUK., (2016). Doctor Strange [online]. Directed by Scott Derrickson. Burbank: Marvel Studios. [Viewed 11 April 2017]. Available from https://youtu.be/bLaKpGUsMmU

TV Episode from a series

In the text

For an in-text citation in your work, you would cite the reference as follows:

NBCUniversalTVUK (2015) Parks and Recreation episode...
Parks and Recreation episode The Johnny Karate Super Awesome Musical Explosion Show (NBCUniversalTVUK 2015)...

In the bibliography/reference list

Name of channel., (Year of original broadcast). Title of TV showSeries, Episode Number, Name of Episode [medium]. Directed by (Full name). Place of production: Production company. [Date viewed]. Place of production: Production Company. [Date viewed]. Available from: URL

NBCUniversalTVUK. (2015). Parks and Recreation, Series 7, Episode 10, The Johnny Karate Super Awesome Musical Explosion Show [online]. Directed by Dean Holland. Universal City, C.A.: Universal Television. [Viewed 11 April 2017]. Available from: https://youtu.be/0LleWSerz8U

User uploaded content

In the text

For an in-text citation in your work, you would cite the reference as follows:

uniSheffieldLib (2016) produced the video which looks at Open Access...
The main benefit of Open Access...(uniSheffieldLib 2016)

GameofThrones (2017) trailer for the new series...
The series 7 promotion Long Walk (GameofThrones 2017)...

In the bibliography/reference list

Name of Channel., (Date of upload). Title of video [online]. Title of website. [Date viewed]. Available from: URL

uniSheffieldLib., (2016). The benefits of Open Access: researchers' perspectives [online]. YouTube. [Viewed 17 August 2016]. Available from: https://youtu.be/Tcc-SwhDlD4

GameofThrones., (2017). Game of Thrones Series 7: Long Walk - Official Promo (HBO) [online]. YouTube. [Viewed 26 April 2017]. Available from: https://youtu.be/JxWfvtnHtS0

For more information about in–text citation and referencing multiple authors, see Creating a citation and reference list and click on the relevant section.

In the text

For an in–text citation in your work, you would cite the reference as follows:

The Met Office (2013) explains the climate...
Climate is the...(Met Office 2013)

In the bibliography/reference list

Author of section Surname, Initial(s)/corporate author., (Year). Title of part [online]. Name of website. [Date viewed]. Available from: URL.

Met Office., (2013). What do we mean by climate? [online]. Met Office. [Viewed 14 October 2015]. Available from: http://www.metoffice.gov.uk/climate-guide/climate

NHS Choices., (©2015). Behind the Headlines [online]. NHS Choices. [Viewed 14 October 2015]. Available from: http://www.nhs.uk/news/Pages/NewsIndex.aspx

For more information about in–text citation and referencing multiple authors, see Creating a citation and reference list and click on the relevant section.